John James Audubon.

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5. Bonaparte's Fly-catcher, Muscicapa Bonapartii. _Aud._
6. Wild Turkey. Female, Meleagris Gallopavo. _Linn._
7. Purple Grakle, Quiscalus versicolor. _Vieill._
8. White-throated Sparrow, Fringilla pennsylvanica. _Lath._
9. Selby's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Selbii. _Aud._
10. Brown Titlark, Anthus Spinoletta. _Bonap._
11. Bird of Washington, Falco Washingtonii. _Aud._
12. Baltimore Oriole, Icterus Baltimore. _Daud._
13. Snow Bird, Fringilla hyemalis. _Linn._
14. Prairie Warbler, Sylvia discolor. _Vieill._
15. Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, Sylvia americana. _Lath._
16. Great-footed Hawk, Falco peregrinus. _Gmel._
17. Carolina Turtle Dove, Columba carolinensis. _Linn._
18. Bewick's Wren, Troglodytes Bewickii. _Aud._
19. Louisiana Water Thrush, Turdus ludovicianus. _Aud._
20. Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, Sylvia solitaria. _Wils._
21. Mocking Bird, Turdus polyglottus. _Linn._
22. Purple Martin, Hirundo purpurea. _Linn._
23. Maryland Yellow-throat, Sylvia Trichas. _Lath._
24. Roscoe's Yellow-throat, Sylvia Roscoe. _Aud._
25. Song Sparrow, Fringilla melodia. _Wils._


1828.

26. Carolina Parrot, Psittacus carolinensis. _Linn._
27. Red-headed Woodpecker, Picus erythrocephalus. _Linn._
28. Solitary Fly-catcher, Vireo solitarius. _Vieill._
29. Towhe Bunting, Fringilla erythrophthalma. _Linn._
30. Vigors's Warbler, Sylvia Vigorsii. _Aud._
31. White-headed Eagle, Falco leucocephalus. _Linn._
32. Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. _Bon._
33. American Goldfinch, Fringilla tristis. _Linn._
34. Worm-eating Warbler, Sylvia vermivora. _Lath._
35. Children's Warbler, Sylvia Childrenii. _Aud._
36. Stanley Hawk, Falco Stanleii. _Aud._
37. Golden-winged Woodpecker, Picus auratus. _Linn._
38. Kentucky Warbler, Sylvia formosa. _Wils._
39. Crested Titmouse, Parus bicolor. _Linn._
40. American Redstart, Muscicapa Ruticilla. _Linn._
41. Ruffed Grouse, Tetrao Umbellus. _Linn._
42. Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius. _Bonap._
43. Cedar Bird, Bombycilla carolinensis. _Briss._
44. Summer Red Bird, Tanagra æstiva. _Gmel._
45. Traill's Flycatcher, Sylvia Traillii. _Aud._
46. Barred Owl, Strix nebulosa. _Gmel._
47. Ruby-throated Humming Bird, Trochilus colubris. _Linn._
48. Azure Warbler, Sylvia azurea. _Steph._
49. Blue-green Warbler, Sylvia rara. _Lath._
50. Black-and-yellow Warbler, Sylvia maculosa. _Lath._


1829.

51. Red-tailed Hawk, Falco borealis. _Gmel._
52. Chuckwill's Widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis. _Briss._
53. Painted Finch, Fringilla ciris. _Temm._
54. Rice Bird, Icterus agripennis. _Bonap._
55. Cuvier's Regulus, Regulus Cuvierii. _Aud._
56. Red-shouldered Hawk, Falco lineatus. _Gmel._
57. Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus. _Linn._
58. Hermit Thrush, Turdus minor. _Gmel._
59. Chestnut-sided Warbler, Sylvia icterocephala. _Lath._
60. Carbonated Warbler, Sylvia carbonata. _Aud._
61. Great Horned Owl, Strix virginiana. _Gmel._
62. Passenger Pigeon, Columba migratoria. _Linn._
63. White-eyed Flycatcher, Vireo noveboracensis. _Bonap._
64. Swamp Sparrow, Fringilla palustris. _Wils._
65. Rathbone Warbler, Sylvia Rathbonii. _Aud._
66. Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Picus principalis. _Linn._
67. Red-winged Starling, Icterus phœniceus. _Daud._
68. Republican Swallow, Hirundo fulva. _Vieill._
69. Bay-breasted Warbler, Sylvia castanea. _Wils._
70. Henslow's Bunting, Emberiza Henslowii. _Aud._
71. Winter Hawk, Falco hyemalis. _Gmel._
72. Swallow-tailed Hawk, Falco furcatus. _Linn._
73. Wood Thrush, Turdus mustelinus. _Gmel._
74. Indigo Bird, Fringilla cyanea. _Wils._
75. Le Petit Caporal, Falco temerarius. _Aud._


1830.

76. Virginian Partridge, Perdix virginiana. _Lath._
77. Belted Kingsfisher, Alcedo Alcyon. _Linn._
78. Great Carolina Wren, Troglodytes ludovicianus. _Bonap._
79. Tyrant Flycatcher, Muscicapa Tyrannus. _Briss._
80. Prairie Titlark, Anthus pipiens. _Aud._
81. Fish Hawk, Falco Haliäetos. _Linn._
82. Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus. _Wils._
83. House Wren, Troglodytes ædon. _Vieill._
84. Blue-grey Flycatcher, Muscicapa cærulea. _Lath._
85. Yellow-throated Warbler, Sylvia pensilis. _Lath._
86. Black Warrior, Falco Harlani. _Aud._
87. Florida Jay, Corvus floridanus. _Bart._
88. Autumnal Warbler, Sylvia autumnalis. _Wils._
89. Nashville Warbler, Sylvia rubricapilla. _Wils._
90. Black-and-white Creeper, Certhia varia. _Aud._
91. Broad-winged Hawk, Falco pennsylvanicus. Lath_._
92. Pigeon Hawk, Falco columbarius. _Linn._
93. Sea-side Finch, Fringilla maritima. _Wils._
94. Bay-winged Bunting, Fringilla graminea. _Gmel._
95. Yellow-poll Warbler, Sylvia æstiva. _Lath._
96. Columbian Jay, Corvus Bullockii. _Wag._
97. Mottled Owl, Strix Asio. _Linn._
98. White-bellied Swallow, Hirundo bicolor. _Vieill._
99. Cow-pen Bird, Icterus pecoris. _Bonap._
100. Marsh Wren, Troglodytes palustris. _Bonap._




EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS.


_Extract from a Report made to the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris._
By BARON CUVIER.

L'Academie m'a chargé de lui rendre un compte verbal de l'ouvrage qui
lui a été communiqué dans une de ses précédentes séances par M. Audubon,
et qui a pour objet les oiseaux de l'Amerique Septentrionale. On peut
le caractériser en peu de mots, en disant que c'est le monument le plus
magnifique qui ait encore été élevé à l'ornithologie.

L'auteur, né à la Louisiane, et qui s'est adonné dès sa jeunesse à
la peinture, est venu, il y a 25 ans, se perfectionner dans son art à
l'école de David. Retourné dans son pays, il n'a cru pouvoir faire de
son talent un usage plus utile, que de le consacrer à la representation
des productions les plus brillantes de cet hémisphère. L'observation
scrupuleuse nécessaire à des images telles qu'il voulait les faire, l'a
bientôt rendu naturaliste.

C'est en sa double qualité d'artiste et de savant, qu'il a produit
l'ouvrage qui a été mis sous les yeux de l'Academie. Vous avez été frappés
d'un format égal ou supérieur a ce qui a été publié de plus grand en ce
genre, et qui approche des doubles planches de la description de l'Egypte.
Cette dimension extraordinaire lui a permis de rendre des espèces de
la taille de l'aigle et du tétras dans leur grandeur naturelle, et de
multiplier celles qui sont moins volumineuses de manière à les représenter
dans toutes les attitudes.

Il a pu aussi représenter sur les mêmes planches, et de grandeur
naturelle, les végétaux sur lesquels ces oiseaux se tiennent le plus
habituellement, et donner dans le plus grand détail leurs nids et leurs
œufs.

L'exécution de ces planches, si remarquables par leur grandeur, nous
paraît avoir également bien réussi, sous le rapport du dessin, de la
gravure et du coloris, et quoiqu'il soit difficile à l'enluminure de
rendre les reliefs avec autant d'effet, qu'à la peinture proprement dite,
ce n'est pas un inconvenient pour des ouvrages d'histoire naturelle;
les naturalistes préfèrent la couleur propre des objects, à ces teintes
accidentelles, résultat des diverses inflexions de la lumière, nécessaires
pour compléter la vérité pittoresque, mais étrangères et nuisibles même
à la vérité scientifique.

M. Audubon a déjà préparé quatre cents dessins qui contiennent à-peu
pres deux mille figures, et il se propose de les publier successivement,
s'il est encouragé par les amateurs. Un ouvrage conçu et exécuté d'après
un plan si vaste, n'a qu'un défaut, et sans doute que sur celui-là
mes auditeurs m'ont déjà prévenu, c'est que sa cherté le rend presqu'
inaccessible à la plupart de ceux auxquels il serait le plus nécessaire.
Toutefois on ne peut pas dire que le prix en soit exorbitant. Une
livraison de cinq planches se paie deux guinées; chaque planche revient
donc à 10 ou 11 fr., et comme il n'en paraîtra que cinq livraisons par
an, la dépense annuelle de son acquisition ne serait pas énorme. Il
est à désirer du moins, dans l'intérêt de l'art autant que dans celui
de la science, que les grands dépôts publics, et les propriétaires qui
aiment à enrichir leurs bibliothèques d'ouvrages de luxe, veuillent se
le procurer.

Autrefois c'étaient les naturalistes Européens qui étaient obligés de
faire connaître à l'Amérique les richesses qu'elle possédait; maintenant
les Mitchill, les Harlan, les Wilson, les Charles Bonaparte, rendent avec
usure à l'Europe ce que l'Amérique en a reçu. L'histoire des oiseaux des
Etats-Unis de Wilson égalait déjà en élégance nos plus beaux ouvrages
d'ornithologie. Si celui de M. Audubon se termine, il faudra convenir
que ce sera l'Amérique qui, pour la magnificence de l'exécution, aura
surpassé l'Ancien Monde.


_Extract from a Review by W. SWAINSON, Esq. F. R. S. F. L. S. &c.,
published in the Natural History Magazine, for May 1828._

M. Audubon, if I have been rightly informed, is a citizen of America,
descended from French parents. Devotedly attached to the study of nature,
no less than to painting, he seems to have pursued both with a genius and
an ardour, of which, in their united effects, there is no parallel. His
two ornithological narratives, printed in one of the Scotch journals,
are as valuable to the scientific world, as they are delightful to the
general reader. They give us a rich foretaste of what we may hope and
expect from such a man. There is a freshness and an originality about
these essays, which can only be compared to the animated biographies
of Wilson. Both these men contemplated Nature as she really is, not as
she is represented in books; they sought her in her sanctuaries. The
shore, the mountain, and the forest were alternately their study, and
there they drank the pure stream of knowledge at its fountain-head.
The observations of such men, are the corner-stones of every attempt to
discover the system of nature. Their writings will be consulted when our
favourite theories shall have passed into oblivion. Ardently, therefore,
do I hope, that M. Audubon will alternately become the historian and the
painter of his favourite objects, that he will never be made a convert
to any system, but instruct and delight us as a true and unprejudiced
biographer of nature.

I am now to speak of M. Audubon more particularly as a painter. I shall,
therefore, view the work before me as a specimen of the fine arts, and
judge of it by those rules which constitute pictorial criticism. The size
of the plates exceeds any thing of the kind I have ever seen or heard
of; they are no less than 3 feet 3 inches long by 2 feet 2 inches broad.
On this vast surface every bird is represented in its full dimensions.
Large as is the paper, it is sometimes (as in the Male Wild Turkey, pl. 1.)
barely sufficient for the purpose. In other cases, it enables the
painter to group his figures, in the most beautiful and varied attitudes,
on the trees or plants they frequent. Some are feeding, others darting,
pursuing, or capturing their prey: all have life and animation. The
plants, fruits and flowers which enrich the scene are alone still. These
latter, from their critical accuracy, are as valuable to the botanist
as the birds are to the ornithologist.

Such is the general character of the work, but it is of a nature to
demand a more particular notice. What I have said might, in a general
way, be repeated of others. This, as I shall presently shew, is perfectly
unique, both in its conception and execution. To explain this, I shall
call the reader's attention to the following plates, or rather pictures.

_Turtle-Doves of Carolina._ (Plate 17.) It is quite impossible to treat
this subject with greater truth or delicacy of conception, than it has
here received. In a thicket of the beautiful _Stuartia Malacodendron_,
(whose white blossoms are emblematic, like the dove, of chasteness and
purity), a pair of turtles have built their nest. The female is sitting,
and, their union being consummated, she is receiving the caresses of
the male. Above is another pair their love is in its infancy. The male,
seated on the same branch with his intended partner, is eagerly pressing
forwards to reach a "stolen kiss," but the head of the female is coyly
turned. Her secret satisfaction is, however, expressed by the agitation
of her wings and tail. If the artist had never painted any picture but
this, it would secure him the highest meed of praise, as long as truth
and nature continued the same.

_Mocking Birds defending their nest from a Rattlesnake._ (Plate 21.) The
same poetic sentiment and masterly execution characterizes this picture.
The formidable reptile has driven the female bird from her eggs, which
he intends to suck. Unable to defend them while sitting, she clings
to the side, and, "with outstretched wings and forward breast," seems
prepared to strike her bill into the very jaws of her enemy. Her cries
have brought two others of her race to the spot; but these, not feeling
a parent's solicitude, "come not boldly" to the attack. On the courage
of the male bird the fate of the conflict seems to depend. He is close to
the serpent, aiming a deadly stroke at its eye, while his own is lighted
up with a determination and courage, which seem to bespeak anticipated
victory. Every part of the story is told with exquisite feeling, the
artist has thrown his greatest skill in the figure of the female bird,
and it is uncommonly fine.

It will depend on the powerful and the wealthy, whether Britain shall
have the honour of fostering such a magnificent undertaking. It will
be a lasting monument, not only to the memory of its author, but to
those who employ their wealth in patronizing genius, and in supporting
the national credit. If any publication deserves such a distinction,
it is surely this, inasmuch as it exhibits a perfection in the higher
attributes of zoological painting, never before attempted. To represent
the passions and the feelings of birds, might, until now, have been
well deemed chimerical. Rarely, indeed, do we see their outward forms
represented with any thing like nature. In my estimation, not more than
three painters ever lived who could draw a bird. Of these the lamented
Barrabaud, of whom France may be justly proud, was the chief. He has
long passed away; but his mantle has, at length, been recovered in the
forests of America.




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