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but which he had never seen.

It happened that he lodged in the same house with us, but his retired
habits, I thought, exhibited either a strong feeling of discontent, or a
decided melancholy. The Scotch airs which he played sweetly on his flute
made me melancholy too, and I felt for him. I presented him to my wife and
friends, and seeing that he was all enthusiasm, exerted myself as much
as was in my power, to procure for him the specimens which he wanted.
We hunted together, and obtained birds which he had never before seen;
but, reader, I did not subscribe to his work, for, even at that time,
my collection was greater than his. Thinking that perhaps he might be
pleased to publish the results of my researches, I offered them to him,
merely on condition that what I had drawn, or might afterwards draw and
send to him, should be mentioned in his work, as coming from my pencil.
I at the same time offered to open a correspondence with him, which I
thought might prove beneficial to us both. He made no reply to either
proposal, and before many days had elapsed, left Louisville, on his way
to New Orleans, little knowing how much his talents were appreciated in
our little town, at least by myself and my friends.

Some time elapsed, during which I never heard of him, or of his work. At
length, having occasion to go to Philadelphia, I, immediately after my
arrival there, inquired for him, and paid him a visit. He was then drawing
a White-headed Eagle. He received me with civility, and took me to the
Exhibition Rooms of REMBRANDT PEALE, the artist, who had then portrayed
NAPOLEON crossing the Alps. Mr WILSON spoke not of birds or drawings.
Feeling, as I was forced to do, that my company was not agreeable, I
parted from him; and after that I never saw him again. But judge of my
astonishment some time after, when on reading the thirty-ninth page of
the ninth volume of American Ornithology, I found in it the following

"_March 23d, 1810._—I bade adieu to Louisville, to which place I had four
letters of recommendation, and was taught to expect much of every thing
there; but neither received one act of civility from those to whom I
was recommended, one subscriber, nor one new bird; though I delivered my
letters, ransacked the woods repeatedly, and visited all the characters
likely to subscribe. Science or literature has not one friend in this




Long before I discovered this fine Hawk, I was anxious to have an
opportunity of honouring some new species of the feathered tribe with
the name of my excellent friend Dr RICHARD HARLAN of Philadelphia.
This I might have done sooner, had I not waited until a species should
occur, which in its size and importance should bear some proportion to
my gratitude toward that learned and accomplished friend.

The Hawks now before you were discovered near St Francisville, in
Louisiana, during my late sojourn in that State, and had bred in the
neighbourhood of the place where I procured them, for two seasons,
although they had always eluded my search, until, at last, as I was
crossing a large cotton field, one afternoon, I saw the female represented
in the Plate standing perched on the top of a high belted tree in an
erect and commanding attitude. It looked so like the Black Hawk (_Falco
niger_) of WILSON, that I apprehended what I had heard respecting it might
prove incorrect. I approached it, however, when, as if it suspected my
evil intentions, it flew off, but after at first sailing as if with the
view of escaping from me, passed over my head, when I shot at it, and
brought it winged to the ground. No sooner had I inspected its eye, its
bill, and particularly its naked legs, than I felt assured that it was,
as had been represented by those persons who had spoken to me of its
exploits, a new species. I drew it whilst alive; but my intentions of
preserving it and carrying it to England as a present to the Zoological
Society were frustrated by its refusing food. It died in a few days,
when I preserved its skin, which, along with those of other rare birds, I
have since given to the British Museum, through my friend J. G. CHILDREN,
Esq. of that Institution.

A few days afterwards I saw the male bird perched on the same tree, but
was unable to approach him so long as I had a gun, although he frequently
allowed me and my wife to pass close to the foot of the tree when we were
on horseback and unarmed. I followed it in vain for nearly a fortnight,
from one field to another, and from tree to tree, until our physician,
Dr JOHN B. HEREFORD, knowing my great desire to obtain it, shot it in
the wing with a rifle ball, and sent it alive to me. It was still wilder
than the female, erected the whole of the feathers of its head, opened
its bill, and was ever ready to strike with its talons at any object
brought near it. I made my drawing of the male also while still alive.

This species, although considerably smaller than the Red-tailed Hawk, to
which it is allied, is superior to it in flight and daring. Its flight
is rapid, greatly protracted, and so powerful as to enable it to seize
its prey with apparent ease, or effect its escape from its stronger
antagonist, the Red-tail, which pursues it on all occasions.

The Black Warrior has been seen to pounce on a fowl, kill it almost
instantly, and afterwards drag it along the ground for several hundred
yards, when it would conceal it, and return to feed upon it in security.
It was not observed to fall on Hares or Squirrels, but at all times
evinced a marked preference for common Poultry, Partridges, and the
smaller species of Wild Duck.

I was told that the young birds appeared to be of a leaden-grey colour at
a distance, but at the approach of winter became as dark as the parents.
None of them were to be seen at the time when I procured the latter.
Of its nest or eggs nothing is yet known. My friends Messrs JOHNSON and
CARPENTER frequently spoke of this Hawk to me immediately after my return
to Louisiana from Europe, which took place in November 1829. I have a
skin of this bird in my possession. Should its nest be discovered, and
should I have an opportunity of becoming more acquainted with its habits,
I shall not fail to give you an account of my observations.


Adult Male. Plate LXXXVI. Fig. 1.

Bill short, robust, as broad as deep at the base, compressed towards the
end; upper mandible nearly straight, and sloping in its dorsal outline,
curved towards the tip, which is decimate, trigonal, acute, the sides
convex, the edges acute, overlapping, with a rounded process on each
side; lower mandible convex in its dorsal outline and on the sides, the
tip rounded. Nostrils oval, oblique, in the fore part of the cere. Head
very large, neck short, body robust. Feet of ordinary length; tarsus a
little compressed, scutellate before and behind, reticularly scaly on
the sides; toes scutellate above, scaly on the sides, tubercular and
scabrous beneath; claws curved, roundish, very acute.

Plumage compact, feathers of the head and neck short and rounded, tibial
feathers elongated and loose at the tips. Wings long; first quill short,
fourth longest, third and fifth equal, the first primaries cut out on
the inner web towards the end. Tail longish, ample, of twelve broad,
rounded feathers.

Bill light blue, black towards the end; cere and angles of the mouth
yellowish-green. Iris light yellowish-brown. Feet dull greenish-yellow,
claws black.

The general colour of the plumage is deep chocolate-brown, the under
parts lighter, the feathers there being margined with light brown. Tail
lighter than the back, and rather narrowly barred with brownish-black,
the tips brownish-red. Under wing-coverts whitish, spotted with deep

Length 21 inches, extent of wings 45; bill along the back 1½, along the
gap, from the tip of the lower mandible, 1½; tarsus 1¾.

Adult Female. Plate LXXXVI. Fig. 2.

The female resembles the male in external appearance.

Length 22 inches; bill along the back 1½.

This species bears a strong resemblance to the Common Buzzard (_Falco
Buteo_) of Europe, from which, however, it differs in having the head
broader, the legs stouter, and the general colour of the plumage darker.
It is also considerably larger.




This beautiful and lively bird is a constant resident in the south-western
parts of Florida, from which country it seldom if ever removes to any
great distance. It is never seen in the State of Louisiana, far less in
that of Kentucky, and when CHARLES BONAPARTE asserts that it occurs in
these districts, we must believe that he has been misinformed. It is so
confined to the particular portions of Florida which it inhabits, that
even on the eastern shores of that peninsula few are to be seen. I have
never observed it in any part of Georgia, or farther to the eastward.

The flight of the Florida Jay is generally performed at a short distance
from the ground, and consists either of a single sailing sweep, as it
shifts from one tree or bush to another, or of continuous flappings,
with a slightly undulated motion, in the manner of the Magpie (_Corvus
Pica_) or of the Canada Jay (_Corvus canadensis_). Its notes are softer
than those of its relative the Blue Jay (_Corvus cristatus_), and are
more frequently uttered. Its motions are also more abrupt and quicker.
It is seen passing from one tree to another with expanded tail, stopping
for a moment to peep at the intruder, and hopping off to another place
the next minute. It frequently descends to the ground, along the edges
of oozy or marshy places, to search for snails, of which, together with
berries of various kinds, fruits and insects, its food consists. It is
easily approached during the breeding season, but is more shy at other
times. It is a great destroyer of the eggs of small birds, as well as
of young birds, which it chases and kills by repeated blows of its bill
on their heads, after which it tears their flesh with avidity.

The Florida Jay is easily kept in a cage, where it will feed on recent
or dried fruits, such as figs, raisins, and the kernels of various nuts,
and exhibits as much gaiety as the Blue Jay does in a similar state.
Like the latter, it secures its food between its feet, and breaks it into
pieces before swallowing it, particularly the acorns of the Live Oak, and
the snails which it picks up among the Sword Palmetto. No sooner have
the seeds of that plant become black, or fully ripe, than the Florida
Jay makes them almost its sole food for a time, and wherever a patch of
these troublesome plants are to be seen, there also is the Jay to be met
with. I have called the Palmetto a troublesome plant, because its long,
narrow, and serrated leaves are so stiff, and grow so close together,
that it is extremely difficult to walk among them, the more so that it
usually grows in places where the foot is seldom put without immediately
sinking in the mire to a depth of several inches.

The nest of the Florida Jay is sparingly formed of dry sticks, placed
across each other, and, although of a rounded shape, is so light that
the bird is easily seen through it. It is lined with fibrous roots,
placed in a circular manner. The eggs are from four to six, of a light
olive colour, marked with irregular blackish dashes. Only one brood is
raised in the season.

I had a fine opportunity of observing a pair of these birds in
confinement, in the city of New Orleans. They had been raised out of a
family of five, taken from the nest, and when I saw them had been two
years in confinement. They were in full plumage, and extremely beautiful.
The male was often observed to pay very particular attentions to the
female, at the approach of spring. They were fed upon rice, and all kinds
of dried fruit. Their cage was usually opened after dinner, when both
immediately flew upon the table, fed on the almonds which were given
them, and drank claret diluted with water. Both affected to imitate
particular sounds, but in a very imperfect manner. These attempts at
mimicry probably resulted from their having been in company with parrots
and other birds. They suffered greatly when moulting, becoming almost
entirely bare, and requiring to be kept near the fire. The female dropped
two eggs in the cage, but never attempted to make a nest, although the
requisite materials were placed at her disposal.

I have represented a pair of Florida Jays on a branch of the Persimon
tree, ornamented with its richly coloured fruits. This tree grows to a
moderate height as well as girth. The wood is hard and compact. The leaves
drop off at an early period. The fruit, when fully ripe, is grateful to
the palate. The Persimon occurs in all parts of the United States, but
abounds in the low lands of Florida and Louisiana, probably more than
in any other portion of the Union.

CORVUS FLORIDANUS, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 58.

FLORIDA JAY, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Amer. Ornith. vol. ii. Pl. 13.
fig. 1.

Adult Male. Plate LXXXVII. Fig. 1.

Bill short, strong, straight, compressed, acute; upper mandible with
the dorsal outline nearly straight, the sides sloping, the edges sharp
and overlapping, the tip slightly declinate; lower mandible with the
back narrow, the sides sloping. Nostrils basal, open, covered by the
reversed bristly feathers. Head rather large, neck short, body robust.
Feet of ordinary length; tarsus about the same length as the middle toe,
anteriorly scutellate, compressed, acute behind; toes free, scutellate,
the inner shorter than the outer; claws arched, compressed, acute.

Plumage soft, blended, glossy. A tuft of reflected bristly feathers
over the nostril on each side, and several bristle-pointed feathers at
the base of the upper mandible. Wings short, third and fourth quills
longest, first short. Tail long, much rounded, of twelve rounded feathers.

Bill and feet brownish-black. Iris hazel. Upper part of the head,
the cheeks, side, and back part of the neck, the wings and tail, of a
bright purplish-azure. Back light yellowish-brown. A band of white on
the forehead, extending over the eyes. The under parts brownish-white.
The upper tail-coverts are blue, and the tail-feathers are indistinctly
barred with deeper lines.

Length 11¼ inches; bill along the ridge 11/12, along the gap nearly 1¼;
tarsus 1-2/12, middle toe nearly the same.

Adult Female. Plate LXXXVII. Fig. 2.

The female presents the same colours as the male, the difference in tint
being hardly perceptible.


DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. iv. p. 1107.
_Pursh_, Flor. Amer. vol. i. p. 265. _Mich._ Abr. Forest.
de l'Amer. Sept. vol. ii. p. 195. Pl. 12.—POLYGAMIA DIŒCIA,
_Linn._ GUAIACANÆ, _Juss._

Leaves ovato-oblong, acuminate, smooth, venous; petioles downy; buds
smooth. The flowers are pale yellow, and the fruits, which are of the size
of a plum, are of a globular form, and when mature, of a dull yellowish
colour. The bark of old trees is cracked, and of a dark colour. The wood
is employed for various purposes, being fine-grained, hard and durable.




The Autumnal Warbler was so named by Mr WILSON, on account of its
appearing in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia, where only it was seen
by that writer, during its migration from the Northern States, where it
breeds, to the confines of Mexico, its winter residence.

This species makes its appearance in great numbers, in the lower parts of
Louisiana, early in March, and remains there for a few days along with
many others. At this season, it passes from the high top of one tree to
that of another, with great activity. In about a week after its first
appearance, none are to be seen. It moves towards the northernmost of
our Eastern Districts, as the season advances, and does not stop until
it reaches the remote parts of the State of New York, many individuals,
however, forcing their way still farther.

I have found it breeding in the immediate vicinity of the Cayuga Lakes,
and on the borders of Lake Champlain, in retired parts of the woods,
which it seems to prefer during the summer months. I have also found
it in the lofty forests of that portion of Pennsylvania usually called
the Great Pine Swamp. The nest, like that of many other _Sylviæ_, is
partially conical and pensile, and is formed of the soft bark of vines,
lined with the down of various plants. The eggs are from four to six,
of a white colour, tinged with red, and sprinkled with brownish dots at
the larger end. The nest is usually placed in the slender fork of a low
bush. I have found the female sitting as late as the 20th of August, and
therefore conclude that this species raises two broods in the season,
although I have had no opportunity of finding the nest and eggs at an
earlier period.

The food of the Autumnal Warbler consists of small insects, many of
which it procures whilst on wing. It also searches with great industry
among the leaves and along the twigs. Its habits are precisely similar
to those of other Warblers. Its flight is short, unequal, and yet quick.
It rises in the air to some distance, and returns towards the spot which
it has left, in zigzag lines, as if it were afraid to venture out of
the thickets which it inhabits.

No sooner have these birds reared their young than they assemble in large
loose parties of fifty or more, and return towards the south, throwing
themselves amongst the Willows and Birch-trees that margin the streams,
as well as into orchards and the scattered trees in cultivated fields.
Its common note is a simple _tweet_, but the male, in spring and during
the period of incubation, repeats at short intervals a soft and pleasing
variety of notes, scarcely, however, deserving the name of song.

These birds are so plentiful, and so easily found, from the middle of
September to that of October, that while in the Great Pine Forest I
sometimes shot more than a dozen in a day. I have never observed them
in the Southern States at that season.

I have represented a pair of these plain-looking Warblers on a twig of
the Canoe Birch, a tree too well known, from the use to which its bark is
applied by the Indians in the construction of their light and beautiful
boats, to require any particular description here.

SYLVIA AUTUMNALIS, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 74.

vol. iii. p. 65. Pl. 23. fig. 4.

Adult Male. Plate LXXXVIII. Fig. 1.

Bill of ordinary length, nearly straight, slender, tapering, acute.
Nostrils basal, lateral, elliptical, half-closed above by a membrane. Head
and neck of ordinary size. Body slender. Feet longish, slender; tarsus
longer than the middle toe, covered anteriorly with a few scutella, the
uppermost long; toes scutellate above, the inner free, the hind toe of
moderate size, claws slender, compressed, acute, arched.

Plumage loose, blended. Short bristly feathers at the base of the bill.
Wings rather short, the first quill longest. Tail even.

Bill brown, the lower mandible yellowish towards the base. Iris hazel.
Feet dusky. The general colour of the upper parts is light olive-green.
The tail-coverts greyish. A pale line over the eye, which is encircled by
a narrow line of whitish. Fore neck dull yellow; under parts generally
yellowish-white. Quills and larger coverts dusky on their inner webs,
the former margined, the latter tipped with white, so as to present two
bands of that colour across the wing. Tail dusky, margined with dull
white, the three outer feathers white on the greater part of their inner

Length 4¾, extent of wings 8; bill along the ridge ⅓, along the gap
7/12; tarsus ⅔.

Adult Female. Plate LXXXVIII. Fig 2.

The female resembles the male in external appearance.


BETULA PAPYRACEA, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. iv. p. 464. _Pursh_,
Flor. Amer. vol. ii. p. 621. _Mich._ Arbr. Forest. de l'Amer.
Sept. vol. ii. p. 133. Pl. 1.—MONŒCIA POLYANDRIA, _Linn._

Leaves ovate, acuminate, doubly serrated, the veins hairy beneath, the
petiole smooth. The female catkins pedunculate, pendent. This tree is
most abundant in the Northern States, where it sometimes attains a height
of from seventy to eighty feet, and a diameter of three feet.




I have shot only three or four birds of this species, and these were
all that I ever met with. I found them in Louisiana and Kentucky. A
few specimens belonging to Mr TITIAN PEALE of Philadelphia, and which
he, with his usual kindness, lent me for a few days, to compare their
colouring with my drawings and notes, were the only others that I have
seen. It is probable he had procured them in Pennsylvania, although I
cannot now recollect if this was really the case.

The flight of this little bird is short, light, and entirely similar
to that of the numerous species of Sylvia already described. Its food
consists of insects and larvæ, which it procures by searching diligently
and actively amongst the leaves and buds of low trees. It does not pursue
insects on wing. With the exception of a few low, eagerly repeated,
creaking notes, I have not heard any sounds from them. While uttering
these notes, which are all the species seem to have in lieu of song,
the male stands erect and still. I am not aware of its nest having been
discovered or described by any naturalist.

The plant on a twig of which two Nashville Warblers are represented,
is usually called the _Swamp Spice_. It is a low bush, grows in the
water, in swampy and muddy ground, and occurs from Georgia to New York.
The berries, which are seldom eaten by birds, have little pulp, and
consequently a large seed.

SYLVIA RUBRICAPILLA, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 87.

vol. iii. p. 120. Pl. 27. fig. 3.

Bill rather short, slender, tapering, nearly straight, as deep as broad at
the base. Nostrils basal, lateral, elliptical, half-closed by a membrane.
Head of ordinary size, neck short, body full. Feet of ordinary length,
slender; tarsus longer than the middle toe, anteriorly scutellate; toes
free, scutellate above; claws slender, compressed, acute, arched.

Adult Male. Plate LXXXIX. Fig. 1.

Plumage soft, blended, tufty. Wings short, curved, the first and second
quills longest. Tail short, forked, of twelve rounded feathers.

Bill greenish-brown. Iris dark brown. Feet yellowish-green. Head and
cheeks brownish-grey, the upper part of the head dark red. A circle
of white round the eye. The general colour of the upper parts is
brownish-green, of the under greenish-yellow, brighter on the throat
and breast. Inner webs of the wing and tail-feathers dusky, the outer
brownish-green, and of the primaries bright yellow.

Length 4½ inches, extent of wings 7; bill along the ridge ⅓, along the
gap ½; tarsus ¾.

Adult Female. Plate LXXXIX. Fig. 2.

The female is much duller; the head and hind-neck dark brownish-grey,
tinged with green, the former without the red patch, the under parts
more mixed with grey, the sides olivaceous, and the yellow of the wings
less pure.


ILEX PRINOIDES, _Wild._ Sp. Pl. vol. i. p. 709. _Pursh_, Flor.
Amer. vol. 1. p. 118.—TETRANDRIA TETRAGYNIA, _Linn._ RHAMNI,

Leaves lanceolate, attenuated at the base, slightly serrated; peduncles
one-flowered. The leaves of this species are deciduous, the berries
bright red.




A more appropriate name has seldom been given to a bird than that by which
the present species is designated. Notwithstanding the approximation of
the bill in form to that of the _Sylviæ_, I am decidedly inclined to
place this species among the _Creepers_ or _Certhiæ_. To convince you
of the propriety of such an arrangement, I shall now lay before you an
account of its habits.

The Black-and-white Creeper appears in the State of Louisiana as soon as
the buds on the trees begin to expand, which happens about the middle
of February. It throws itself into the forests, where it breeds, and

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