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wings and returns to southern regions.

Perched erect on a low horizontal branch, or sometimes on a fallen tree,
it emits, at intervals of ten or fifteen minutes, a short succession
of simple notes, beginning with emphasis and gradually falling. This
suffices to inform the female that her lover is at hand, as watchful
as he is affectionate. The quieter the place of his abode, the more
the little minstrel exerts his powers; and in calm evenings, its music
immediately following the song of the Tawny Thrush, appears to form a
pleasant unison.

The nest is so like an oven, that the children in many places call
this species the "Oven Bird." I have found it always on the ground,
sometimes among the roots of a tall tree, sometimes by the side of a
fallen trunk, and again at the foot of some slender sapling. It is sunk
in the ground among dry leaves or decayed moss, and is neatly formed of
grasses, both inside and out, arched over with a thick mass of the same
material, covered by leaves, twigs, and such grasses as are found in the
neighbourhood. A small aperture is left on one side, just sufficient to
admit the owner. In this snug tenement the female deposits from four to
six eggs, which are white, irregularly spotted with reddish-brown near
the larger end.

When accidentally disturbed at the period of incubation, it glides over
the ground before you, and uses all sorts of artifices to decoy you
from its nest. Several species of snakes and small quadrupeds are its
principal enemies. From children it has little to dread, its gentleness
securing it a place in their affections, so that they seldom molest it.

While on wing it appears to glide through the woods with ease and
celerity, although it seldom extends its flight to more than a hundred
yards at a time. It migrates by day, resorting at night to the deepest
swamps. In these situations I have met it in company with the Cat Bird
and other Thrushes. When disturbed on such occasions, its simple _tweet_
was familiar to my ear. None remain in the United States during winter,
although some are found lingering in the lower parts of Louisiana as
late as the first of December.

The plant on which I have placed a pair of them, grew near the spot
where I obtained the birds, in a dark wood not far from Philadelphia.


TURDUS AUROCAPILLUS, _Lath._ Ind. Ornith. vol. i. p. 328.

GOLDEN-CROWNED THRUSH, TURDUS AUROCAPILLUS, _Wils._ Amer.
Ornith. vol. ii. p. 88. pl. 17. fig. 2.—_Nuttall_, Manual,
part ii. p. 355.

SYLVIA AUROCAPILLA, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 77.

SEIURUS AUROCAPILLUS, GOLDEN-CROWNED ACCENTOR, _Swains. and
Richards._ Fauna Bor.-Amer. part ii. p. 227.


Adult Male. Plate CXLIII. Fig. 1.

Bill shortish, nearly straight, subulato-conical, rather broader than
deep at the base, compressed towards the end, the edges sharp and a little
inflected, the dorsal outlines of both mandibles slightly convex. Nostrils
basal, elliptical, lateral, half-closed by a membrane. The general form
is slender. Feet of ordinary length; tarsus compressed, slender, covered
anteriorly with a long undivided piece, and three inferior scutella,
sharp behind; toes scutellate above, free; claws slender, compressed,
acute, arched.

Plumage soft and blended. Wings of ordinary length, the second and third
quills almost equal, the third longest. Tail short, slightly emarginate,
of twelve pointed feathers.

Bill dusky above, flesh-coloured beneath. Iris brown. Feet very light
flesh-coloured and transparent. The general colour of the plumage above
is greenish-brown, the crown brownish-orange, with two lateral lines of
brownish-black spots. The lower parts are white, the throat with two
lateral lines of brownish-black, and the lower neck, fore part of the
breast, and the sides marked with triangular spots of the same.

Length 6 inches, extent of wings 9; bill along the ridge 5½/12, along
the edge 7½/12; tarsus 9½/12.


Adult Female. Plate CXLIII. Fig. 2.

The female resembles the male, but is somewhat lighter, with the crown
paler. The dimensions are nearly the same.


THE WOODY NIGHTSHADE.

SOLANUM DULCAMARA, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. i. p. 1027. _Pursh_,
Fl. Amer. Sept. vol. i. p. 156.—PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA, _Linn._

This species is found in the woods, as well as along the margins of
cultivated land, and is one of those common to both continents.




THE SMALL GREEN CRESTED FLYCATCHER.

_MUSCICAPA ACADICA_, GMEL.

PLATE CXLIV. MALE AND FEMALE.


The Small Green Crested Flycatcher is not abundant, even in South
Carolina, in the maritime parts of which it occasionally breeds. It
merely passes through Louisiana, in early spring and in autumn; but it
is found distributed from Maryland to the eastern extremities of Nova
Scotia, proceeding perhaps still farther north, although neither I nor
any of my party observed a single individual in Newfoundland or Labrador.

It is a usual inhabitant of the most gloomy and secluded parts of our
deep woods, although now and then a pair may be found to have taken
possession of a large orchard near the house of the farmer. Almost as
pugnacious as the King Bird, it is seen giving chase to every intruder
upon its premises, not only during the season of its loves, but during
its whole stay with us. As soon as it has paired, it becomes so retired
that it seldom goes farther from its nest than is necessary for procuring
food.

Perched on some small spray or dry twig, it stands erect, patiently
eyeing the objects around. When it perceives an insect, it sweeps after
it with much elegance, snaps its bill audibly as it seizes the prey, and
on realighting, utters a disagreeable squeak. While perched it is heard
at intervals repeating its simple, guttural, gloomy notes, resembling
the syllables _queae, queae, tchooe, tchewee_. These notes are often
followed, as the bird passes from one tree to another, by a low murmuring
chirr or twitter, which it keeps up until it alights, when it instantly
quivers its wings, and jerks its tail a few times. At intervals it emits
a sweeter whistling note, sounding like _weet, weet, weet, will_; and
when angry it emits a loud _chirr_.

Early in May, in our Middle Districts, the Small Green Crested Flycatcher
constructs its nest, which varies considerably in different parts of the
country, being made warmer in the northern localities, where it breeds
almost a month later. It is generally placed in the darkest shade of
the woods, in the upright forks of some middle-sized tree, from eight
to twenty feet above the ground, sometimes so low as to allow a man to
look into it. In some instances I have found it on the large horizontal
branches of an oak, when it looked like a knot. It is always neat and
well-finished, the inside measuring about two inches in diameter, with a
depth of an inch and a half. The exterior is composed of stripes of the
inner bark of various trees, vine fibres and grasses, matted together
with the down of plants, wool, and soft moss. The lining consists of
fine grass, a few feathers, and horse hair. The whole is light, elastic,
and firmly coherent, and is glued to the twigs or saddled on the branch
with great care. The eggs are from four to six, small, and pure white.
While the female is sitting, the male often emits a scolding _chirr_
of defiance, and rarely wanders far from the nest, but relieves his
mate at intervals. In the Middle States they often have two broods in
the season, but in Maine or farther north only one. The young follow
their parents in the most social manner; but before these birds leave
us entirely, the old and the young form different parties, and travel
in small groups towards warmer regions.

I have thought that this species throws up pellets more frequently than
most others. Its food consists of insects during spring and summer, such
as moths, wild bees, butterflies, and a variety of smaller kinds; but
in autumn it greedily devours berries and small grapes. Although not shy
with respect to man, it takes particular notice of quadrupeds, following
a minx or polecat to a considerable distance, with every manifestation of
anger. The mutual affection of the male and female, and their solicitude
respecting their eggs or young, are quite admirable.

The flight of the Small Green Flycatcher is performed by short glidings,
supported by protracted flaps of the wings, not unlike those of the
Pewee Flycatcher; and it is often seen, while passing low through the
woods or following the margins of a creek, to drink in the manner of
swallows, or sweep after its prey, until it alights. Like the King Bird,
it always migrates by day.


MUSCICAPA ACADICA, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 68.

SMALL GREEN CRESTED FLYCATCHER, MUSCICAPA QUERULA, _Wils._
Amer. Ornith. vol. ii. p. 77. pl. 13. fig. 3.

SMALL PEWEE, _Nuttall_, Manual, part i. p. 288.

Adult Male. Plate CXLIV. Fig. 1.

Bill of ordinary length, depressed (much deeper than in _M. Traillii_),
tapering to a point, the lateral outlines a little convex; upper mandible
with the sides convex, the edges sharp, slightly notched close upon the
tip, which is deflected and acute; lower mandible convex below, acute,
short. Nostrils basal, lateral, elliptical. Head of moderate size, neck
short, general form slender. Feet of moderate length, slender; tarsus
compressed, covered anteriorly with short scutella, sharp behind; toes
free; claws compressed, arched, acute.

Plumage soft and tufty; feathers of the head narrow and erectile. Wings
of moderate length, third quill longest, first and fourth equal. Tail
rather long, slightly rounded.

Bill dark brown above, flesh-coloured beneath. Iris hazel. Feet
greyish-blue. The general colour of the plumage above is light
greenish-olive. Quills and tail wood-brown margined with pale
greenish-olive; secondary coverts, and first row of small coverts tipped
with yellowish-white, forming two bands across the wing, the secondary
quills broadly edged and tipped with the same. A very narrow ring of
greyish-white round the eye; throat of the same colour; sides of the
neck and fore part of the breast olivaceous, tinged with grey; the rest
of the under parts yellowish-white.

Length 5½ inches, extent of wings 8½; bill along the ridge 6/12, along
the edge ¾; tarsus 7/12.


Adult Female. Plate CXLIV. Fig. 2.

The female differs from the male only in having the tints somewhat
duller, and being rather less.


SASSAFRAS.

LAURUS SASSAFRAS, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. ii. p. 485. _Pursh_,
Fl. Amer. Sept. vol. i. 277.—ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA, _Linn._
LAURI, _Juss._

The Sassafras grows on almost every kind of soil in the Southern and
Western States, where it is of common occurrence. Along the Atlantic
States it extends as far as New Hampshire, and still farther north in the
western country. The beauty of its foliage and its medicinal properties
render it one of our most interesting trees. It attains a height of fifty
or sixty feet, with a proportionate diameter. The leaves are alternate,
petiolate, oval, and undivided, or three-lobed. The flowers, which appear
before the leaves, are of a greenish-yellow colour, and the berries are
of an oval form and bluish-black tint, supported on cups of a bright
red, having long filiform peduncles.




THE YELLOW RED-POLL WARBLER.

_SYLVIA PETECHIA_, LATH.

PLATE CXLV. MALE AND FEMALE.


I most willingly acknowledge the error under which I laboured many years,
in believing that this species and the _Sylvia palmarum_ of BONAPARTE,
are distinct from each other. To the sound judgment of my good friend
JOHN BACHMAN, I am indebted for convincing me that the figure given
by the Prince of Musignano is that of our present bird, at a different
period of life, and therefore with different plumage. I was not fully
aware of this, until the 63d plate of my second volume of Illustrations
had been delivered to the subscribers, bearing on it the name of _Sylvia
palmarum_. That plate, however, will prove useful, as it represents both
sexes of the _Sylvia petechia_ in full summer plumage, while the 45th
plate shews them in their first autumnal dress. While at Charleston, in
the winter and spring of 1833-4, I became convinced of my error, after
examining a great number of specimens, in different states of plumage,
corresponding to the figures in my two plates. All these individuals
had the same habits, and uttered the same notes. I may here remark, that
the true _Sylvia palmarum_ has not yet been met with in the United States.

The Yellow Red-poll Warbler is extremely abundant in the Southern States,
from the beginning of November to the first of April, when it migrates
northward. It is one of the most common birds in the Floridas during
winter, especially along the coasts, where they are fond of the orchards
and natural woods of orange trees. In Georgia and South Carolina, they
are also very abundant, and are to be seen gambolling, in company with
the Yellow-rumped Warbler, on the trees that ornament the streets of
the cities and villages, or those of the planter's yard. They approach
the piazzas and enter the gardens, in search of insects, on which they
feed principally on the wing, now and then securing some by moving
slowly along the branches. It never removes from one spot to another,
without uttering a sharp twit, and vibrating its tail in the manner of
the Wagtails of Europe, though less frequently. I never saw this species
in Pennsylvania in summer, although occasionally in the month of May
it is to be seen for a few days. It is very rare in Maine; but I found
it abundant in Newfoundland and Labrador, where I seldom passed a day
without searching for its nest, although I am sorry to say, in vain. In
the month of August the old birds were feeding their young all around
us, and preparing to return to milder winter quarters.

The pair represented in the plate were drawn on the banks of the
Mississippi, along with a plant which grew there, and was in flower at
the time. Those represented in the 63d plate, were drawn in the Floridas,
in full spring plumage, a few days previous to the departure of the
species from that country. These I placed on their favourite wild orange
tree, which was then in full bloom.

Nothing can be more gladdening to the traveller, when passing through
the uninhabited woods of East Florida, than the wild orange groves which
he sometimes meets with. As I approached them, the rich perfume of the
blossoms, the golden hue of the fruits, that hung on every twig, and
lay scattered on the ground, and the deep green of the glossy leaves,
never failed to produce the most pleasing effect on my mind. Not a branch
has suffered from the pruning knife, and the graceful form of the trees
retains the elegance it received from nature. Raising their tops into
the open air, they allow the uppermost blossoms and fruits to receive
the unbroken rays of the sun, which one might be tempted to think are
conveyed from flower to flower, and from fruit to fruit, so rich and
balmy are all. The pulp of these fruits quenches your thirst at once,
and the very air you breathe in such a place refreshes and reinvigorates
you. I have passed through groves of these orange trees fully a mile
in extent. Their occurrence is a sure indication of good land, which in
the south-eastern portion of that country is rather scarce. The Seminole
Indians and poorer Squatters feed their horses on oranges, which these
animals seem to eat with much relish. The immediate vicinity of a wild
orange grove is of some importance to the planters, who have the fruits
collected and squeezed in a horse mill. The juice is barrelled and sent to
different markets, being in request as an ingredient in cooling drinks.
The straight young shoots are cut and shipped in bundles, to be used as
walking sticks.


SYLVIA PETECHIA, _Lath._ Ind. Ornith. vol. ii. p. 535.—_Ch.
Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the United States, p. 83.

YELLOW RED-POLL WARBLER, SYLVIA PETECHIA, _Wils._ Amer. Ornith.
vol. vi. p. 19. pl. 28. fig. 4. Male.—_Nuttall_, Manual, p. 364.

SYLVICOLA PETECHIA, _Swains. and Richards._ Fauna Bor.-Amer.
part i. p. 215.


Adult Male in Winter. Plate CXLV. Fig. 1.

Bill short, straight, conico-subulate, very slender, acute. Nostrils
basal, lateral, oval, half closed by a membrane. Head rather small; neck
short, body slender. Feet of ordinary length, slender; tarsus longer than
the middle toe, covered anteriorly by a few scutella, the upper ones
long; toes scutellate above, the inner free, the hind toe of moderate
size; claws slender, compressed, acute, arched.

Plumage soft and blended, with little gloss. Wings of ordinary length,
acute, the second quill longest, the secondaries rather long and rounded.
Tail of moderate length, emarginate. Bristles at the base of the bill.

Bill dusky-brown above, yellowish beneath. Iris deep brown. Feet
umber-brown. The general colour of the plumage above is yellow-olive,
streaked with dark brown; crown of the head brownish-red, margined on
each side with a line of pale-yellow over the eye; rump and tail-coverts
greenish-yellow; quills blackish-brown, edged with yellow-olive; tail of
the colour of the wings, the two lateral feathers white in their whole
breadth towards the end, forming a white band across the tail beneath
when it is closed. The sides of the head are yellow, with two dusky
bands, and the lower parts generally are bright yellow, the fore-neck,
breast and sides streaked with brownish-red.

Length 4½ inches, extent of wings 8½; bill along the back 4½/12, along
the edge ½; tarsus ¾.


Adult Female. Plate CXLV. Fig. 2.

The Female is coloured in the same manner as the Male, but the tints
are much paler, the red of the head scarcely apparent, and the fore-neck
very faintly marked.

Individuals of both sexes exhibit considerable difference in the tints
of the plumage, at different ages and in different seasons.


HELENIUM QUADRIDENTATUM, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. iii. p. 2121.
_Pursh_, Flor. Amer. Sept. vol. ii. p. 560.—SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA
SUPERFLUA. COMPOSITÆ, _Juss._

From three to four feet high, with the stem branched, the leaves
decurrent, the lower subpinnatifid, the upper lanceolate, undivided,
smooth; the corollas of the disk four-toothed. This plant springs up
spontaneously over all the abandoned lands of Louisiana, and is very
difficult to be extirpated. It is often gathered and burnt, to prevent
the musquitoes from entering houses.




SPRING GARDEN.


Having heard many wonderful accounts of a certain spring near the sources
of the St John's River in East Florida, I resolved to visit it, in order
to judge for myself. On the 6th of January 1832, I left the plantation of
my friend JOHN BULOW, accompanied by an amiable and accomplished Scotch
gentleman, an engineer employed by the planters of those districts in
erecting their sugar-house establishments. We were mounted on horses
of the Indian breed, remarkable for their activity and strength, and
were provided with guns and some provisions. The weather was pleasant,
but not so our way, for no sooner had we left the "King's Road," which,
had been cut by the Spanish government for a goodly distance, than we
entered a thicket of scrubby oaks, succeeded by a still denser mass of
low palmettoes, which extended about three miles, and among the roots of
which our nags had great difficulty in making good their footing. After
this we entered the Pine Barrens, so extensively distributed in this
portion of the Floridas. The sand seemed to be all sand and nothing but
sand, and the palmettoes at times so covered the narrow Indian trail which
we followed, that it required all the instinct or sagacity of ourselves
and our horses to keep it. It seemed to us as if we were approaching the
end of the world. The country was perfectly flat, and, so far as we could
survey it, presented the same wild and scraggy aspect. My companion, who
had travelled there before, assured me that, at particular seasons of
the year, he had crossed the barrens when they were covered with water
fully knee-deep, when, according to his expression, they "looked most
awful;" and I readily believed him, as we now and then passed through
muddy pools, which reached the saddle-girths of our horses. Here and there
large tracts covered with tall grasses, and resembling the prairies of
the western wilds, opened to our view. Wherever the country happened to
be sunk a little beneath the general level, it was covered with cypress
trees, whose spreading arms were hung with a profusion of Spanish moss.
The soil in such cases consisted of black mud, and was densely covered
with bushes, chiefly of the Magnolia family.

We crossed in succession the heads of three branches of Haw Creek, of
which the waters spread from a quarter to half a mile in breadth, and
through which we made our way with extreme difficulty. While in the middle
of one, my companion told me, that once when in the very spot where we
then stood, his horse chanced to place his fore-feet on the back of a
large alligator, which, not well pleased at being disturbed in his repose,
suddenly raised his head, opened his monstrous jaws, and snapped off a
part of the lips of his affrighted pony. You may imagine the terror of
the poor beast, which, however, after a few plunges, resumed its course,
and succeeded in carrying its rider through in safety. As a reward for
this achievement, it was ever after honoured with the appellation of
"Alligator."

We had now travelled about twenty miles, and the sun having reached the
zenith, we dismounted to partake of some refreshment. From a muddy pool
we contrived to obtain enough of tolerably clear water to mix with the
contents of a bottle, the like of which I would strongly recommend to
every traveller in these swampy regions; our horses, too, found something
to grind among the herbage that surrounded the little pool; but as little
time was to be lost, we quickly remounted, and resumed our disagreeable
journey, during which we had at no time proceeded at a rate exceeding
two miles and a half in the hour.

All at once, however, a wonderful change took place:—the country became
more elevated and undulating; the timber was of a different nature, and
consisted of red and live oaks, magnolias, and several kinds of pine.
Thousands of "mole-hills," or the habitations of an animal here called
"the salamander," and "goffer's burrows," presented themselves to the
eye, and greatly annoyed our horses, which every now and then sank to the
depth of a foot, and stumbled at the risk of breaking their legs, and,
what we considered fully as valuable, our necks. We now saw beautiful
lakes of the purest water, and passed along a green space, having a
series of them on each side of us. These sheets of water became larger
and more numerous the farther we advanced, some of them extending to a
length of several miles, and having a depth of from two to twenty feet of
clear water; but their shores being destitute of vegetation, we observed
no birds near them. Many tortoises, however, were seen basking in the
sun, and all, as we approached, plunged into the water. Not a trace
of man did we observe during our journey, scarcely a bird, and not a
single quadruped, not even a rat; nor can one imagine a poorer and more
desolate country than that which lies between the Halifax River, which
we had left in the morning, and the undulated grounds at which we had
now arrived.

But at length we perceived the tracks of living beings, and soon after
saw the huts of Colonel REES'S negroes. Scarcely could ever African
traveller have approached the city of Timbuctoo with more excited
curiosity than we felt in approaching this plantation. Our Indian horses
seemed to participate in our joy, and trotted at a smart rate towards
the principal building, at the door of which we leaped from our saddles,
just as the sun was withdrawing his ruddy light. Colonel REES was at
home, and received us with great kindness. Refreshments were immediately
placed before us, and we spent the evening in agreeable conversation.

The next day I walked over the plantation, and examining the country
around, found the soil of good quality, it having been reclaimed
from swampy ground of a black colour, rich and very productive. The
greater part of the cultivated land was on the borders of a lake, which
communicates with others, leading to the St John's River, distant about



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