war at his entrance into the Dead river, and he with his whole party, cor
sisting of three companies, returned back 5 this first caused our distress, a.
chief of our provision was in the rear under his care. From the last Eng
lish inhabitants in the province of Maine, to the Canadian settlements, we
were thirty-two days marching, and never saw any human being but those
of our party, neither do I think it was ever passed, except by Indians and
wild beasts. We were at least one month too late for this northern cli
mate, as we suffered much from rains, cold, snow, etc., but our joy upon
our arrival among the Canadians is inexpressible, and their kindness and
hospitality soon made amends for all our fatigue, though I am sensible it
will never be forgotten. From the first inhabitants up Chaudiere river, to
Quebec, is called ninety miles. We were not permitted to tarry at any
place, but marched on as fast as our strength would permit to Point Levi,
which is on the river St. Lawrence directly opposite to Quebec, where we
found a number of armed vessels, from whom we were frequently compli
mented with salutes of their cannon.
" The country we last passed through was very thick settled, though
every where you see marks of oppression. The people are poor and illiterate
and appear to have no other end in view than keeping their souls and bodies
together, and preparing for the next world, being exceedingly devout. We
tarried at Point Levi near a week, during which time we were busy in pre
paring to cross the river, being obliged to purchase birch canoes twenty
miles distant and carry them by land, the regulars at Quebec having burnt
all near them as soon as they heard of our coming. The men of war lay
in such a manner as they supposed would prevent our attempt, but on
Monday the i 3th inst., every thing was ready for our embarkation, and at
nine o clock in the evening, being very dark, the first division set off, and
we passed between the Hunter of fourteen guns and Quebec, and landed
safely at Point de Pezo. The boats were immediately sent back and con
tinued passing till near daybreak, while the men on this side marched up
the hill, at the same place the immortal Wolfe formerly did, and imme
diately formed. The place we marched up is called Wolfe s Cove, and
were you to see the hill, you would think it morally impossible for any
thing mortal to get heavy artillery up it. I forgot to inform you that
Wolfe had intrenched himself very strongly at Point Levi, the remains of
which are very evident, though defaced and much filled up. Near day
break the guard boat belonging to the man of war was passing from the
Hunter to the Lizard, a frigate of twenty-eight guns, at the time some of
our boats were crossing, which made us uneasy, and as the guard boat came
near the shore we hailed her, and then fired upon her, and could distinctly
hear them cry out they were wounded ; they pushed off, and the whole
garrison was immediately alarmed. After waiting some little time till all
our men were over (except a guard stationed at Point Levi), we marched
across the plains of Abraham, and at daybreak took possession of some
houses, one mile and an half from Quebec ; after fixing a strong guard we
retired, but were alarmed by their seizing one of our sentinels, whom they
carried off. Our army was immediately marched off towards the walls.
They fired some heavy shot at us, but without any execution ; and our men
as usual at Cambridge, picked up a number of them, gave them three
hearty cheers and retired to their quarters. On Tuesday they made an
attempt for a second sentinel, but were unsuccessful. Our little army im
mediately turned out, and we took possession of a nunnery in the suburbs
within point blank shot, and fixed a strong guard there; they kept up a
pretty heavy fire, but fortunately no person received the least injury. We
had now in a great measure cut off all communications between the city
and country, and I believe they began to feel we were not the most agreea
ble neighbors. On Wednesday we had two alarms and expected they would
have turned out and ventured a battle, but it vanished with the roaring of
their cannon. On Thursday evening, as a party were crossing St. Charles
river (for Quebec stands on a point between St. Lawrence and St. Charles),
one of our men, a Pennsylvanian, and a noble soldier was wounded by a
cannon ball in the leg, which was cut off as soon as possible, but he had lost
so much blood before the doctor could see him that he expired next morning.
We buried him on the plains of Abraham. A noble grave for a soldier,
and which his past conduct, since he has been in this department, really
merited. Little or nothing material passed on Saturday. On Sunday
evening, about seven o clock, every man received orders to parade at Head
Quarters at three o clock in the morning, with his pack on his back. The
boats were dispatched across the river and our guard brought from Point
Levi. At the appointed hour we assembled and received orders to retreat.
We set off, and in our march passed three different armed vessels, and as
the road is on the shore we expected at least a broadside, ut they passed
us in peace, and upon their arrival at Quebec, we heard the discharge of a
number of cannon, from which we concluded Carleton was on board one
of them, or that twas for joy of our raising the seige. We marched eight
leagues that day, and the colonel found it absolutely necessary to halt here,
till he could provide the men with shoes or moccasins, many of them being
almost barefoot ; it was the first time I ever wore moccasins on a march,
and I assure you from the roughness of the road (it being very hard) I could
not, in my opinion, if my life had depended upon it, have marched ten miles
next day. It has ever been our fortune from first marching from Cambridge,
whenever we were much depressed, fatigued, etc., to hear some agreeable news
that would immediately invigorate us, and enable us to proceed with tolera
ble cheerfulness. At this place we heard the agreeable news of Montreal
being in our possession, that Governor Carleton made his escape in a birch
canoe, and that he was actually in the ship that passed by here yesterday.
In short everything once more seems to conspire in our favor. Gen t
Montgomery is on his march for Quebec, and we halt here till he comes
up, when we shall return to Quebec again, though whether it will be in our
possession this winter or not is uncertain. We hear they are driving in all
the cattle, etc., which will enable them to stand a long seige. In this
part of the world tis time for men to think of winter quarters rather than
attacking fortified towns ; however we are Americans and American soldiers*
I have not an objection to visiting the plains of Abraham once more, and
tis probable shall have good quarters even in Quebec ; at any rate I go with
pleasure and sincerely believe every man in our army would rather return
and is only sorry that our situation rendered it impossible for us to stay
longer before Quebec. Our commander is a gentleman worthy the trust
reposed in him 5 a man, I believe, of invincible courage ; a man of great
prudence ; ever serene ; he defies the greatest danger to affect him, or diffi
culties to alter his temper 5 in fine you will ever see him the intrepid hero,
and the unruffled Christian.
" Thus have I endeavored to give you a short sketch of our past and
present situation 5 I could wish my abilities could have placed it in a more
correct light before you j in my present abode it was entirely out of my
power, and it was not a little time before I could procure even thus much
paper, which is the leaf of a book, a gentleman had for his journal. In
better times expect better fare. Quebec, as I mentioned, stands upon a
point, between St. Lawrence and St. Charles rivers, the latter not navigable,
except for ferry boats, it consists of the upper and lower town, the latter is
immediately on the point or water s edge, and consists of a large number of
1 86 Appendix.
houses built thick 5 the upper town is upon the hill, which is prodigiously
high 5 the town is surrounded on the country part by a wall, from twenty-
five to thirty feet high ; there are, I think, three gates (though I am not
certain), St. John s, Port Lewis, and St. Roque s. On each side the river
St. Lawrence, from Quebec to Point aux Tremble (cur present camp), the
hills, or rather banks, are very high, not much less in general than fifty
felt 5 many places close upon the river; in some places there is a rich piece,
of level meadow, perhaps the distance of half a mile from the bank to the
river. The whole from here to Quebec, is thickly inhabited, which I am
informed is the case to Montreal. The houses are many of them genteel,
rather than otherwise, though in general the inhabitants live very low, and
in their dress, manners, stoves, etc., exactly resemble our Germans. Since
I left Newbury Port till our march last Sunday, I do not recollect that I
have seen an oak tree 5 I venture to say I have not. In the province of
Maine, such part as we came through and Canada, has abounded chiefly
with evergreens, such as fir, hemlock, spruce, cedar, pine, birch, maple, etc.;
last Sunday I was happy in seeing a few oaks and an apple orchard. The
inhabitants few or none speak English. How long we may stay here is
uncertain till our reinforcement arrives, tis probable, unless they should
venture to attack us from Quebec. Be it as it will I am content, and can
remove from place to place with as much resignation as almost any one,
having been taught by this campaign to consider no place as my home for
more than an hour or a day."
Extract of a letter from a volunteer ivitb Col. Arnold to his friend in this
city, dated Point aux Tremble, 21 miles from Quebec, November 21, 1775.
" We arrived before Quebec the I5th inst., after a severe march of about
600 miles ; when we left Cambridge we were eleven hundred strong ; about
halfway Colonel Enos got frightened, and with three companies, and the
sick, which together was about one-half of our number, and the greatest
part of the provision, turned back ! May shame and guilt go with him,
and wherever he seeks a shelter may the hand of justice shut the door against
him ; perhaps I have said too much, but a man that has suffered by him,
can hardly refrain speaking. We were about two months on our march,
thirty-two days of which we did not see a house, and at short allowance,
six days of which we were at half a pound of pork and half a pound of
flour per man a day, after which for four days we had only half a pound of
flour per day, our pork being gone; two days of which we lost ourselves,
marched forty miles, and were but ten miles on our way; our whole stores
was then divided, and it was about four pints of flour per man ; a small
allowance for men near one hundred miles from any habitation, or prospect
of a supply. After having traveled fifty or sixty miles on this scanty allow
ance we came to a river, which we were told was only eight miles from
the inhabited parts, here I sat down, baked and eat my last morsel of bread;
but, think what was my distress, when I found, after crossing the river,
that I had thirty miles to travel before I could expect the least mouthful ;
however my dread was soon removed by the return of Col. Arnold, who,
with a small party had made a forced march, and returned to us with some
cattle he had purchased of the inhabitants ; on these we made a voracious
meal, and renewed our march with new courage to Point Levi from
thence we were transported in birch canoes to the plains of Abraham, and
from thence retreated to this place to wait for Gen. Montgomery, who, we
are told, by express this day, will be with us soon."
Extract of a Letter from Point aux Tremble, dated Dec. I, 1775-
" An incessant hurry of business since my arrival in Canada, has deprived
me of the pleasure of writing before. This serves to give you a short sketch
-of our tour, the fatigue and hazard of which is beyond description ; a future
day may possibly present you with the particulars. The I5th Sept. left
Cambridge, same night arrived at Newburyport iSth embarked and sailed}
1 9th thick weather and a gale of wind, which divided the fleet ; 2Oth ar
rived in Kennebec river, 2ist reached Fort Western ; 2,th to 29th one
division marched off each day, with forty-five days provisions; from 2gth
to the 8th Oct. the whole detachment were daily up to their waists in
water, hauling up the batteaux against the rapid stream, to Norridgewock,
fifty miles from Fort Western; from the gth to the i6th not a minute
was lost in gaining the Dead river about fifty miles ; from i6th to 27th we
ascended to Lake Me;antic or Chaudiere pond, distance eighty-three miles;
28th Col. Arnold embarked with seventeen men in five bateaux, being
resolved to proceed on to the French inhabitants, and send back provisions
to the detachment, who are near out, and must inevitably suffer without a
supply ; at ten we passed over the lake thirteen miles long and entered the
Chaudiere river, which we descended about ten m>les in two hours, amazingly
rocky, rapid and dangerouo, when we had the misfortune of oversetting and
staving three bateaux and lost all their baggage, provisions, etc., and with
difficulty saved the men This disaster, though unfortunate at first view
we must think a very happy circumstance to the whole, and kind interposition
of providence, for had we proceeded half a mile further, we must have gone
over a prodigious fall which we were not apprised of, and all inevitably
perished ; here we divided the little provisions left, and Col. Arnold pro
ceeded on with two bateaux and five men with all possible expedition, and
on the 3Oth at night, he arrived at the first inhabitants, upwards of eighty
miles from the lake, where he was kindly received, and the next morning
early sent off a supply of fresh provisions to the rear detachment by the
Canadians and savages, about forty of the latter having joined us ; by the
8th the whole arrived except two or three left behind sick ; the loth we
reached Point Levi, seventy-five miles from Sartigan (the first inhabitants),
waited until the I3th for the rear to c:me up and employed the carpenters
in making ladders and collecting canoes, those on Point Levi being all
destroyed to prevent our crossing ; having collected about thirty we em
barked at nine p. M. and at four A. M. carried over at several times five
hundred men without being discovered. Thus in about eight weeks we
completed a march of near six hundred miles not to be paralleled in history ;
the men having with the greatest fortitude and perseverance hauled their
bateaux up rapid streams, being obliged to wade almost the whole way, near
one hundred and eighty miles, carried them on their shoulders near forty miles
over hills, swamps and bogs almost impenetrable, and to their knees in mire,
being often obliged to cross three or four times with their baggage. Short
of provisions, part of the detachment disheartened and gone back; famine
staring us in the face and an enemy s country, and uncertainty ahead j not
withstanding all these obstacles the officers and men inspired and fired with
the love of liberty and their country, pushed on with a fortitude superior
to every obstacle. Most of them had not one day s provision for a week.
Thus I have given you a short, but imperfect sketch of our march. The
night we crossed the St. Lawrence, found it impossible to get our ladders over,
and the enemy being apprised of our coming we found it impracticable to
attack them without too great a risk ; we therefore invested the town and
cutofftheir communication with the country. We continued in this situation
until the 2,oth, having often attempted to draw out the garrison in vain ;
on a strict scrutiny into our ammunition found many of our cartridges (which
to appearance were good) unserviceable, and not ten rounds apiece for the
men who were almost naked, barefooted and much fatigued, and as the
garrison was daily increasing and near double our number, we thought it
prudent to retire to this place and wait the arrival of General Montgomery
with artillery, clothing, ere., who to our great joy this morning joined us.
We propose immediately investing the town, and make no doubt in a few
days to bring Carleton to terms."
Camp before Quebec, near the General Hospital, Dec. 6.
"I wrote you the zist ult. which I make no doubt you have received.
I then gave you some particulars of our march, proceedings, etc., since
which Gen. Montgomery has joined us with artillery, and about 3000
men ; and yesterday we arrived here from Point aux Tremble, and are
making preparation to attack the enemy, who are in close garrison, but
cannot hold out long, as from the best account they are very much divided
amongst themselves, and a prodigious panic has seized them all. Carleton,
we are told, is determined to hold out to the very last, as his only hope, for
he can expect nothing but punishment from the ministry, whom he has
most egregiously deceived, in regard to the inhabitants of this country. All
his friends, or rather his courtiers, say, he could not have taken more ef
fectual measures than he has, to ruin the country.
"The 22,d ult. he issued a most extraordinary proclamation, strictly order
ing all who refuse to take up arms and defend the garrison, to depart the
town and district within four days, with their wives and children, under
pain of being treated as rebels or spies. In consequence of which a great
number of the principal inhabitants came out with their families, but were
obliged to leave all their property behind, except some wearing apparel, and
a little household furniture, etc. I inclose you a copy of the proclamation.
Among the corps who came with Gen. Montgomery, is your worthy friend
Captain Lamb, whom I had the pleasure of seeing a few days ago at Point
aux Tremble. Our men are in high spirits, being now well clothed with
the regimentals destined for the yth and a6th regiments, who were taken
prisoners at St. John s. This is a circumstance which, I believe, the
like never before happened to British troops, as two regiments of them to
be made prisoners at one time. Providence smiles on us in a most remark
able manner. The Canadians say, Surely God is with his people, or they
could never have done what they have done. They are all astonished at
our march through the wilderness which they say was impossible, and
would not believe our coming, until they had ocular demonstration of it.
We are at a great loss for intelligence from the army at Cambridge and
other quarters, having had no certain accounts of their movements, nor
the least syllable of news since we left Newbury. I am astonished a
regular communication has not been opened between Montreal and the
colonies, hope you will pay a little attention publicly to it, more especially
as there are some scoundrels who, with impunity, open the letters directed
to the officers in our army, and I suppose they continue the like infamous
practice with the letters which are sent to our friends and acquaintance.
The genera] is now absent sending oft" an express, by whom I send this. I
hope the next time I write you, it will be from Quebec, for if the insulting
foe does not surrender shortly, I believe it is the general s intention to carry
the town by storm."
ROLL OF CAPT. MATTHEW SMITH S COMPANY.
On leaving Paxtang this company mustered eighty-seven (Sy) men. Of
this number notwithstanding our researches the names of only fifty-one (51)
can be ascertained with certainty. No papers of Smith, Steel, Simpson or
Cross, are known to exist. Of Capt. Hendricks s company raised near the
same locality, on the west side of the Susquehanna, scarcely a dozen names
have been rescued from oblivion. Both companies were of the flower of
the country, brave, ardent and patriotic and nowise daunted by the
sufferings of the Arnold campaign of those who returned nearly all
returned to the service :
Matthew Smith, Paxtang.
Archibald Steel, Donegal.
Michael Simpson, Paxtang, commanded in the assault.
William Cross, Hanover
Boyd, Thomas, Derry, subsequently Capt.-Lieut, 1st Pa.
Cunningham, Robert, Londonderry, d. at Lancaster, of disease contracted
in prison, soon after.
Dixon, Robert, killed in front of Quebec, Nov. 17, 1775. Belonged to
Ayres, John, Upper Paxtang.
Binnagle, Curtis, Londonderry.
Bollinger, Emanuel, Paxtang.
Black, James, Hanover.
Black, John, Upper Paxtang.
1 90 Appendix.
Cavenaugh, Edward, resided in York county, subsequently, " Honest
Ned " of Judge Henry.
Carbach, Peter, Paxtang. After return enlisted in Capt. John Paul
Schott s Co., March 12, 1777. Discharged at Lancaster, in 1783. Re
sided in Dearborn Co., Ind., in 1830.
Connor, Timothy, Bethel.
Crouch, James, Paxtang 5 afterwards a colonel.
Cochran, Samuel, Paxtang 5 afterwards captain of the militia, 1781.
Crow, Henry, died in Derry.
Dougherty, James, Londonderry, captured at Quebec and put in irons
eight weeks. Subsequently enlisted I2th Pa.
Dixon, Richard, Dixon s Ford.
Dean, Samuel, served one year, then appointed Lieut, in Col. Harts
regiment, Flying camp. Subsequently 1st Lieut, nth Pa.
Egle, Adam, Lebanon; wagon-master at Cambridge, Col. Thompson s
Elder, John, Paxtang.
Feely, Timothy, Dixon s Ford.
Griffith, John, Harris s Ferry.
Harris, David, Harris s Ferry; subsequently Capt. Pa. Line.
Harris, John, Harris s Ferry ; killed at Quebec.
Henry, John Joseph, Lancaster.
Kennedy, John, Hanover.
Marshall, Laurence, Hanover.
M Granagan, Charles, Londonderry.
Merchant, George, Donegal.
M Enally, Henry, Londonderry.
M Konkey, John, Hanover.
Mellen, Atchison, Paxtang; resided in Lycoming county in 1813.
Nelson [Nilson], Alexander, Derry; killed in front of Quebec, Jan.
Old, James, Derry.
Porterfield, Charles, Hanover.
Ryan, John, Derry.
Simpson, William, Paxtang; wounded August 27, 1775; brother of
Sparrow, William, Derry.
Shaeffer, John (drummer) ; resided in Lancaster in 1809.
Smith, Samuel, Paxtang.
Taylor, Henry, Paxtang; captured Dec. 31, 1773, returned Nov. 10,1776.
Todd [Tidd] John, Hanover.
Teeder, Michael, Hanover; subsequently enlisted 5th Pa.
Warner, James ; died in the wilderness near Chaudiere lake. Henry,
Waun, Michael, Derry ; died at the crossing of the Chaudiere.
Weaver, Martin, Upper Paxtang.
Weirick, Valentine, Hanover; resided in Dauphin Co., 1813.
Wheeler, [uncertain] from Paxtang. Letter from Dr. W. H.
Abraham, plains of, 82, 184, 187.
Acorns as food, ai.
Advance party, 13.
Age of Reason, 120.
Agry s point, 13.
Alcibiades fought in the ranks, 119.
Allen, Ethan, voyage to England,
American Archives, a.
Ammeguntick pond, 2.
Ammunition bad and scanty, 188 j
economy of, 51.
Amwell, historian, 86.
Anderson, John F., letter from, 49.
Arms of the forces, II
Army, pioneers return to, 46 5 re
treat of, 165.
Arnold characterized, 12 ; heads
forlorn hope, 107 5 wounded,
109 ; his vanity before Quebec,
85, 86 5 letter from, 133; re
turn of, 1865 to penetrate into
Canada, i ; instructions to, 2.
Arnold s falls, 35.
Arrow and spear heads, place of
Aston, Joseph, 1175 major, 146,
Atlee, Col. Samuel, 122.
Ayres, capt., pioneer, 49.
Ayres, John, 189.
Baily, John, col., 63.
Baldwin, Loammi, col., 63.
Balsam fir, 25, 26.
Bateaux lost, 1875 relics of found,
495 repaired, 19 ; taken, 135
account of, 13.
Bears not seen, 45.
Beaver tails for food, 21.
Biddle, Owen, 182.
Bigelow, major, 68, 60.
Bingham purchase, 22.
Binnagle, Curtis, 189.
Black, James, 189 ; John, 189.
Blair, John, escape of, 177.
Bleary, its consistence defined, 65
Block house, i 30.
Boats lost in the Chaudiere, 68 j re
moved from Point Levi, 81.
Fog meadows, 24, 25.
Bollinger, Emanuel, 189.
Bombazee tails, 85.
Bonnet rouge, 103.
Boyd, Thomas, 14, 24, 37, 40, 45
46, 128, 147, 164, 175, 189;
his fate, 1 16, 117.
Braddocke s expedition, iv.
Brewer, J. col., 60.
Bridge, col., 60.
Brown, It. col., 60.
Buckmaster, lieut., testimony of, 61.
Bunker s hill, 47.
Burr, Aaron, soldier in the army, 7a.
Cadaracgua, or St. Lawrence, 176.
Caldwell, lt.gov., his house, 83,86.