John Jay Smith François André Michaux.

The North American sylva: or, a description of the forest trees of ..., Volume 4 online

. (page 1 of 14)
Online LibraryJohn Jay Smith François André MichauxThe North American sylva: or, a description of the forest trees of ..., Volume 4 → online text (page 1 of 14)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|




The North American Sylva

Frangois Andre Michaux, John Jay
Smith, Thomas Nuttall, Augustus Lucas Hillhouse



3 2044 107 273 385



THE NEW ENGLAND BOTANICAL CLUB



LIBRARY OF THE GRAY HERBARIUM
HARVARD UNIVERSITY



Digitled b .



Google



Digitized by ^



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



THE



^ort| Jmcritan 3^M;



OR, A DESCRIPTION OF THB



FOREST TREES

OF THB

UNITED STATES, CANADA, AND NOVA SCOTIA,

NOT DESCRIBED IN TUB WORE OF

R ANDREW MICHAUX,



Ain> GONTAimiro all tee



FOREST TREES DISCOVERED IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, THE TERRITORY OF

OREGON, DOWN TO THE SHORES OP THE PACIFIC, AND iNTO THB

CONFINES OP CALIFORNIA, AS WELL AS IN VARIOUS

PARTS OP THB UNITED STATES.



IIiIiUBTBATED ,37 121 OOIiOBED FIiATES.



BY



THOMAS NTJTTALL, F.L.S.

MDIBai or TBI JJOOUCAir PBILOMPHICAL SOCUTT, AlTD OP TBI AGAmiCT OF BATDBAL SCUBCn
OF PBILAJSLPBIA, Bia BIO. WXC



THREE VOLUMES IN TWO.
VOL. L



BEING THE FOURTH VOLUME OP MICHAUX AND NUTTALL'S
NORTH AMERICAN SYLVA.



PHILADEEPHIA:
PUBLISHED BY D. RICE & A. N. HART,

Ifo.5»llINOR 8TRBBT.
1869.



Digitized by



Google



(kt-

f/0



Entered aeeordlog to Act of Congreei, in the year 1857» hj

BICE A HART,

in the Clerk^s Offlee Of the Dlstrlet Court of the United SUtee for the Eastern Dlstitet of
PenneylTania*



•TBBsoTrrKD ST L. jomvsoJT Airn c#<

PBILADBLrHIA.*



OOIUNQ, FRIHfBa



Digitized by



Google



TO THE LATB



WILLIAM MACLURE, ESQ.

puoDBR or fHB ACAnanr or ratueal scunois ik poiLADiLPmA, sro. iic.

AS A MSMJSNTO OF HIS ATTACHMENT TO, AND LIBERAL ENOOURAOEMENT OF, NATURAL
SCIENCES IN NORTH AMERICA;



ALSO, TO



F. ANDREW MICHAUX, •

MCMBn or THS AMKRICAS PHILOSOPHIC AX. 80CIBTT, OOEBESPOSfDBIT OP TBI MWU t U T M
or rSAMCI, ETC R&,

WHOSE NAME IS IDENTIFIED WITH THE HISTORY AND IMPORTANCE OF THE PEODtCTIONS
• OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FOREST,



^u Max^



IS MOST EESPECTFULLT DEDICATED BT



THE AUTHOR OP THIS SUPPLEMENT.



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE.



The Forest Trees op America being a subject of such great
exteut and importance, I felt, consequently, very diffident of under-
taking their study, after what has been already done so well by my
predecessor, M. Michaux. Yet, in offering a new edition of the
American Sylva in English, it appeared requisite, in keeping pace
with the progress of discovery, that all the forest trees of the ex-
tended dominion of the United States should, in some way or
other, be included in the present publication ; and, I confess, the
magnitude of the task appeared, at first, sufficiently appalling,
when we reflect on the vast territory now claimed by the United
States. Beginning with the arctic limits of all arborescent vege-
tation, in the wilds of Canada, which we cannot with propriety
exclude, forming as it does the boreal boundary of the North Ame-
rican forest, we then follow the extended shores of the Atlantic,
until, toward the extremity of East Florida, and its keys or
islands, we have attained the very confines of the tropical circle,
and make a near approach to the island of Cuba and the Baha-
mas. Turning westward, we pass over the wide forests of 4he
Mississippi, pursue the Western streams, through vast woodless
plains, until we attain the long crests of the Eocky Mountains
or Northern Andes. Here, in these alpine regions, we meet with
a total change in the features of the forest : resiniferous evergreens,
of the family of the Pines, now predominate, and attain the most
gigantic dimensions. All the species (and they are numerous) have
peculiar traits, and form so many curious and distinct species, of
which little is yet known more than their botanical designation.
Other remarkable forest trees, also imperfectly known, inhabit this
great range of mountains, which continues uninterruptedly into the
interior of Mexico in its southern course ; while on the north, follow-
ing the sources of the Missouri and the Oregon, and after thus dividing
the waters which flow into the Atlantic and Pacific, it is at length



Digitized by



Google



t) PREFACE.

merged in the "Shining Mountains/* which send off their distant
tributaries to the Arctic Ocean.

The plains of the Upper Platte, those of the Oregon and of North-
ern California, a region bereft of summer rains, forming extensive
barren steppes, like those of Siberia, present no forests, scarcely
an alluvial belt along the larger streams of sufficient magnitude to
afford even fuel for the camp-fire of the wandering hunter or the
erratic savage. The scanty driftwood borne down from the moun-
tains, the low bitter bushes of the arid plain, even the dry ordure
of the bison, is collected for fuel, and barely suffices to prepare a
hasty meal fbr the passing ti'aveller, who, urged by hunger and
thirst, hurries over the desert, a region doomed to desolation, and,
amid privq^tions the most appalling, lives in the hope of again see-
ing forests and green fields in lieu of arid plains and bitter weeds,
which. tantalized our famished animals with the fallacious appear-
ance of food, like the cast-away mariner raging with thirst, though
surrounded with water as fatal to the longing appetite as poison.

Toward the shores of the Pacific, and on the banks of the Oregpn,
we again meet with the agreeable features of the forest : —

** Majestic woods, of oTery vigorous green,
Stage above stage, high waving o'er the hills,
Or to the far horizon wicte diifased,
A bQundleas, de^ immoosiiy of shade.*'

Transported in idea to the border of the Hudson or the Dela-
ware, we recline beneath the shade of venerable Oaks and spreading
Maples; we see, as it were, fringing the streams, the fiamiliar Cotton-
wood and spreading Willows. On the higher plains, and ascending
the hills and mountains to their summits, we see a dark forest of
lofty Pines ; we hear the light, breeze sigh and murmur through
their branches as it did to the poets of old. But the botanist, in
all this array, fails to recognise one solitary acquaintance of his
former scenes: he is emphatically in a strange land; a new crea-
tion, even of forest trees, is spread aroilnd him, and the tall Andes
and wide deserts rise as a barrier betwixt him and his distant home.

My indulgent reader will then excuse me, if I, on this occasion,
appear before him only as a botanist ; culling those objects which
have given him so much delight, he wishes to present them to the



Digitized by



Google



PREFACfi. 7

curious {)ublic, alive to the beauties and symmetry of nature's works.
Whatever is yet known of their uses and history is also given ; and,
that the task might be more complete, we have rambled a little be-
yond, rather than fallen short of, the exact limits of the Republic.
"Wo have thus added, as oifr friends Torrey and Gray have done, in
their general Flora, a collection of the trees of Upper California,
extending our ramble as far as the vicinity of Santa Barbara,
in about the 84th degree of north latitude. We here met with
several Oaks, Pines, a Plane Tree, a Horse-iehestnut, and a Box Elder,
which have not yet been found within the limits of the Territory of
Oregon.

While the work was in progress. Professor Torrey informed me
of the arrival of a large collection of dried plants froW Key West, in
East Florida, made by Doctor BLODaETT, of the United States army.
All the trees in this herbarium — at least forty species — ^w^re in the
most generous manner given up to me for publication by the pro-
fessor. Most of them form distinguishing features in the tropical
landscape of the West India Islands. Among them were the Ma-
hogany, Simaruba, the Guaiacum or Lignum- Vitae, the poisonous
Manchineel, several trees of the family^ of the Myrtles, {Eugenia,)
three or four species of Fig Trees, the Calabash, and Papaw or Me-
lon Tree, the Mangrove, two species of Cordia, the West India Birch,
{Bursera gurrmifera,) and many other arborescent plants which are
now for the first time addedito the Flora of the United States, and
thus in a measure resolving the problem of the geographical limits
of the Caribbean Flora* The island of Key West lies about eighty-
five miles from East Florida, and is the same distance from Cuba.
It is about nine miles long and three broad, containing a popula-
tion of about four hundred people, chiefly engaged as wreckers.

Besides the trees we have noticed, I have been recently informed
of the -existence of thickets of Cactuses on the island, one of which,
with an erect, eylio^Cy and divided stem, attains the height of thirty
or more feet.

In the islands of th^ Everglades, considerably^ inland in East Flo-
rida, we have been informed that a Palm about ninety feet high,
forming a magnificent tree^ has been seen ; but of this plant we have
been unable to obtain, as yet, any further account.

The haste with which I have been obliged to proceed with the



Digitized by



Google



8 PREFACE.

publication has prevented me from receiving much advantage from
correspondents. Such as have honored me with their remarks are
mentioned under the appropriate articles as they occur in the work ;
and I take, this opportunity of tendering them my sincere thanks
for all such assistance.

As fast as new materials may be discovered, we intend to give
them to the world in the form of a supplement ; and we shall then
also have an additional opportunity for correcting any errors which
may have occurred either in regard to information or in the pro-
gress of printing, as well as of making such additions as a more
thorough examination of the subject may suggest, particularly the
characters of the different kinds of wood indigenous to the most
extended limits of the Republic.



Thirty-four years ago, I left England to explore the natural his-
tory of the United States. In the ship Halcyon I arrived at the
shores of the New "World ; and, after a boisterous and dangerous
passage, our dismasted vessel entered the Capes of the Delaware in
the month of April. The beautiful robing of forest scenery, now
bursting into vernal life, was exchanged for the monotony of the
dreaiy ocean, and the sad sickness of the sea. As we sailed up the
Delaware, my eyes were riveted on the landscape with intense ad-
miration. AJl was new; and life, li]l^ that season, was then full
of hope and enthusiasm. The forests, apparently unbroken in
their primeval solitude and repose, spread themselves on either
hand as we passed placidly along. The extending vista of dark
Pines gave an air of deep sadness to the wilderness : —

** These lonely regions, where, retired
From little scenes of art, great Nature dwells
In awftil solitude, and naught is seen
But the wild herds that own no master's stall."

The deer brought tf> bay, or plunging into the flood, from the pur-
suit of the Indian armed with bow and arrow, alone seemed want-
ing to realize the savage landscape as it appeared to the first settlers
of the country.

Scenes like these have little attraction for ordinary life. But to



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE. 9

the naturalist it is far otherwise ; privations to him are cheaply pur-
chased if he may but roam over the wild domain of primeval na-
ture, and behold

" Another Flora there, of bolder hues
And richer sweets, beyond oar garden's pride.*'

How often have I realized the poet's buoyant hopes amid these
solitary rambles through interminable forests! For thousands of
miles my chief converse has been in the wilderness with the spon-
taneous productions of nature ; and the study of these objects and
their contemplation has been to me a source of constant delight.

This fervid curiosity led me to the banks of the Ohio, through
the dark forests and brakes of the Mississippi, to the distant lakes
of the northern frontier ; through the wilds of Florida ; far up the
Red River and the Missouri, and through the territory of Arkansas ;
at last over the

"Vast sayannas, where the wandering eye,
Unfix'd, is in a yerdant ocean lo6t;"

And now across the arid plains of the Far West, beyond the steppes
of the Rocky Mountains, down the Oregon to the extended shores
of the Pacific, across the distant ocean to that femous group, the
Sandwich Islands, where Cook at length fell a sacrifice to his teme-
rity. And here for the first time I beheld the beauties of a tro-
pical vegetation ; a season that knows no changej but that of a per-
petual spring and summer; an elysian land, where nature offers
spontaneous food to man. The region of the Bread-fruit ; the Tar-
row, {Oolocasia esculenta^) which feeds the indigent mass of the popu-
lation ; the Broussonetia, a kind of Mulberry Tree, whose inner rind,
called topa,* affords a universal clothing. The low groves produce
the Banana, the Ginger, the Turmeric, the inebriating Kava^ {Piper
methysikumy) a kind of Arrowroot, resembling the potato, {Tacca^)
and the Saccharine Tee root, (Draccena terminalis,) at the same time
the best of portable fodder. The common timber for constructing
houses, boats, various implements, and the best of fuel, is here the
produce of a Mimosa, {Acacia keterophylla.) For lights and oil, the
too iooe kernels {Akuriies triloba) produce an excellent and inexhaust-
ible supply; the cocoanut and the fragrant Pamiaw?^5 afford deli-
iv.— 1*



Digitized by



Google



10 PREFACE.

cious food, cordage, and mate ; and the very reeds, reduced in size,
which border the rivulets, are no other than the precious sugar-
cane of commerce.

Leaving this favored region of perpetual mildness, I now arrived
on the shores of California, at Monterey. The early spring (March)
had already spread out its varied carpet of flowers; all of them had
to me the charm of novelty, and many were adorned with the most
brilliant and varied hues. The forest trees were new to my view.
A magpie, almost like that of Europe, (but with a yellow bill,)
chattered from the branches of an Oak with leaves like those of
the Holly, {Quereus agrifolia.) A thorny Gooseberry, forming a small
tree, appeared clad with pendulous tiowers as brilliant as those of a
Fuchsia. A new Plane Tree spread its wide arms over the dried
rivulets. A Ceanothus, attaining the magnitude of a small tree,
loaded with sky-blue withered flowers, lay on the rude wood-pile,
consigned to the menial office of. affording fuel. Already the cheer-
ful mocking-bird sent forth his varied melody, with rapture imi-
tating the novel notes of his neighboring songsters. The scenery
was mountainous and varied, one vast wilderness, neglected and
uncultivated ; the very cattle appeared as wild as the bison of the
prairies, and the prowling wolves, {Coyotes^ well fed, were as tame
as dogs, and every night yelled fiimiliarly through the village. In
this region the Olive and the Vine throve with luxuriance and
teemed with fruit; the Prickly Pears {Cactus) became small trees,
and the rare blooming Aloe {Agave Americana) appeared consigned
without care to the hedgerow of the garden.

After a perilous passage around Cape Horn, the dreary extremity
of South America, amid mountains of ice which opposed our pro-
gress in unusual array, we arrived again at the shores of the At-
lantic. Once more I hailed those delightful scenes of nature with
which I had been so long associated. I rambled again through the
shade of the Atlantic forests, or culled some rare productions of Flora
in their native wilds. But the " oft-told tale" approaches to its close,
and I must now bid a long adieu to the "New World," its sylvan
scenes, its mountains, wilds, and plains; and henceforth, in the
evening of my career, I return, almost an exile, to the land of my
nativity.



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST.



PAOI



Western Oak Quercus Oarryana 14

Holly-Leaved Oak Quercus agrifolia 16

Rocky Mountain Oak Quercus unduhta 19

Douglas Oak Quercus Douglasii 20

Dense-Flowered Oak Quercus densiflora 21

Leas Oak Quercus Leana 25

Dwarf Chestnut ...Casianea alnifolia 36

Western Birch..... Beiula Occidenialis 40

Oval-Leaved Birch Beiula rhombifolia 41

Oregon Alder .Alnus Oregona ...^ 44

Thin-Leaved Alder.... Alrms tenuifolia 48

Sea-Side Alder Alnus maritima ., 50

Opaque-Leaved Elm Ulmus opaca 51

Thomas's Elm Ulmus racemosa 53

Small-Fruited Hickory Carya mierocarpa 55

Inodorous Candle Tree Myrka inodora 59

California Buttonwood Platanus racemosa 63

Narrow-Leaved Balsam Poplar Populus angusiifoUa 68

Long-Leaved Willow.., Salix speciosa 74

Long-Leaved Bay Willow.... Salix peTitandra 77

Western Yellow Willow Salix lutea .• 78

Silver-Leaved Willow •. Salix argophyUa .^., 87

Dusky Willow Salix melanopsis 93

Califomia Bay Tree Drimophyllum paiunflorum ...102

Large-Leaved Linden TUia heterophylla 107

American Mangle Rhizophora AmericaTUi 112

Florida Guava ....Psidium buxifolium 115

11



Digitized by



Google



12 CONTENTS.

PAGE

Forked Calyptranthes Calypiranthes ihytracuUa 117

Small-Leaved Eugenia *. Eugenia dichotoma ^ 120

Tall Eugenia Uugmia procerav .., 122

Box-Leaved Eugenia Eugenia buxifolia 123

Indian Almond TerminalioL caiappa 125

Button Tree Omocarpus erecta 128

White Mangrove., Lagurundaria racemosa 132

Rabbit Berry ^ Shepherdia argentea 134

Mountain Plum JTimenia Americana 138

Osage Orange .....Madura aurantiaca 140

Small-Leaved Nettle Tree Celtis reticulata .147

Long-Leaved Nettle Tree ...Celtis longifolia ...148

Cherry Fig Tree.. Ficus pedunculata 151

Short-Leaved Fig Tree Ficics brevifolia.. 153

Small-Fruited Fig Tree Ficus aurea 154

Red Thorn : .Oratcegus sanguinea 157

Lance-Leaved Hawthorn Oratcegus arborescens 160

Soft-Leaved Cherry Cerasus mollis 164

Holly-Leaved Cherry Cerasus Uidfolia 165

Wild Plum.... Prunus Americana 169

River Crab Apple Pyrus rivularis 172

American Mountain Ash Pyrus Americana 175

Feather Bush Cercocarpu^ ledifolius.. 178

Jamaica Dogwood Piscidia erytkrina 180

Broad-Podded Acacia Acacia laiisiUqua 183

Blunt-Leaved Liga Inga unguis-cati. 186

Guadaloupe Inga ^ Inga Guadalupenis 188

Jamaica Boxwood .••..... Scficeffera buxifolia 190

Tree Ceanothus , Ceanothus thyrsiflorus.... 198

Snake-Wood Colubrina Americana 195

Carolina Buckthorn.. ^.Rhamnus CaroUnianus ...198

Manchineel Hippomane mandneUa 202



Digitized by



Google



THE



NORTH AMERICAN



SYLYA.



OAKS.

Naiural OrdeVy Cupulifer^. lAnncean Glasdficationy Monoecia,

POLTANDRIA.
QUERCU8. (TOURNBFORT.)

MoN(ECious. Male flowers in loose catkins or racemes. Ccdyx ptiono-
phyllous, more or less deeply 5-cleft. Stamens^ five to ten with
sliort filaments, the anthers oval and 2-celled.

Fbmalb flower solitary, with a cup-shaped, undivided, hemispherical
involucrum formed of agglutinated imbricate scales, sometimes
free at the summit. Perianth minute, superior. Ovary terminated
by two to three stigmas, 8-celled, with two ovules. Nvi or glcmd
ovate-cylindric, coriaceous, and i^ooth, 1-celled; albumen none,
germ erect, with thick and fleshy cotyledons.

Trees or shrubs, principally of temperate regions. Leaves alter-
nate, stipulate, simple. Flowers green and inconspicuous, appearing
before the complete expansion of the leaves. Nearly allied to the

Chestnuts, {Castanea.)

18



Digitized by



Google



WESTERN OAK.

QuERCUS Garryana> (Dougl. Mas.) Foliis petiolaiisj obovaiiSy utrinque
obiusis sinuatis subtits pubesceniibus^ adidtia sitbglabriSy hbis obtusis sub-
cequalibus superioribus subbilobis, fructibus sessUibus, cupula subhcmi-
sphoerica dense squamosa^ squamis acuminaiis pubescentibus, glande ovata.

QuBRCUS Garryana, Hooker, Flor. Bor. Amer., vol.. li. p. 159.

In our western tour across the continent, no feature of the
landscape appeared more remarkable, after passing the Mis-
sissippi to the wide alluvial borders of the Platte, than the
almost total absence of our most characteristic forest trees, the
Oaks. When at length we approached the Rocky Mountains,
or Northern Andes, we looked in vain for any species of this
important genus ; and, as far as the eye could trace, we com-
monly saw nothing but a dark, unbroken mass of gigantic Firs
and Pines. It was not till we had nearly reached the shores
of the Pacific, that we again beheld any of the familiar features
of the Atlantic forest. At the confluence of the Columbia and
the Wahlamet we pitched our tents and moored our vessel,
whict had passed Cape Horn, beneath the spreading shade of
majestic Oaks. With the first appearance of extended alluvial
plains, immediately bel6w the singular falls of the Oregon,
called the Dalles, or Dykes, we observed, for the first time, this
Western Oak loaded with its fruit.

The strong resemblance of the leaf of this species to that
of the Post. Oak {Quercua atellata) is almost a libel upon our
gigantic plant, which may well rank among the largest of its
species. It attains the height of ninety or one hundred feet,
if not more, with a diameter of from three to six feet; indeed,
an^idst a forest the most remarkable in the world for its ex-
treme elevation, our Oak still bore a strict comparison with the
14



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



PI. I.




Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



WESTERN OAK. 15

rest. Its character, in nearly all respects, equals the famous
Oak of Northern Europe, {Q. peduncdlata ;) its lofty summit
and enormous branches spread out far and wide, aflFording the
most perfect shade ; and, as a picturesque tree, it is much the
most striking in the Western landscape. As an object of
economy, we found it of the last importance, useful timber


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online LibraryJohn Jay Smith François André MichauxThe North American sylva: or, a description of the forest trees of ..., Volume 4 → online text (page 1 of 14)