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ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY, VOL 2 ***




Produced by Rachael Schultz, Thierry Alberto, Melissa
McDaniel and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive/American
Libraries.)







Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have
been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

The following inconsistencies were noted and retained:

subterminal and sub-terminal
College Yard and College-yard
Jer falcon and Jerfalcon
foreneck and fore-neck
acknowledgement and acknowledgment
Hackmatack, Hackmetack, hackmitack
Piercey and Piercy
gray and grey
Magdalene, Magdeleine, Magdaleine Islands
Pittsburg and Pittsburgh
Schuylkil and Schuylkill
vermilion and vermillion
grouse and grous
aerial and ærial
teasing and teazing
sunrise and sun-rise
characterised, characterized
Huckleberry and Huckle-berry
cupshaped and cup-shaped
Bunting and Buntling
pokeweed and poke-weed
Red-wing and Redwing
Charleston and Charlestown
Linnæan and Linnean
north-eastern and northeastern
dog wood and dog-wood.

The following are possible errors, but retained:

befal
racoon
persimons
musquitoes
tarpauling
mollasses
Carribbean
tipt
capt
Chesapeak
cruize
chuse
begrimmed
Marratees
pacan.

In the entries for the Rosa Rubiginosa and Fringilla Zonotrichia,
the question marks are as printed.

In the entry for the Cardinal Grosbeak, the author says, "I have
represented a pair of these beautiful birds on a branch of the
Wild Olive." but the following entry is for the Wild Almond.

In the entry for the Pinnated Grous, a page number is missing.

In the entry for the Great American Shrike, the volume number for
Amer. Ornith. is missing.

Headings are missing for a number of the plant sections.

The Errata on page 580 have been corrected in the text.

Download Volume 1 at http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/56989.




ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY.




ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY,
OR AN ACCOUNT OF THE HABITS OF THE
BIRDS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA;
ACCOMPANIED BY DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OBJECTS REPRESENTED
IN THE WORK ENTITLED
THE BIRDS OF AMERICA,
AND INTERSPERSED WITH DELINEATIONS OF AMERICAN
SCENERY AND MANNERS.

BY JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, F.R.S.S.L. & E.

FELLOW OF THE LINNEAN AND ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON; MEMBER
OF THE LYCEUM OF NEW YORK, OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF
PARIS, THE WERNERIAN NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH;
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY OF MANCHESTER,
AND OF THE SCOTTISH ACADEMY OF PAINTING, SCULPTURE, AND
ARCHITECTURE; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY,
OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT PHILADELPHIA, OF THE
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES OF BOSTON, OF CHARLESTON IN SOUTH
CAROLINA, &C. &C.

VOL. II.

EDINBURGH:

ADAM & CHARLES BLACK, EDINBURGH;

LONGMAN, REES, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMAN, LONDON; R. HAVELL,
ENGRAVER, 77. OXFORD STREET, LONDON; THOMAS SOWLER,
MANCHESTER; MRS ROBINSON, LEEDS; ALEXANDER HILL, EDINBURGH;
BEILBY, KNOTT & BEILBY, BIRMINGHAM; E. CHARNLEY,
NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE; AND GEORGE SMITH, LIVERPOOL.

MDCCCXXXIV.




PRINTED BY NEILL & CO.
Old Fishmarket, Edinburgh.




INTRODUCTION.


When, for the first time, I left my father, and all the dear friends
of my youth, to cross the great ocean that separates my native shores
from those of the eastern world, my heart sunk within me. While the
breezes wafted along the great ship that from La Belle France conveyed
me towards the land of my birth, the lingering hours were spent in deep
sorrow or melancholy musing. Even the mighty mass of waters that heaved
around me excited little interest: my affections were with those I had
left behind, and the world seemed to me a great wilderness. At length I
reached the country in which my eyes first opened to the light; I gazed
with rapture upon its noble forests, and no sooner had I landed, than
I set myself to mark every object that presented itself, and became
imbued with an anxious desire to discover the purpose and import of that
nature which lay spread around me in luxuriant profusion. But ever and
anon the remembrance of the kind parent, from whom I had been parted
by uncontrollable circumstances, filled my mind, and as I continued my
researches, and penetrated deeper into the forest, I daily became more
anxious to return to him, and to lay at his feet the simple results of
my multiplied exertions.

Reader, since I left you, I have felt towards you as towards that
parent. When I parted from him he evinced his sorrow; when I returned
he met me with an affectionate smile. If my recollection of your kind
indulgence has not deceived me, I carried with me to the western world
your wish that I should return to you; and the desire of gratifying that
wish, ever present with me as I wandered amidst the deep forests, or
scaled the rugged rocks, in regions which I visited expressly for the
purpose of studying nature and pleasing you, has again brought me into
your presence:—I have returned to present you with all that seems most
interesting in my collections. Should you accept the offering, and again
smile benignantly upon me, I shall be content and happy.

Soon after the engraving of my work commenced, I bade adieu to my valued
friends in Edinburgh, whose many kindnesses were deeply impressed on my
heart. The fair city gradually faded from my sight, and, as I crossed
the dreary heaths of the Lammermoor, the mental prospect became clouded;
but my spirits revived as I entered the grounds of Mr SELBY of Twizel
House, for in him I knew I possessed a friend. The few days spent under
his most hospitable roof, and the many pleasures I enjoyed there, I
shall ever remember with gratitude.

I was then on my way to London, which I had never yet visited. The number
of letters given me to facilitate my entry into the metropolis of England,
and to aid me in procuring subscribers to my work, accumulated during my
progress. At Newcastle-upon-Tyne I made my next halt. There the venerable
BEWICK, the ADAMSONS, the TURNERS, the DONKINS, the BUDDLES, the CHARNLEYS
and others, received me with great kindness, and helped to increase my
list of subscribers. The noble family of the RAVENSWORTHS I also added
to my friends, and from them I have since received important benefits,
particularly from the Honourable THOMAS LIDDELL, whose partiality for
my pursuits induced him to evince a warm interest in my favour, which
I shall ever acknowledge with feelings of affection and esteem.

It was there, reader, that, as my predecessor WILSON had done in
America, I for the first time in England exhibited some engravings of
my work, together with the contents of my portfolios. I cannot say that
the employment was a pleasant one to me, nor do I believe it was so to
him; but by means of it he at the time acquired that fame, of which I
also was desirous of obtaining a portion; and, knowing that should I
be successful, it would greatly increase the happiness of my wife and
children, I waged war against my feelings, and welcomed all, who, from
love of science, from taste, or from generosity, manifested an interest
in the "American Woodsman."

See him, reader, in a room crowded by visitors, holding at arm's length
each of his large drawings, listening to the varied observations of
the lookers on, and feel, as he now and then did, the pleasure which
he experienced when some one placed his sign manual on the list. This
occupation was continued all the way until I reached the skirts of London;
but the next place to which I went was the city of York, where I formed
acquaintance with a congenial spirit, Mr PHILLIPS, who is now well known
to you as an eminent Professor of Geology. There also I admired the
magnificent Minster, within whose sacred walls I in silence offered up
my humble prayer to heaven.

At Leeds, the GOTTS, the BANKSES, the WALKERS, the MARSHALLS, the DAVYS,
were all extremely kind to me, and I found a fine museum belonging to
the most interesting and amiable family of the CALVERTS, in whose society
my evenings were chiefly spent.

On my second visit to Manchester I obtained upwards of twenty subscribers
in one week, and became acquainted with persons whose friendship has
never failed. Of them I may particularly mention the DYERS, the KENNEDYS,
the DARBISHIRES, and the SOWLERS.

Having once more reached the hospitable home of the RATHBONES at
Liverpool, I felt my heart expand within me, and I poured forth my
thanks to my Maker for the many favours which I had in so short a period
received. I read to my friends the names of more than seventy subscribers
to my "Birds of America."

My journey was continued through Chester, Birmingham, and Oxford, and
I passed in view of the regal and magnificent Castle of Windsor. The
impression made on my mind the day I reached the very heart of London
I am unable to describe. Suffice it, kind reader, to tell you that
many were the alternations of hope and fear as I traversed the vast
metropolis. I cannot give you an adequate idea of my horror or of my
admiration, when on the one side I saw pallid poverty groping in filth
and rags, and turning away almost in despair, beheld the huge masses of
the noblest monument ever raised to St Paul, which reminded me of the
power and grandeur of man;—and along with the thronging crowds I moved,
like them intent on making my way through the world.

Eighty-two letters of introduction were contained in my budget. Besides
these I was the bearer of general letters from HENRY CLAY, Speaker of
the House of Congress, General ANDREW JACKSON, and other individuals in
America, to all our diplomatists and consuls in Europe and elsewhere.
Thus, reader, you will perceive that I had some foundation for the hope
that I should acquire friends in the great city.

In May 1827, I reached that emporium of the productions of all climes
and nations. After gazing a day on all that I saw of wonderful and
interesting, I devoted the rest to visiting. Guided by a map, I proceeded
along the crowded streets, and endeavoured to find my way through the
vast labyrinth. From one great man's door to another I went; but judge
of my surprise, reader, when, after wandering the greater part of three
successive days, early and late, and at all hours, I had not found a
single individual at home!

Wearied and disappointed, I thought my only chance of getting my letters
delivered was to consign them to the post, and accordingly I handed
them all over to its care, excepting one, which was addressed to "J.
G. CHILDREN, Esq. British Museum." Thither I now betook myself, and was
delighted to meet with that kind and generous person, whose friendship
I have enjoyed ever since. He it was who pointed out to me the great
error I had committed in having put my letters into the post-office, and
the evil arising from this step is perhaps still hanging over me, for
it has probably deprived me of the acquaintance of half of the persons
to whom they were addressed. In the course of a week, about half a
dozen of the gentlemen who had read my letters, left their cards at my
rooms. By degrees I became acquainted with a few of them, and my good
friend of the Museum introduced me to others. I renewed my acquaintance
with the benevolent Lord STANLEY, and became known to other noblemen,
liberal like himself. Soon after I was elected a Member of the Linnæan
and Zoological Societies.

About this time, the Prince of MUSIGNANO, so well known for his successful
cultivation of Natural History, arrived in London. He found me out through
the medium of the learned geologist FEATHERSTONHAUGH, and one evening
I had the pleasure of receiving a visit from him, accompanied by that
gentleman, Mr VIGORS, and some other persons. I felt happy in having once
more by my side my first ornithological adviser, and that amiable and
highly talented friend, with the accomplished geologist, remained with
me until a late hour. Their departure affected me with grief, and since
that period I have not seen the Prince. For several months I occupied
myself with painting in oil, and attending to the progress of my plates.
I now became acquainted with that eminent and amiable painter, Sir
THOMAS LAWRENCE, through a kindred spirit, THOMAS SULLY of Philadelphia;
from both of whom, at different periods, I have received advice with
reference to their enchanting art. One morning I had the good fortune to
receive a visit from Mr SWAINSON, whose skill as a naturalist every one
knows, and who has ever since been my substantial friend. M. TEMMINCK
also called, as did other scientific individuals, among whom was my
ever-valued friend ROBERT BAKEWELL, whose investigations have tended so
much to advance the progress of geology; and as my acquaintance increased
I gradually acquired happiness. Having visited those renowned seats of
learning, Cambridge and Oxford, I became acquainted at the former with
the Vice-Chancellor Mr DAVIE, Professors SEDGWICK, WHEWELL, and HENSLOW,
the Right Honourable WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM, JOHN LODGE, Esq. Dr THACKERY,
and many other gentlemen of great learning and talent; at the latter,
with Dr BUCKLAND, Dr KIDD, and others. These Universities afforded me
several subscribers.

In the summer of 1828, my friend SWAINSON and I went to Paris, where
I became acquainted with the great CUVIER, GEOFFROY ST HILAIRE, his
son ISIDORE, M. DORBIGNY, and M. LESSON, as well as that master of
flower-painters M. REDOUTÉ, and other persons eminent in science and
the arts. Our time in Paris was usefully and agreeably spent. We were
gratified at the liberality with which every object that we desired to
examine in the great Museum of France was submitted to our inspection.
Many of our evenings were spent under the hospitable roof of Baron
CUVIER, where the learned of all countries usually assembled. Through
the influence of my noble-spirited friend M. REDOUTÉ, I was introduced
to the Duke of ORLEANS, now King of the French, and to several Ministers
of State. The hour spent with LOUIS PHILLIPPE and his Son, was, by their
dignified urbanity, rendered one of the most agreeable that has fallen
to my lot; and in consequence of that interview I procured many patrons
and friends.

Returning to England, I spent the winter there, and in April 1829, sailed
for America. With what pleasure did I gaze on each setting sun, as it
sunk in the far distant west! with what delight did I mark the first
wandering American bird that hovered over the waters! and how joyous
were my feelings when I saw a pilot on our deck! I leaped on the shore,
scoured the woods of the Middle States, and reached Louisiana in the end
of November. Accompanied by my wife, I left New Orleans on the 8th of
January 1830, and sailing from New York on the 1st of April, we had the
pleasure, after a voyage of twenty-five days, of landing in safety at
Liverpool, and finding our friends and relations well. When I arrived
in London, my worthy friend J. G. CHILDREN, Esq. presented me with a
Diploma from the Royal Society. Such an honour conferred on an American
Woodsman could not but be highly gratifying to him. I took my seat in the
hall, and had the pleasure of pressing the hand of the learned President
with a warm feeling of esteem. I believe I am indebted for this mark of
favour more particularly to Lord STANLEY and Mr CHILDREN.

And now, kind reader, having traced my steps to the period when I
presented you with my first volume of Illustrations and that of my
Ornithological Biographies, allow me to continue my narrative.

Previous to my departure from England, on a second visit to the United
States, I had the honour and gratification of being presented to his Royal
Highness the DUKE OF SUSSEX, who graciously favoured me with a general
letter of recommendation to the authorities in the British colonies.
With others of a similar nature I was also honoured by the Noble Lords
STANLEY, PALMERSTON, HOWICK, and GODERICH.

We sailed on the 1st of August 1831, and landed at New York, where I
spent a few days only, and proceeded to Philadelphia. There I found my old
and firm friends HARLAN, WETHERELL, PICKERING, SULLY, NORRIS, WALSH, and
others, a few subscribers, and some diplomas. I had now two assistants,
one from London, Mr WARD, the other a highly talented Swiss, Mr GEORGE
LEHMAN. At Washington I received from the heads of our Government
letters of assistance and protection along the frontiers, which it was my
intention to visit. For these acts of kindness and encouragement, without
which my researches would have been more arduous and less efficient, I am
much indebted, and gratefully offer my acknowledgments, to Major-General
M'COMB, General JESSUP, General GRATIOT, the Honourable Messrs M'LEAN,
LIVINGSTON, and WOODBURY, to Colonel JOHN ABERT, and others, whose frank
and prompt attentions will never be forgotten by me. I need not say
that towards our President and the enlightened members of the civil,
military, and naval departments, I felt the deepest gratitude for the
facilities which they thus afforded me. All received me in the kindest
manner, and accorded to me whatever I desired of their hands. How often
did I think of the error committed by WILSON, when, instead of going to
Washington, and presenting himself to President JEFFERSON, he forwarded
his application through an uncertain medium. He, like myself, would
doubtless have been received with favour, and obtained his desire. How
often have I thought of the impression his piercing eye would have made
on the discriminating and learned President, to whom, in half the time
necessary for reading a letter, he might have said six times as much as
it contained. But, alas! WILSON, instead of presenting himself, sent
a substitute, which, it seems, was not received by the President, and
which, therefore, could not have answered the intended end. How pleasing
was it to me to find in our Republic, young as she is, the promptitude
to encourage science occasionally met with in other countries. Methinks
I am now bidding adieu to the excellent men who so kindly received me,
and am still feeling the pressure of their hands indicative of a cordial
wish for the success of my undertaking. May He who gave me being and
inspired me with a desire to study his wondrous works, grant me the means
of proving to my country the devotedness with which I strive to render
myself not unworthy of her!

We now proceeded swiftly down the broad Chesapeak Bay, reached Norfolk,
and removing into another steamer bound to the capital of Virginia, soon
arrived at Richmond. Having made acquaintance, many years before, in
Kentucky, with the governor of that State, the Honourable JOHN FLOYD, I
went directly to him, was received in the kindest manner, and furnished
with letters of introduction; after which we proceeded southward until
we arrived at Charleston in South Carolina. It was there that I formed
an acquaintance, now matured into a highly valued friendship, with the
Rev. JOHN BACHMAN, a proficient in general science, and in particular
in zoology and botany, and one whose name you will often meet with in
the course of my biographies. But I cannot refrain from describing to
you my first interview with this generous friend, and mentioning a few
of the many pleasures I enjoyed under his hospitable roof, and in the
company of his most interesting family and connections.

It was late in the afternoon when we took our lodgings in Charleston.
Being fatigued, and having written the substance of my journey to my
family, and delivered a letter to the Rev. Mr GILMAN, I retired to rest.
At the first glimpse of day the following morning, my assistants and
myself were already several miles from the city, commencing our search
in the fields and woods, and having procured abundance of subjects both
for the pencil and the scalpel, we returned home, covered with mud, and
so accoutred as to draw towards us the attention of every person in the
streets. As we approached the boarding house, I observed a gentleman on
horseback close to our door. He looked at me, came up, inquired if my
name was AUDUBON, and on being answered in the affirmative, instantly
leaped from his saddle, shook me most cordially by the hand—there is much
to be expressed and understood by a shake of the hand—and questioned
me in so kind a manner, that I for a while felt doubtful how to reply.
At his urgent desire, I removed to his house, as did my assistants.
Suitable apartments were assigned to us, and once introduced to the
lovely and interesting group that composed his family, I seldom passed
a day without enjoying their society. Servants, carriages, horses, and
dogs, were all at our command, and friends accompanied us to the woods
and plantations, and formed parties for water excursions. Before I left
Charleston, I was truly sensible of the noble and generous spirit of
the hospitable Carolinians.

Having sailed for the Floridas, we, after some delay, occasioned by
adverse winds, put into a harbour near St Simon's Island, where I was so
fortunate as to meet with THOMAS BUTLER KING, Esq. who, after replenishing
our provision-stores, subscribed to the "Birds of America." At length
we were safely landed at St Augustine, and commenced our investigation.
Of my sojourn in Florida, during the winter of 1831-32, you will find
some account in this volume. Returning to Charleston, we passed through
Savannah, respecting my short stay in which city you will also find some
particulars in the sequel. At Charleston we lived with my friend BACHMAN,
and continued our occupations. In the beginning of April, through the
influence of letters from the Honourable LEWIS M'LEAN, of the Treasury
Department, and the prompt assistance of Colonel J. PRINGLE, we went on
board the revenue cutter the "Marion," commanded by ROBERT DAY, Esq.,
to whose friendly attention I am greatly indebted for the success which
I met with in my pursuits, during his cruize along the dangerous coast
of East Florida, and amongst the islets that every where rise from
the surface of the ocean, like gigantic water-lilies. At Indian Key,
the Deputy-Collector, Mr THRUSTON, afforded me important aid; and at
Key West I enjoyed the hospitality of Major GLASSEL, his officers, and
their families, as well as of my friend Dr BENJAMIN STROBEL, and other
inhabitants of that singular island, to all of whom I now sincerely
offer my best thanks for the pleasure which their society afforded me,
and the acquisitions which their ever ready assistance enabled me to make.

Having examined every part of the coast which it was the duty of the
commander of the Marion to approach, we returned to Charleston with
our numerous prizes, and shortly afterwards I bent my course eastwards,
anxious to keep pace with the birds during their migrations. With the
assistance of my friend BACHMAN, I now procured for my assistant Mr WARD,
a situation of ease and competence, in the Museum of the Natural History
Society of Charleston, and Mr LEHMAN returned to his home. At Philadelphia
I was joined by my family, and once more together we proceeded towards
Boston. That dreadful scourge the cholera was devastating the land,
and spreading terror around its course. We left Philadelphia under its
chastising hand, and arrived at New York, where it was raging, while a
heavy storm that suddenly burst over our heads threw an additional gloom
over the devoted city, already bereft of a great part of her industrious
inhabitants. After spending a day with our good friends and relatives,
we continued our journey, and arrived at Boston.

Boston! Ah! reader, my heart fails me when I think of the estimable
friends whose society afforded me so much pleasure in that beautiful
city, the Athens of our Western World. Never, I fear, shall I have it
in my power to return a tithe of the hospitality which was there shewn
towards us, or of the benevolence and generosity which we experienced,
and which evidently came from the heart, without the slightest mixture of
ostentation. Indeed, I must acknowledge that although I have been happy
in forming many valuable friendships in various parts of the world, all
dearly cherished by me, the outpouring of kindness which I experienced



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