John Kirk Townsend.

Narrative of a journey across the Rocky Mountains, to the Columbia River, and a visit to the Sandwich Islands, Chili, &c.; with a scientific appendix online

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330 APPENDIX.

lines in length, whilst that of the former is only nine ; thus the
smallest animal has the largest flying membrane. The fur of
P. sabrimis is much the longest. The fur on the belly of the
latter is white, whilst that of oregonensis has an ochreous tinge.
The hairs on the tail of P. sabrimis are only slightly tinged with
lead color at the roots, whilst in oregonensis it extends to half
the length of the hairs. The greater length and less breadth,
however, of the ear of the latter, is a sufficient mark of distinc-
tion.

From our little Pteromys volucella, the difference is so great,
that it is unnecessary to institute a particular comparison. Be-
sides being much larger than our little species, and not possess-
ing the beautiful downy-white on the belly, the two spe-
cies may be instantly detected, in the volucella having its hairs
white to the roots, which is not the case in the other species.

Dimensions.
Length from point of nose to root of tail,

" tail to point of fur,
Height of ear posteriorly,
Breadth between the outer edges of the flying

membrane, .....

Longest hind toe, including nail, .
Longest fore toe, including nail.
From heel to point of nail,

" nose to ear, .....

This species inhabits the pine woods of the Cohu-nbia, near
the sea ; very rare. Habits of the P. volucella. — Towns, in lit.

Townsend's Gopuer.

Geomys *Tovmsendii, {Ricliardsoii' s manuscripts,) Journal
Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 8, Part I.

General color very pale gray above, with a faint yellowish
wash ; muzzle dusky-gray ; under parts grayish-white ; chin
pure white. Tail and feet white ; the former grayish above. Hairs
of the back very pale gray at the base, pale yellow at the apex,
the extreme tip cinereous. Teeth yellowish-white. Upper inci-
sors with a faint groove near the internal margin. Claws and
fore feet moderate, white.



6 inches


, 8 lines-


6 "


"





7 »


8 "


"





H "





H "


1 "


6i "


1 "


6 ""



APPENDIX. 331

Dimensions.



7 inches, 6 lines.
2 " 9 "



1 " 3i "

5 "

1 " 5 "



From nose to tail,

X d.ll, • • • •

Tarsus, ....

Central claw of fore foot,

From nose to ear.
The specimen was procured by Mr. Townsend on the Colum-
bia river.

I am obliged to confess that I should not have ventured to pub-
lish this species as distinct from G. borealis, on my own respon-
sibility. The discriminating eye of Dr. Richardson, however,
who has studied this genus more carefully than I have had an
opportunity of doing, may have detected marks of difference
which I have not been able to discover. — Bach.



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS,

POUND IN THE TERRITORY OF THE OP.EGON.

(Xj' The new species are designated by an * preceding the vulgar name.

Californian Vulture, Cathartes calif ornianiis.

Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture, Cathartes aura.

Golden Eagle, Falco chrysaetos.

White-headed, or Bald Eagle, Falco Icitcocephalus.

Fish Hawk, Falco halicetus.

Sparrow Hawk, Falco sparverius.

Pigeon Hawk, Falco columharius.

Merlin, Falco (ssalon.

Great-footed, or Duck Hawk, Falco peregrinvs.

Sharp-shinned Hawk, Falco velox.

Hen Harrier, or Marsh Hawk, Falco cyaneus.

Cooper's Hawk, Falco Cooperii.

Red-tailed Hawk, Falco borealis.

Black Hawk, Falco sancti-joliannes.

Rough-legged Hawk, or Falcon, Falco lagopus.

Common Hawk, or Buzzard, Falco {huteo) vulgaris.



332



APPENDIX.



Winter Hawk, or Falcon, Falco hyemalis.

Great Cinereous Owl, Strix cinerea.

Great-horned Owl, Strix virginiana.

Red Owl, Strix asio.

Mottled Owl, Strix nosvia.

Long-eared Owl, Strix otus.

Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyottis. ,

Little Owl, Strix acadica.

Tengmalm's Owl, Strix Tengmalmi.

Burrowing Owl, Strix cunicidaria.

Passerine Owl, Strix passerinoides.

Meadow Lark, or Starling, Sturnus ludomcianus.

Red-winged Starling, or Oriole, Icterus iihceniceus.

Bullock's Oriole, Icterus Bullocki.

Rusty Blackbird, or Grakle, Qidscalus ferruginet/s.

Raven, Corvus corax.

Common Crow, Corvus corone.

Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus.

Magpie, Corvus pica.

Clark's Crow, Corvus columbianus.

Steller's Jay, Garrulus Stelleri.

Ultramarine Jay, Garrulus ultramarinus.

Canada Jay, Garridus canadensis.

Black-capt Titmouse, Parus atricapillus.
*Chestnut backed Titmouse, Parus rufescens, (Townsend.)
*Brown-headed Titmouse, Parus minimus, (Townsend.)

Cedar Bird, or Cherry Bird, Bombycilla carolinensis.

Great American Shrike, Lanius septentrionalis.

Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus.

Tyrant Flycatcher, or King Bird, Muscicapa tyranmoi.

Cooper's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Cooperi.

Pewit Flycatcher, Muscicapa fusca.

Wood Pewee Flycatcher, Muscicapa virens.

Small Green-crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa acadica.

Traill's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Trailli.

Little Flycatcher, Muscicapa pusilla, (Swainson.)

Arkansas Flycatcher, Muscicapa verticalis.

Say's Flycntcher, Muscicapa Saya.

Yellow-breasted Chat, Icttria viridis.



APPENDIX. 333

Solitary Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo solitarius.

VVarbling Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo gilcvs.

White-eyed Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo noveboracensis.
^Mountain Mocking Bird, Orpheus montanus, (Townsend.)

American Robin, Turdvs migratorius.

Varying Thrush, Tardus natma.

Hermit Thnash, Tardus minor.

Wilson's Tawny Thrush, Tardus Wilsonii.

Golden-crowned Thrush, Tardus aurocapillus.
* White tailed Thrush, (not in the collection.)
*Townsend's Thrush, Ptiliogonys Townsendi, (Audubon.)
*Morton's Water Ouzel, Cinclus Mortoni, (Townsend.)
^Columbian Water Ouzel, Cinclus Townsendi, (Audubon.)

Blue-eyed Yellow Warbler, Sylvia cestiva.

Maryland Yellow-throat, Sylvia trichas.
*Tolmie's Warbler, Sylvia Tolmei, (Townsend.)

Cserulean Warbler, Sylvia azurea.

Wilson's Green-black Capt Warbler, Sylvia Wilsoiii.

Orange-crowned Warbler, Sylvia celata.
*Hermit Warbler, Sylvia occidentalis, (Townsend.)
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, Sylvia nigrescens, (Townsend.)
^Audubon's Warbler, Sylvia Audahoni, (Townsend.)
*Townsend's Warbler, Sylvia Townsendi, (Nuttall.)
*Ash-headed Warbler, Sylvip, {not described.)

Ruby-crowned Wren, Regidus calendula.

Golden-crested Wren, Regulus cristatas.

Common Wren, Troglodytes cedon.

Winter Wren, Troglodytes hyernalis.

Bewick's Wren, Troglodytes Beicicki.

Rocky-mountain Wren, Troglodytes obsoleta.

Arctic Blue Bird, Sialia arctica.
*Western Blue Bird, Sialia occidentalis, (Townsend.)

Brown Lark, Anthus spinoletta.

Shore Lark, Alanda cornuta, (Wilson.)

Snow Bunting, Emberiza nivalis.

Louisiana Tanager, Tanagra ludoviciana.
*Brown Longspur, Plectrophanes Toivnsendi, (Audubon.)

Luzuli Finch, Fringilla amoena.

White-crowned Bunting, or Finch, Fringilla leucophrys.



332



APPENDIX.



Winter Hawk, or Falcon, Falco hyemalis.

Great Cinereous Owl, Strix cinerea.

Great-horned Owl, Strix virginiana.

Red Owl, Strix asio.

Mottled Owl, Strix nosvia.

Long-eared Owl, Strix otus.

Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyottis. ,

Little Owl, Strix acadica.

Tengmalm's Owl, Strix Tengmalmi.

Burrowing Owl, Strix ciuiicularia.

Passerine Owl, Strix passerinoides.

Meadow Lark, or Starling, Sturnus ludovicianus.

Red-winged Starling, or Oriole, Icterus j^hoeniceus.

Bullock's Oriole, Icterus Bullocki.

Rusty Blackbird, or Grakle, Quiscalus ferrugineus.

Raven, Corvus corax.

Common Crow, Corvus corone.

Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus.

Magpie, Corvus pica.

Clark's Crow, Corvus columhianus.

Steller's Jay, Garrxdus Stelleri.

Ultramarine Jay, Garrulus ultramarinus.

Canada Jay, Garrulus canadensis.

Black-capt Titmouse, Parus atricapillus.
*Chestnut backed Titmouse, Parus ?'ufescens, (Townsend.)
*Brown-headed Titmouse, Parus minimus, (Townsend.)

Cedar Bird, or Cherry Bird, Bombycilla carolinensis.

Great American Shrike, Lanius scptentrionalis.

Logijerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus.

Tyrant Flycatcher, or King Bird, Muscicapa tyrannus.

Cooper's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Cooperi.

Pewit Flycatcher, Muscicapa fusca.

Wood Pewee Flycatcher, Muscicapa virens.

Small Green-crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa acadica.

Traill's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Trailli.

Little Flycatcher, Muscicapa pusilla, (Swainson.)

Arkansas Flycatcher, Muscicapa verticalis.

Say's F\ycatcher, Muscicapa Saya.

Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria viridis.



APPENDIX. 333

Solitary Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo soUtarius.

VVarbling Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo gilvvs.

White-eyed Flycatcher, or Vireo, Vireo novehoracensis.
^Mountain Mocking Bird, Orpheus montanus, (Townsknd.)

American Robin, Turdus migratorius.

Varying Thrush, Turdus ncuvia.

Hermit Thrush, Turdus minor.

Wilson's Tawny Thrush, Turdus Wilsonii.

Golden-crowned Thrush, Turdus aurocapillus.
* White tailed Thrush, {not in the collection.)
*Townsend's Thrush, Ptiliogonys Townsendi, (Audubon.)
*Morton's Water Ouzel, Cinclus Mortoni, (Townsend.)
^Columbian Water Ouzel, Cinclus Townsendi, (Audubon.)

Blue-eyed Yellow Warbler, Sylvia ozstiva.

Maryland Yellow-throat, Sylvia trichas.
*Tolmie's Warbler, Sylvia Tolmei, (Townsend.)

Cserulean Warbler, Sylvia azurea.

Wilson's Green-black Capt Warbler, Sylvia Wilsoni.

Orange-crowned Warbler, Sylvia celata.
*Hermit Warbler, Sylvia occidentalis, (Townsend.)
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, Sylvia nigrescens, (Townsend.)
^Audubon's Warbler, Sylvia Auduboni, (Townsend.)
*Townsend's Warbler, Sylvia Townsendi, (Nuttall.)
*Ash-headed Warbler, Sylvip, [not described.)

Ruby-crowned Wren, Regulus calendula.

Golden-crested Wren, Regulus cristatus.

Common Wren, Troglodytes cedon.

Winter Wren, Troglodytes hyemalis.

Bewick's Wren, Troglodytes Bctvicki.

Rocky-mountain Wren, Troglodytes obsoleta.

Arctic Blue Bird, Sialia arctica.
*Western Blue Bird, Sialia occidentalis, (Townsend.)

Brown Lark, Anthus spinoletta.

Shore Lark, Alanda cornuta, (Wilson.)

Snow Bunting, Emberiza nivalis.

Louisiana Tanager, Tanagra ludovidana.
*Brown Longspur, Flectrophanes Totvnsendi, (Audubon.)

Luzuli Finch, Fringillu amaina.

White-crowned Bunting, or Finch, Fringilla leucophrys.



336 APPENDIX.

Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps rubricollis.

Black Tern, Sterna nigra.

Glaucous Gull, Larus glaucous.

Common Gull, Larus caniis.

Ring-billed Gull, Larus zonorrhyncJms.

Wilson's Stormy Petrel, Thalassidroma Wilsonii.

Brown Albatross, Diomedea fusca.

White, or Snow Goose, Anser hyperboreus.

White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons.

Black-headed Goose, Anser canadensis.

Hutchins's Brant Goose, Anser Hutchinsii.

Bewick's Swan, Cygnus Bewickii.

Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator, (Richardson.)

Mallard Duck, Jinas boschas.

American Widgeon, Anas Americana.

Summer, or Wood Duck, A7ias sponsa.

Green- winged Teal, Anas crccca.

Shoveller Duck, Anas clypeata.

Dusky Duck, Anas obscura.

Pintail Duck, Anas acuta.

Black, or Surf Duck, Fuligula perspicillata..

Blue-bill, or Scaup Duck, Fuligula marila.

Canvass-back Duck, Fuligula valisneria.

Tufted, or Ring-necked Duck, Fuligula riijitorques.

Harlequin Duck, Fuligula histrionica.

Golden-eye Duck, Fuligula clangula.

Long-tailed Duck, Fuligula glacialis.

Goosander, Mergus merganser.

Hooded, or Crested Merganser, Mergus cucullatus.

White Pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus.

Brown Pelican, Pelecanus fuscus.

Black Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo.

*Violet-green Cormorant, Phalacrocorax splendens, (Town-
send.)

*Townsend's Cormorant, Phalacrocorax Townsendi, (Au-
dubon.)

Loon, or Great Northern Diver, Colymbus glacialis.

Black Guillemot, XJria grylle.
*Slender-billed Guillemot, Uria Townsendi. (Audubon.)



afpeivdix. 337

Chestnut-backed Tit^iouse.
Parus *riifescens, (Townsend,) Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences,
Vol. 7, part II., p. 190. Audubon's Birds of America, Vol. 4, pi.
353. Male and female. 7"w/oo(yi/«//a of the Chinook Indians.

Bill black ; head and throat sooty-brown, or dark umber ; a
white line from the bill under the eye, extending to the hind-
head, where it increases considerably in breadth ; whole back
and rump chestnut ; wings and emarginate tail dusky ; the
exterior edges of the feathers of the former, as well as the coverts,
whitish ; breast, belly and vent, grayish-white, the base of the
plumage blackish ; flanks chestnut ; legs and feet blue. Leno-th
scarcely 4^ inches ; extent of wings 6| inches. The sexes are
very nearly alike.

Inhabits the Columbia river ; common, gregarious. Voice
somewhat similar to P. atricapillus, but sharper and more
squeaking.

Brown-headed Titmouse.

Parus *minimus, (Townsend,) Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences,
Vol. 7, part II., p, 190. Audubon's Birds of America, Vol. IV, pi.
35.3. Male, female and nest. A-ha-ke-loh of the Chinook Indians.
Bill short, stout, and entirely black ; top of the head light-brown
or rust color, paler on the cheeks ; whole back and rump cine-
reous-gray ; the wings and tail cinereous-brown, the feathers of
the former edged exteriorly and interiorly with light gray ; third
and fourth primaries longest ; tail remarkably long, of twelve
rather narrow feathers ; whole lower parts gray, the belly and
flanks inclining to rust. Legs and feet blackish. Iz'ides yellow.
Whole length 4 inches ; length of tail 2 inches ; extent of wings
5 inches. The male and female are very similar in size and
markings.

I first observed this little species on the Columbia river in
May, 1835, and procured a pair. They hopped through the
bushes, and hung from the twigs in the manner of other titmice,
twittering all the time, with a rapid enunciation, resembling the
words, tsish-tsish-tsee-tsee. Upon my return, I found that Mr.
Nuttall had observed the same birds a few hours previously in
another place. He said that they frequently flew to the ground

43



338 APPENDIX.

from the bushes, where they appeared to institute a rapid search
for insects, and quickly retui'ned to the perch, emitting their
weak, querulous note the whole time without intermission. The
stomachs of these birds contained fragments of minute coleop-
terous insects, and in the ovary of the female was an egg nearly
ready for expulsion.

The nest, which Mr. N. found a few days afterwards, is a very
curious and beautiful fabric, somewhat like that of the bottle tit
of Europe, being from eight to nine inches in length, formed of
fine bent, lined with hair, and covered externally with mosses,
the hole for entrance near the top. It was suspended from a
low bush, and contained seven eggs, very small and beautifully
shaped, and pure white.

Mountain Mocking-bird.
Orpheus *montanus, (Townsend,) Journal Acad. Nat. Sci-
ences, Vol. 7, part II., p. 192. Audubon's Birds of America,
Vol. IV., pi. 369. Male.

Mandibles black, the lower flesh-color at base ; whole upper
parts dull grayish-cinereous, slightly barred transversely with
white ; flexure of the wing and axillaries whitish ; third pri-
mary longest, first and fifth nearly equal ; tail long, rounded,
of a dark cinereous color, the three lateral feathers with a lai*ge
white spot on the tip of the inner vanes ; lower parts white, with
longitudinal, oblanceolate spots of black, largest and most nu-
merous on the breast ; a line formed of small black spots extends
from the base of the lower mandible on either side, down upon
the breast; flanks, vent, and inferior tail-coverts whitish, strongly
tinged with bay. Legs and feet yellowish flesh-color. Irides
bright yellow. Length 8 inches.

Female unknown.

Inhabits the banks of the Platte river, west of the Rocky
Mountains.

Townsend's Thrush.

*Ptiliogonys *Townsendi, (Audubon.) Birds of America,
Vol. IV., pi. 419. Female.

Bill black ; whole upper parts of a dark, smoke-gray color,
inclining to yellowish ; tail somewhat emarginate, long, the fea-
thers black, except the two middle ones, which are of the same
color as the back, the outer one almost wholly white, and the



AI'l'ENDIX.



339



two next largely tipped with white ; wings blackish, the feathers
broadly margined with light grayish-cinereous; a triangular spot
of yellowish-rufous below the lesser coverts, which is scarcely
visible when the wing is closed ; lower parts nearly the same
color as the back, but lighter ; vent, and inferior tail-coverts yel-
lowish-rusty. Legs and feet blackish-brown. Irides dark hazel.
Length 7^ inches.

Of this singular bird I know nothing, but that it was shot by
my friend Captain W. Brotchie, of the Honorable Hudson's Bay
Company, in a pine forest near Fort George, (Astoria.) It was
the only specimen seen.

Morton's Water Ouzel.

Cinclus *Mortoni, (Townsend.) Audubon's Birds of Ame-
rica, Vol. IV., pi. 435. Male.

Upper mandible black; lower brownish-yellow, the point black ;
head, and neck above, dark cinereous ; back, rump and tail
plumbeous ; wings dusky, plumbeous on the edges, the two
greater coverts tipped with soiled white ; tail remarkably short ;
eyelids white ; a semi-lunated spot of white over the eye ; throat,
breast, and upper portion of the belly, grayish-fuscous, inclining
to brown, and slightly banded transversely with blackish ; abdo-
men and vent, dull grayish-plumbeous ; inferior tail-coverts, which
are nearly the length of the tail, barred transversely with gray
and blackish. Irides dark hazel. Legs and feet brownish-yel-
low. Length about 5 inches.

I have honored this species with the name of my excellent
friend, Doctor Samuel George Morton, of Philadelphia. It was
shot by Captain W. Brotchie, near Fort McLoughlin, on the
N. W. coast of America, in latitude about 49'' N. He stated
that it was common there, and inhabited, like the rest of its tribe,
the rapid fresh water streams. He procured but one specimen.

Columbian Water Ouzel.

Cinclus *Townsendi, (Audubon.) Birds of America, Vol. IV.,
pi. 435. Female.

Upper mandible black, the inferior edge bright yellow ; lower,
yellow, black at the point ; whole lower parts dark grayish-
plumbeous, rather lighter on the head ; a large lunate spot of
white over the eye, which inclines toward the front ; wings dark
plumbeous, the shoulders lighter ; the exterior vanes of the pri-



340 ArPE>'Dix.

maries, secondaries, and of some of the coverts, grayish-white ;
throat, breast, and medial portion of the belly dusky-cinereous; sides
under the wings and flanks, dusky ; the whole inferior surface of
the body is banded transversely with blackish ; the bands upon
the throat are broken, and not well defined, but as they approach
the tail they become more distinct ; lower tail-coverts with
strongly marked alternate transverse lines of blackish and white.
The tail is much longer in proportion than that of the preceding
species. Irides dark hazel. Legs and feet bright yellow. Length
about 7 inches.

This fine bird inhabits the swiftly running streams of fresh
water in the vicinity of Fort Vancouver. It is a very scarce
species, as in all my peregrinations I have met with but two in-
dividuals, only one of which I was enabled to procure.

This I observed swimming about among the rapids of the
stream, occasionally flying for short distances over the surface,
and then diving into it, and reappearing after a long interval.
Occasionally it would alight on the stones, and at such times
jerked the tail in the manner of some of the sandpipers. I did
not hear it utter any note.

Hermit Warbler.

Sylvia *occide.ntalis, (Townsend.) Journal Acad. Nat.
Sciences, Vol. 7, part IL, p. 190. Audubon's Birds of America,
Vol. IV., pi. 39.5. Male and female.

The bill is wholly black ; the frontlet, crown, and sides of the
head yellow, the former rather sparingly dotted with blackish
near the nape, where the yellow color almost disappears, by the
increase in the size of the spots ; upper parts grayish, thickly
spotted with black, and most of the feathers tinged with olive ;
the rump is somewhat lighter, having few or no spots, and more
strongly tinged with light olive ; wings cinereous, with two bands
of white ; tail darker, the three lateral feathers with white on their
inner vanes ; throat deep black ; whole' lower parts white. Legs and
feet blackish, the soles yellow. Length 5 inches. Extent 7 inches.

The female difl^ers from the male in having the yellow of the
crown and cheeks less bright, the dark spots upon the head are
larger and more numerous ; the back is of a lighter tint ; the
black centres of lTie feathers smaller, and the throat wants the
jetty black which is so conspicuous in the male.



APPENDIX. 341

I shot a single pair of these birds in a pine forest on the Co-
lumbia river, on the 28th of May, 1835. They were flitting
about among the pine trees, very actively engaged in searching
for insects, and frequently hanging from the boughs like titmice.

Black-throated Gray Warbler.

Sylvia *nigrescens, (Townsend.) Journal Acad. Nat. Sci-
ences, Vol. 7, part II, p. 191. Audubon's Birds of America,
Vol. IV, pi. 395, male.

The bill is black, and stout ; crown and hind head black, the
feathers edged with grayish-plumbeous ; a line from the lower
mandible on each side of the head, extending to the neck, white;
a similar broad white line above the cheeks, running parallel
v/ith the first, and approaching it on the neck ; a small bright
yellow spot on the lores ; upper parts grayish-plumbeous, the
back and upper tail-covei"ts with a ^ew oblanceolate spots of
black ; wings and tail dusky, the former with two white bands ;
and the three exterior feathers of the latter with white on their
inner vanes ; throat and pectoral collar black; flanks with nu-
merous spots of black ; axillaries grayish-white ; belly and vent
white, with a tinge of yellowish. Legs and feet dusky-brown.
Length nearly 5 inches. Extent of wings 7 inches.

This species is not uncommon in the forests of oak on the Co-
lumbia river. It is, however, singularly retired and seden-
tary. Its note is a rather feeble, but agreeable warble.
Sings chiefly in the morning early ; silent at mid-day. I have
reason to believe, that at least a ky^ pairs breed on the Columbia,
but I have never been so fortunate as to find the nest.

Townsend's Warbler.
Sylvia * Townsendi, (Nuttall,) Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Vol. 7, pt.
II., pagel91. Audubon's Birds of America, Vol. IV. pi. 393. Male.
The crown, lores, a broad patch through the eye to the hind-
head, and throat, deep black, the first thickly touched towards
the back part, with greenish ; back and rump greenish-
yellow, spotted all over with black, the spots somewhat
concealed b)'' the recumbent plumage ; wings dusky-cinereous,
edged with grayish lead-color, and crossed by two "ra-
ther broad bands of white ; tail emarginate, of twelve dusky
feathers, the three lateral ones, with white on their inner
vanes ; over the eye, from the bill to the hind-head, is a broad



342 APPENDIX.

line of I'ich yellow ; a similar yellow line from the lower mandi-
ble, round to the back of the neck, joining the first, and enclos-
ing the black patch ; a spot below the eye, also yellow; breast
yellow ; flanks marked with yellow, black, and white, the black
predominating ; axillaries, belly and vent, pure white ; bill and
feet black, the soles of the latter, yellow. Length 5 inches.
Extent of winors 7 inches.

I procured but one specimen of this beautiful bird, on the Co-
lumbia river, in the spring of 1835. Early in autumn of the same
year, I shot another male, in a somewhat plainer livery.

It does not breed there, and I know nothing of its habits.

Audubon's Warbler.
Sylvia *Audvboni, (Townsend.) Journal Acad. Natural
Sciences, Vol. 7, part II., p. 191. Audubon's Birds of America,
Vol. IV., pi. 395. Male and female.

Bill slender, black; upper parts light plumbeous; crown,
throat, rump, and sides under the wings, gamboge yellow ; lores,
and a broad space behind and below the eye, including the auri-
culars, black ; a white spot above and below the eye ; feathers
of the back with large, pointed spots of black, occupying the
shafts, and a portion of each vane ; wings dusky, all the feathers
edged exteriorly with grayish ; wing-coverts tipped with white,
forming a large spot below the shoulder ; upper tail-coverts light
plumbeous, largely lipped with black ; tail long, nearly even,
blackish, edged with dark gray, and every feather, except the
two middle ones, with a large spot of white on the inner vane,
near the tip ; breast and sides of the belly, black ; medial por-
tion of the latter, vent and inferior tail-coverts, white ; legs and
feet brownish-black. Irides dark hazel. Length 5 inches.

The female has the upper parts brownish, spotted and streaked
with black ; the yellow on the crown, rump, and flanks is more
restricted and fainter than in the male, and it wants the large bed


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Online LibraryJohn Kirk TownsendNarrative of a journey across the Rocky Mountains, to the Columbia River, and a visit to the Sandwich Islands, Chili, &c.; with a scientific appendix → online text (page 27 of 28)