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LIBRARY OF

WELLESLEY COLLEGE




PURCHASED FROM
Horsford Fund



WORKS



OF



JOHN KNOX.



THE WORKS



OF



JOHN KNOX



COLLECTED AND EDITED BY



DAVID LAING, LL.D.



VOLUME THIRD.



EDINBURGH:
JAMES THIN, 55 SOUTH BRIDGE.



MDCCCXCV.



Ad Scotos TRANSEUNTiBcs Primus occurrit Magnus ille JOANNES
CNOXUS ; QOEM SI Scotorum in vero Dei cultu instaorando, velut

AF06T0LUM QUEMDAM DIXERO, DIXISSE ME QUOD RES EST EXISTIMABO.

THEOD. BEZA.



3




TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Advertisement, .....,,

AN EPISTLE TO THE CONGREGATION OF THE CASTLE
OF ST ANDREWS; WITH A BRIEF SUMMARY OF
BALNAVES ON JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, 1548, .

A VINDICATION OF THE DOCTRINE THAT THE SACRI-
FICE OF THE MASS IS IDOLATRY, 1550,

A SUMMARY, ACCORDING TO THE HOLY SCRIPTURES,
OF THE SACRAMENT OF THE LORD'S SUPPER, 1650,

A DECLARATION OF THE TRUE NATURE AND OBJECT
OF PRAYER, 1553,

A Confession or Prayer on the Death of Edward VI,,

AN EXPOSITION UPON THE SIXTH PSALM OF DAVID,
ADDRESSED TO MRS BOWES, 1554, .

A GODLY LETTER OF WARNING, OR ADMONITION TO
THE FAITHFUL IN LONDON, NEWCASTLE, AND
BERWICK, 1554,

CERTAIN QUESTIONS CONCERNING OBEDIENCE TO
LAWFUL MAGISTRATES, WITH ANSWERS BY
HENRY BULLINGER, 1554, ....



9kOW

vii



29



71



77



111



167



217



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.



VAOM



TWO COMFORTABLE EPISTLES TO HIS AFFLICTED

BRETHREN IN ENGLAND, 1554, . . . 227

A FAITHFUL ADMONITION TO THE PROFESSORS OF
l^ GOD'S TRUTH IN ENGLAND, 1554, . . .251

EPISTLES TO MRS ELIZABETH BOWES, AND HER
DAUGHTER MARJORY, 1553-1554,

Letters I. to XXVI., ..... 331

APPENDIX.

Biographical Notices and Letters of Henry Balnaves

OF Halhill, ..... 406

A Treatise by Balnaves on Justification by Faith.

Revised by Knox in 1548, .... 431




ADYERTISEMENT,



The first two Volumes of Knox's Works, containing his
History of the Reformation in Scotland, were published
for the Members of the Wodrow Society, and also for
the Bannattne Club. According to the plan which was
then proposed, of arranging his Miscellaneous Writings in
nearly chronological order, the present Volume forms the
commencement of the series; as it contains the earliest of
his Works which are known to be preserved, extending
from the year 1548 to 1554. The next, or fourth
Volume, will embrace the period of his settlement as
Minister of the English Congregation at Frankfurt, and
afterwards at Geneva.

In the prefatory notice to each separate tract or divi-
sion, the several printed editions or early manuscripts
employed are carefully indicated; and to enable the
Reader more clearly to understand the position which the
Reformer occupied at the time, occasional incidents con-
nected with his personal history are introduced.

Should the number of Subscribers be sufficient to en-
courage the Publishers to complete this series of the



vili ADVERTISEMENT.

Reformer's Works, the Editor indulges the hope that he
may be enabled to accomplish his task in three additional
Volumes, to be published successively, and as speedily as
the nature of such an undertaking admits. He can
scarcely anticipate that such encouragement will not be
afforded to the extent required, in order to erect this
Literary Monument to the Reformer's memory; and
some progress has already been made in printing the
fourth Yolume.



AN EPISTLE

TO THE CONGREGATION

OF THE CASTLE OF ST ANDREWS,

PREFIXED TO THE TREATISE

BY HENRY BALNAYES

ON JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH;

WITH A BRIEF SUMMARY

OF THE WORK.

M.D.XLVIIL



VOL. II»-



In April 1547, being upwards of ten months subsequent to the
murder of Cardinal Beaton, Knox, with his three pupils, en-
tered the Castle of St Andrews, as a temporary place of refuge.
His mode of catechising, and his private lectures on the Gospel
of St John, having attracted the attention of Henry Balnaves
of Halhill, Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, and John Rough,
he was urged to undertake the office of a preacher; but this,
he says, he utterly refused, alleging, "He would not run where
God had not called him,"

The manner of his public vocation to the ministry in the
Great Church of St Andrews, he has recorded in his " History
of the Reformation."' At this time he was in the forty-second
year of his age ; and his previous scholastic studies may have
served to qualify him for thus unexpectedly being called upon
to assume the ministerial office. But whatever reluctance he
may have felt in complying with this public desire of the Con-
gregation at St Andrews, he seems on no subsequent occasion
to have faltered in his resolution, under the greatest difficul-
ties or discouragements. The notices of liis first Sermon, and
of his Disputation with Friar Arbuckle in St Leonard's Col-
lege, contained in his History," were probably extracted from
the account which he transmitted from France to his brethren
who remained at St Andrews, and these may be referred to as
the earliest specimens of his literary composition that have
been preserved.

In the winter of 1548, Balnaves, who remained a prisoner in
the old palace of Rouen, had sent to Knox, while still detained on

1 Vol. i. pp. 186-189. 3 lb. pp. 193-200.



[ 4 j

board the French galley on the Loire, a Treatise which he had
written on the doctrine of Justification by Faith.' With this
work Knox was so much pleased, that having revised it care-
fully, divided it into chapters, and added a brief Summary of
the book, it was conveyed with the Author''s permission to
Scotland, probably for publication, with an Epistle by Knox
addi-essed " to his best beloved Brethren of the Congregation
of the Castle of St Andrews.*" As the old copy bears the title
of " The Confession of Faith," and in the following Epistle,
he refers to it by that title, this work may have been " The
Confession " to which he elsewhere alludes as having been sent
to his friends in Scotland, and which is usually supposed to be
lost.^ Of Balnaves's Treatise, in 1566, he remarks, " how it
is suppressed, we know nott;"' but the manuscript was acci-
dently recovered, some years after his death,^ and was first
published at Edinburgh in 1584.

Knox's Epistle, and Brief Summary of the book, are here
inserted ; and as the Work itself embodies his views on an im-
portant point of Christian doctrine, it will be reprinted as a
suitable Appendix to the present volume, and will be accom-
panied with some account of the Author.

1 Vol. i. p. 226. 3 lb. p. 200, note 4. 3 lb. p. 227.

» See " the Epistle Dedicatorie," prefixed by the Primer of the work, in 1584.



JOHN KNOX, THE BOUND Servant of Jesus Christ, unto
HIS best beloved Brethren of the Congregation of
the Castle of St Andrewes, and to all Professours
of Christs true Evangell, desireth grace, mercy, and
peace from God the Father, with perpetuall conso-
lation of the Holy Spirite.

Blessed bee God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, whose
infinite goodness and incomprehensible wisdome, in every age,
so frustrats the purpose, and maketh of none effect the slight of
Sathan, that the same things, which appeare to be extreme
destruction to the just, and damnage to the small flocke of
Jesus Christ, by* all men's expectation (yea, and Sathan him-
selfe) by the mercy of our good God, are turned to the laude,
praise, and glorie of his own name, utilitie and singuler profite
of his Congregation, and to the pleasure, confort, and advance-
ment of them that suffer. How the name of the onely living
God hath beene magnified in all ages by them which were sore
troubled, by persecution of tyrants, exiled from their owne
countrey, long were to rehearse. Yet one or two principal!
will wee touche, for probation of our words foresaid.

Sathan moved the hatred of the rest of his Brethren against «i-n "•
young Joseph, to whom God promised honours, and authoritie,
above his brethren and parentes. To the impediment whereof
Sathan procured, he should be sould as a boundman or slave,
caried in a strange countrie, whore many yeares injustly hee suf-

' " By," prep, beyond.



6



EPISTLE TO THE CONGREGATION



OEN. 41.



psAr* 104.



OENE. 15.



JOSUB 11.



a. REG. 12.

3. BEO. 13.
fc 16.

ESA. 1.
JER. 3.

4. REG. 17.
ET VLTOIO



fered imprisonment. And Sathan wrought this, to the intent
that he which reproved the wickedness of his brethren, should
perish altogether. For nothing is to Sathan more noysome, as
these men in whom godlines, and in whome puritie of life, and
hatred of iniquitie, appeareth, that they should floorish in do-
minion, or authoritie. But all his counsels were frustrate, when
by the singular mercy and prouidence of God, Joseph was ex-
alted in most high honours, made principall governour of
Egypt by Pharao, the potent king therof, who gave in charge,
that all princes of his kingdom should obey his wil, and that his
senatours should learne wisedome at the mouth of Joseph: who,
no doubt, with all studie set foorth the true knowledge, wor-
shipping, and religion of the onely living God, which in that
countrey was unknowen before. And after certaine yeares,
hee receaved his Father and Brethren in this same countrey,
whome hee with all godlinesse and wisedome, in the yeares of
hunger, susteined and nourished. And so was Sathan frus-
trate, and all his deceate turned to nought.

When, after this, God of his great mercy, according to his
owne promise, soraetyme made to Abraham, had placed the
people of Israel in the land of Canaan, Sathan, to corrupt
the true religion, which they had receaved from God by his
faithfull servant Moyses, invented abominations of idolatrie,
under the pretext of the true worshipping of God. And al-
beit frequently they were reproved by true prophetes, yet
ever superstition preuailed ; while God, of his righteous judge-
ment, was compelled to punish, first Israel, and thereafter
Juda, giving them in the power of their ennemies, which
translated them from their owne countreyes; Salmanaser, Is-
rael unto Assyria, and Nebucadnetzar, Juda unto Babylon.
Then Sathan beleeved the true knowledge and worshipping of
God to have decayed for ever. But he was farre deceaved ;
when first Nebucadnetzar, king of Babylon, and the mightiest
prince in the earth, and after him Darius, the potent king of
Media, receaveth the true knowledge of the Lord God by



OF THE CASTLE OF ST ANDREWS. 7

Daniel the prophet, one of the same nomber, whiche were
transported from their owne countrey ; and not only receaved
the kings (then having the whole empyre in earth) the true
religion of God, but also commanded the same to be observed
by their subjectes. For after this manner it was written, "Then
Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and toungs in the univer-
sal earth, saying, Peace bee multiplied with you. A decreite
is ordeined by mee, that in my universal empyre and kingdom,
all men shall feare, dread, and honour the God of Daniel; for
he is the living and eternall God for ever. He is a deliverer,
and Saviour, working signes and wonderfull thinges in heaven
and earth; which hath delivered Daniel from the denne of lions.""
Secondly, after Darius, the most prosperous, valiant, and mighty
Cyrus, the first monarche of the Persians and Medians, not
onely of the true living God (by the same Prophete) obteined
knowledge, but also for singuler affection which he bare to the
true religion, restored unto libertie the people of Israeli, per-
mitting unto them to build a new temple of Solomon, and to
repare the walles of Jerusalem, which by the Babylonians some-
tyme were brought to ruine. And albeit that by the perpetuall
hatred of Sathan, working by his members, some years they
were impedite, yet at the last (to the great consolation of all
the people) was the work finished, where, many years after,
God's true religion was observed.

Sathan never beleeved his purpose rather to take effect, then
when, after the death of Jesus Christ, hee moved the princes of
the priests (who then were estemed the true church of God) to
persecute the Apostles, and other professours of Christ's Evangel.
For, who beleeved not great damnage to foUowe the congre-
gation, when, after the death of Steven (who was stoned to act.j,
death) the professours were dispersed, banished, and exiled
from Jerusalem. But what entres therby tooke the church of
God, the 11. chap, of the Acts of the Apostles, showeth in these
wordes : " And they whiche were scattered abroad, because of
the affliction that arose about Steven, went through till they



8 EPISTLE TO THE CONGREGATION

came unto Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antiochia, preaching
plainly the Evangell of Jesus Christ."

Of these, and other testimonies of the Scripture, we may con-
sider (dearely beloved Brethren) that the infinite goodnesse of
our Father, turned the same thinges, whereby Sathan and his
members intende to destroy and oppresse the true religion of
God, to the advancement and forthsetting thereof: And that
no lesse in these latter, wicked, and dangerous dayes, than he
did in any age before us. Which thing shall openly declare
this godly Worke subsequent. The counsell of Sathan in the

AP0.7. persecution' of us, first, was to stoppe the wholesome winde of
Christ's Evangell to blow upon the parts where we converse aud
dwell; and secondlie, so to oppresse our selves by corporall
affliction, and worldly calamities, that no place should wee finde
to godly studie.^ But by the great mercy and infinite goodnesse
of God our Father, shall these his counsels be frustrate and
vaine. For in despite of him, and all his wicked members,
shall yet that same word (0 Lord ! this I speake, confiding

SCOTLAND, in thy holy promisse) openly be proclaimed in that same coun-
trey.

And how that our mercifuU Father, amongst these tempes-
tuous stormes, by all men's expectation, he hath provided some
rest for us, as this present Worke shall testifie; which was sent
to mee in Roane, lying in irons, and sore troubled by corporall
infirmitie, in a galley named Nostre Dame, by an honourable
man and faithfull Christian brother, M. Henry Balnaves, of
Halhill, for the present holden as prisoner (though unjustly)
in the old Pallaice of Roane. Which worke, after I had once
again read, to the great confort and consolation of my spirite,
by counsell and advise of the foresaid noble and faithfull man,
authour of the same Worke, I thought expedient it should be
digested in chapters; and to the better memory of the Reader,

1 In the edit. 1584, "perfection."

2 This may be explained by a reference to Knox's previous intention to have
visited some of the learned seminaries in Germany. Vol. i. p. 185.



OF THE CASTLE OF ST ANDREWS. 9

the contents of every chapter proponed ' briefly unto them, with
certaine annotations, to the more instruction of the simple, in
the margent. And also that an Epitome of the same work
should be shortly collected, wee have likewise digested the same
in chapters, which follow the worke in place of a Table : Which
thing I have done, as imbecillitie of ingine^ and incommoditie
of place would permit ; not so much to illustrate the Worke,
(which in the self is godly and perfite) as, together with the
foresaid noble man and faithful! Brother, to give my Confession
of the article of Justification therein conteined. And I beseech
you, beloved Brethren, earnestly to consider if we deny any
thing presently, or yet conceale or hide, which any time before
we professed in that Article.

And now we have not the Castle of St Andrewes to bee our
defence, as some of our enemies falsely accused us, saying, " If
we wanted our walls we would not speak so boldly."" But we
pray the Eternal God, that the same affection, which now and
then remained in us, remaine with them eternally. The Lorde
shall judge if all which we spak was not of pure heart, having
no respect either to love or hatred of any person, but onely
to the Word of God, and veritie of his Scriptures, as we must
answere in the great day of the Lorde, where no man shall
have place to dissemble. But blessed be that Lord, whose
infinite goodnes and wisdome hath tane from us the occasion
of that slaunder, and hath showen unto us that the Serpent
hath power only to stang the heele; that is, to molest and
trouble the fleshe, but not to move the spirite from constant
adhearing to Jesus Christ, nor publick professing of his true
Word. O, blessed bee thou, Eternall Father ! which by thy only
mercy hast preserved us to this day, and provided that the
Confession of our Faith, (which ever wee desired all men to have
knowen), should by this Treatise come plainely to light. Continue,
Lord! and graunt unto us, that as now with pen and ink,
80 shortly wee may confesse with voice and toung, the same be-
> In the edit. 1684, "preponed." » t. e., genius, or knowledge.



10 EPISTLE TO THE CONGREGATION

fore thy Congregation; upon whome looke, Lord God, with
the eyes of thy mercy, and suffer no more darknes to prevaile.
I pray you pardon me, beloved Brethren, that on this manor I
digresse : vehemency of spirite (the Lord knoweth I lye not)
compelleth me thereto. The head of Sathan shall be troaden
down, when he beleeveth surely to triumphe. Thereibre, most
deare Brethren (so call I all professing Christes Evangell), con-
tinue in that purpose which yee have begunne godly; though
the battell appeare strong, your Oaptaine is unexpugnable : To
him is given all power in heaven and earth. Abide, stand, and
call for his support ; and so the ennemies, which now affrayo
you, shortly shal be confounded, and never againe shall appeare
to molest you.

Consider, Brethren, it is no speculative Theolog which desir-
eth to give you courage, but even your Brother in affliction,
which partly hath experience what Sathan's wrath may doe
against the chosen of God. Rejoyse (yet I say) spiritually, and
bee glad ; the time of the battell is short, but the reward is
eternall. Victorie is sure, without yee list to fly (which God
forbid) from Christ. But that ye may plainly know wherby
are Sathan and the world overcome, and which are the wea-
pons against whome they may not stand, yee shall reade dili-
gently this Work following; which, I am sure, no man having
the Spirite of God shal thinke tedious, nor long, because it con-
teineth nothing except the very Scriptures of God, and medi-

^-*^^- ' tations of his Law ; wherein is the whole study of the godly
man, both day and night, knowing that therein are found onely
wisedome, prudence, libertie, and life. And therefore, in read- .
ing, talking, or meditation thereof, he is never satiate. But, as

».* for the ungodly, because their works are wicked, they may not

abide the light. And therefore they abhore all godly writings,
thinking them tedious, though they conteine not the length of
the Lord's Prayer. But according to the threatning of Esay
the prophet, saying, " Because they contemne the law of the
Lord God, hee shall contemne them. Their harts shall be in-



OF THE CASTLE OF ST ANDREWS. 11

dured, in the daye of anguish and trouble they shall dispaire,
and curse the Lord God into their harts. They shal be nom-
bred to the sword, and in the slaughter shall they fall. Then
shal they know that their workes were vaine, and that they
placed their refuge in lies. Their vestiments of spiders webbes
(which ar their vaine workes) shall not abide the force of the
Lord's winde ; but they shall stand naked, and the workes of
iniquitie in their handes, to their extreame confusion. And this ESA.sa
shall apprehend and overtake them, because they call liglit
darknes, and darknes light; that which was sweete they called
bitter, and by the contrarie, that which was bitter they called
sweet; seeking salvation where none was to be found." But
yee, most Christian Brethren, humbly I beseeche, and in the
bloud of Jesus Christ I exhort, that ye reade diligently this
present Treatise ; not onely with earnest prayer, that yee may
understand the same aright, but also with humble and due
thankesgiving unto our most mercifuU Father, who of his infi-
nite power so hath strengthned the hartes of his Prisoners, that
in despite of Sathan, they desist not yet to worke, but in the
most vehemency of tribulation seeke the utilitie and salvation
of others.

It is not my purpose to commend, or advance this Worke with
wordes (as commonly writers of prophane or humane science
do), seeing the verity by the selfe is onely to be commended.
But one thing bouldly I dare affirme, that no man which com-
meth with a godly hart hereto, shall passe from the same with-
out satisfaction. The firrae and weake shall find strength and
confort ; the rude and simple, true knowledge and erudition ;
the learned and godly humbly rejoycing, by the omnipotent
spirite of Jesus Christ, to whome bee glorie before his congre
gation. Ameu.



TO THE READER.

If it please thee, good Reader, of these plesant floures, amongst
the which thou hast walked at large, again to take a taste^ or
smelling; thou shalt read these short Abbreviations subse-
quent. Exhorting thee, that where any obscuritie appeareth,
that thou make recourse unto the preceeding places, where
every thing is manifestly expressed. Thou shalt doe well, if
earnestlie thou shalt pray that Lord onely, to whom the har-
vest perteineth, that it would please him send true worke-
men thereto; to the manifestation of his owne glorie before
his congregation, by Jesus Christ ; whose omnipotent Spirite
satiate the harts of them which thirst [after] ryghteous-
nesse. Amen.

^ It may be necessary to mention that this Address, and the following Summary
are subjoined, not prefixed, to the original edition of Balnaves'a Treatise.



A BRIEFE SOMMARIE OF THE WORK BY
BALNAVES ON JUSTIFICATION.

The Sommarie of the First Chapter.

Our whole study should be to adhear unto God ; running to
him in the time of tribulation, (as doeth the wild hart in the
birning heate to the could river,) with sure hope of deliverance
by him allone; not inquiring his name, that is, the maner how
hee shall deliver vs.

The Sommarie op the Second Chapter.

By Faith have we knowledge of God, whom we should seeke
in his Scriptures, and receave him as he is offered to us there-
into ; that is, a Defender, Protector, Refuge, and Father, in-
quiring no further speculation of him. For, Philip desiring to
see the Father, answeared Christ, " Who hath scene me, hath
scene the Father." Meaning that the love, goodnes, and mercy,
which God the Father beareth unto mankinde, hee had expressed
in doctrine and workes ; and also should show a most singular
token of love, giving his owne life for his ennemies. And there-
fore would all men come to him, to whome the Father hath
given all power.

The Sommarie of the Third Chapter.

Tribulations are profitable to the faithfull ; for thereby the
strength of the flesh somewhat is dantoned, and ceaseth to re-
bell against the spirite : and beginneth to seeke God, who is a
peculiar Father to the faithfull, delivering them from all tribu-
lations, not for their worthynesse, but for his own mercie.
^Vorldly tribulations are the signe and token of God's love ;



14 A BRIEFE SOMMiiRIE OF THE WORK

albeit, the wicked and unfaithfull judge otherwise, which in
tyme of tribulation runne from God, seeking help at man
(which is but vaine), whereof they being frustrate and deceaved,
fall in desperation.

The Sommarie of the Fourth Chapter.

The faithfull thanke God in tribulation; and albeit our wicked
nature teacheth us to flye from God, as did our first parent
Adam, after his transgression; yet Faith in Jesus Christ leadeth
us to the throne of our Father's grace, where we finde goodnes,
mercy, and justice, given to us freely by Jesus Christ, as they were
given to Adam; who, albeit fled from God; yet He, moved of
love toward his own handy work, followed him: and albeit Adam,
at the voice of God, repented not, but obstinately excused his
sinne; yet God made to him the promisse of salvation, before
hee pronounced his wrath contrary sinne (which of his right-
eous judgement hee must punish.) And so Adam wrought no-
thing which might move God to make this promisse, more then
hee wrought that of dust and clay, hee should be made a living
creature, to the image and similitude of God. And to Abra-
ham, being an idolater, was made the promisse, hee should be
the father of many nations (which hee merited not), to whiche
promisse Abraham giving credite, was reckoned just. By the
which it is plaine, that the mercy of God, and not our workes, is
the cause that hee calleth us by his Worde, whereto wee giving
credite are reckoned just, all our deservinges or merites being



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