matter complained of. A full retraction protects the defendant publisher against punitory damages.
An act was passed requiring a license for the sale of goods made by convicts or other States, and
compelling such goods to be stamped ' ' convict-made, ' ' and with marks showing the name of the
prison or penitentiary in which they were made.
Another experiment was added towards the solu-
tion of the liquor problem. Liquors at retail can be sold only on a ground floor exposed to the public,
and without screens, and no other business to be carried on in the same place except the sale of to-
bacco and cigars ; no musical or other appliances for attraction are allowed ; no one is allowed to enter
the place during the time when the sale of liquor is forbidden, and no licences can be granted in any
township or ward against the remonstrances of a majority of the voters thereof. An act permits
the State to be sued upon any money demand in one of its courts designated by the act.
Kansas.— A Board of Irrigation was established, and scientific and practical tests of the effec-
tiveness of measures to that end provided for. A somewhat novel policy, open to much discussion,
has been adopted by a law providing that in the case of insurances on lives for the benefit of persons
other than the life insured, but who have an interest in such life, moneys paid to the beneficiary shall
be exempted from any present or future claims of the person assured, or his representatives, and from
the claims of the person effecting the insurance or his representatives, and even from all taxes— a
large opportunity for placing property beyond the reach of the law. Other acts of doubtful validity or
wisdom have received legislative sanction, among them one compelling railroad companies to furnish
free passes to shippers of certain descriptions of property, andT another taxing fire insurance com-
panies a certain per cent of their earnings for the support of fire departments in all towns and cities
where as much as $1,000 is invested in fire equipments.
Maine. —Among the new general laws is one for the prevention of cruelty to animals, and an-
other, quite elaborate, providing for the establishment of i a board for the registration of persons au-
thorized to practice medicine andsurgery. All must be registered. Certainclassesalready entitled to
practice their art are recognized as entitled to immediate registration. Others must exhibit qualifica/-
tions to be ascertained by examination. The Legislature also made what seems to be a useful addition
to the legislation against fraud by declaring that agreements in contracts of sale that the title to
goods sold shall remain in the seller, shall be absolutely void unless in writing, signed by the party
sought to be bound, and void against third parties unless recorded in the manner prescribed. The
rules in respect to the devolution of the property of intestates are modified in some important re-
spects. The tendency to equality as between husoand and wife is yielded to, by provisions abolishing
estates in dower and courtesy as such, and giving to the widow or widower, as the case may be,
one-third of the intestate's land, and, if no issue, one-half.
Massachusetts.— Among the more noteworthy acts is one designed to make the election laws
more perfect; others prohibiting the display of foreign flags on public buildings and providing for the
display of the national flag on school- houses; another authorizing judges of Probate Courts to
grant leave to executors and administrators to mortgage the real property of descendants to pay debts
and legacies ; another, an energetic act for the suppression of what are sometimes called opium joints ;
an act permitting, but not requiring, Saturdays, not legal holidays, to be treated as dies non so far as
concerns the presentation and acceptance of negotiable paper ; an act providing that no oral or written
misrepresentation hy the assured in the negotiation of a contract of life insurance shall be deemed ma-
terial unless made with intent to deceive ; an act making the provisions of Massachusetts' statutes im-
posing penalties and liabilities upon the oflficers and stockholders of domestic corporations for false
and fraudulent statements and returns apply to the oificers and stockholders of foreign corporations
doing business in the State, and requiring corporations of the latter class to file certain statements and
imposing penalties upon the officers failing to comply with the requirement; an act authorizing the
holdingof an immediate inquest by designated magistrates upon complaint made that any law relat-
ing to the registration qualification or assessment of votei-s, or to voting lists or ballots, or to caucuses,
conventions, and elections, or any matters or thin§^ pertaining thereto have been violated, and to hold
for trial any persons appearing to be guilty; a stringent act for the abatement of the smoke nuisance
in the city of Boston ; an act requiring every city to make provision for the treatment of indigentper-
sons suffering from contagious or infectious venereal diseases; additional rigorous enactments are
made against gambling, lotteries, etc.; alsorigorousprohibitionsagainstsecularbusinessontheLord's
day, and against being present at any game, sport, play, or public diversion on that day; a slight and
Eerhaps innocuous amendment of the law oi libel permitting the defendant to prove in mitigation that
e published a prompt retraction. An act was passed for the establishment of textile schools in manu-
facturing cities; a hospital for epileptics was established; an elaborate act was passed extending the
regulationof law to the proceedings of political caucauses; elaborate provision is made for the inspec-
tion of domestic cattle; an act for the preference of veterans in pubfic employment was passed over
the Governor' s veto ; a hospital for consumptives was established ; in sentences of imprisonment to the
State prison, other than for life, and in the case of habitual criminals, the Court is not to fix the term,
but to name a maximum and a minimum term, and after the expiration of the minimum, the Prison
Commissioners may issue to the prisoner a permit for his liberty subject to such conditions as they
may choose to impose, and subject to revecatiou and reimprisoiiment.
72 State Legislation in 1895.—C(miinued.
Michigan.— street railway companies are required to protect certain employes from exposure to
inclement weather by having the platforms of cars enclosed- Further enactments are made for the
protection and welfare of children. Judges of Probate are permitted to authorize executors and ad-
ministrators to mortgage the property of the deceased in order to raise money to pay his debts.. Town-
ships, cities, and villages are permitted, if they so elect, to use Meyer' s automatic ballot machine in
all elections. Provision is made for the compulsory education of children, and the punishment of
truancy. The protection and regulation of law are extended to political primary meetings in cities of
not less than fifteen thousand inhabitants. It is made unlawful for delegates to any political conven-
tion to appear by proxy. Juries are required in finding verdicts in suits for libel to separate their
findings for injuries to feelings from those for actual damages. The Governor is authorized in certain
cases to liberate convicts on parole. The capacity of packages for the shipment of fruit is required to
be marked. The age at which females may marry without the consent of parents or guardians is raised
from sixteen years to eighteen. Building and loan associations are placed under the supervision of
the Secretary of State.
niinuesota. —The Legislature of Minnesota made an elaborate codification of the laws relative to
insurance companies; made an attempt towards the destruction of certain designated noxious weeds,
making it unlawfulfor the owners of land to allow such weeds to go to seed, and allowing the entry
of public officers upon private lands for the purpose of destroying them. A provision, quite novel in
this country, is enacted permitting either party to an action triable by jury to nave a struck, orspecial,
jury at his pleasure, the expense thereof being chargeable to the party demanding it. Another novel
provision, the purpose of which is not immediately obvious, is found in an enactment that when a
verdict is given for damages for personal injuries arising out of the negligence of a co-employo, the
name or names of such co-employe or co-employ6s, when appearing by the evidence, shall be found
and stated by the jury in their verdict. Elaborate and rigorous legislation was enacted to prevent
corrupt practices in elections.
Montana. —Montana appeared in a brand-new suit of codes, embracing a Political Code, a Civil
Code, a Code of Civil Procedure, and a Penal Code.
Nebraska.— This State enacted a law permitting agreements in contracts for the sale of the rolling
stockof railroads that the title to the property shall remain in the vender until payment, the agree-
ment, however, to be in writing and filed for record with the Secretary of State ; an act regulating the
practice of dentistry, and a series of acts for the purpose of establishing a system of irrigation.
New Jersey.— A step was taken towards some control by law over private insane asylums. Ex-
tensive provision was made for the establishment of parks in cities. The State essentially modified
her judicial establishment, though in a manner interesting only to her own citizens.
NeTv York.— The most interesting legislative experience of New York during the past j^ear was
thatof its constitutional convention, held under the provisions of the Constitution of 1846, which re-
quires a revising convention every twenty years. We find consequently, in its work, very little in
the way of radical change. Most of its new provisions are rearrangements of some of the details of
governmental organization such as were called for by the special conditions of that State. Such
changes as have been introduced are conceived and expressed with caution and prudence, and much
benefit may reasonably be expected from them. The provision for preventing the application of
public moneys to sectarian purposes under the guise of charity, without, at the same time, repress-
ing charitable effort, deserves general attention. A precaution promising much benefit in special
municipal legislation is found in the requirement that special city bills must be submitted to the
Mayors of the cities affected for their approval, in default of which the bill cannot become law
unless repassed by the Legislature.
New Hampshire. —The prohibitorj' policy relating to intoxicating drinks was retained and made
in some respects more rigid. The day prior to Memorial Lay was set apart and required to be devoted
in the public schools to exercisesof a patriotic character. Suitable seats must be provided in factories
for female operatives. An act drawn up with great apparant care provides for the establishment by
private companies of street railroads. They are rigidly subjected to public supervision and control,
andawiseprovisionlimits the amount of capital stock to be issued to actual needs as determined by-
North Carolina.— A law dealing with taxation nearly exhausts human ingenuity in contriving
asmany different forms of taxation as possible, instead ot seeking to make tliem as few and simple
as possible. Property is taxed, incomes are taxed, licenses in multiplied forms are required for car-
rying on occupations. This formidable machinery involves the creation of nineteen distinct penal
Oregon.— A quite novel piece of legislation is shown in an act giving the right to take lands for the
construction of railroads, skid roads, tramways, chutes, and flumes for the purpose of transporting
lumber and otlier products, the facilities thus provided being declared to be for the public use. All
persons can use theui upon paying reasonable compensation. The practice of medicine and surgery
is regulated in a manner similar to tliat adopted this year in several other States, by requiring li-
censes from a board of experts after examination.
Fennyslvania.— This great Commonwealth has distinguished itself by rejecting much proposed
legislation of a novel character, and called communistic by those who do not approve of it. It en-
acted a general forestry law, made a probably useful change in the law of evidence by iiermitting the
comparison of genuine with alleged simulated signatures; prohibited the wearing in any public school
by any teacher of any religious garb, badge, or symbol, and greatly enlarged the powers of bank ex-
South Carolina.— The most noteworthy permanent legislation was an act rigorously forbidding
in any form, director indirect, the consolidation of competing lines of railroad.
South Dakota.— This State established a State Loard of Health with extensive powers and
made provision for sinking of artesian wells at the public expense for irrigation and other purposes.
Theancientinstitutionofthegrand jury was boldly dispensed within all cases unless the judge of
the Criminal Court directsone to be summoned. The substitute is an information filed by the legal
representative of the State againstpersons supposed to be guilty of crimes. Very large additional
powers are conferred upon the railroad commi-ssioners appointed under existing laws.
Tennessee. —Tennessee enacted a law removing from witnesses the disabilities of unbelief.
She bestows upon a particular county the very unusual power to subscribe to the capital stock of ' 'any
domesticor foreign manufacturing company;" destroys preferences in assignments by debtors in
failing circumstances and makes such assignments enure equally for the benefit of all creditors, and
providesmeasuresfor arresting the spread of contagious or infectious diseases among animals, and
abolishes the convict lease system.
Texas.— A tentative effort was made in the direction of establishing boards of arbitration for the
settlement of disputes between employes and emploj'ers. A law was passed preventing the abate-
ment of actions for personal injuries not resulting in death, by the death of either party; another
'Wealth of the United States.
»-3«^ ■='- -•^^-*- — - —
STATE LEGISLATION IN IQQ^—Cmitinned.
making the perpetration of frauds at primary elections criminal; another taxing all national bank
notes. United States legal tender notes, and other notes and certificates of the United States intended
to circulate as money,
Vermont.— Vermont amended her divorce law by requiring a year's residence by the moving
party before suit, and added to the causes of divorce at the instance of the wife, the gross, or wan-
ton and cruel neglect of a husband having sufficient pecuniary or physicial ability to provide an
adequate support for her. Otherlegislationcompelstownstopay into the State treasury a share of
the profits made on the sale of liquors under the prohibitory law ; regulates the practice of pharmacy
and also makes the adulteration of candy or the sale of adulterated candy a punishable offence.
Washington.— Provision was made for the thorough and effective organization of the military
power. The regulation and protection of law was extended to the ^proceedings of political primary
meetings. An attempt was made to repress the supposed mischiefs of cigarette-smoking. The hours
of labor of street-car employes were limited to ten. A quite novel expedient for the protection of
stockholders in corporate bodies was adopted by an act which enables the stockholders at anytime
to expel a director from office ; very properly this is not done on charges.
Wyominar. —An act was passed in this State allowing verdicts to be rendered upon a concurrence
of three- fourths of the jurors. An attempt is made to preserve the few remnants of the race of buffalo
by an absomte prohibition of the killing of that animal. A paity producing a witness is allowed to
impeach him by proof of prioj. contradictory statements.
The following United states census bulletin, issued by Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor,
in charge of the Census Bureau, was prepared by J. K. Upton, special agent of the eleventh census, from
the final report of the valuation and taxation of the eleventh census in answer to numerous inquiries
concerning the financial condition of the country:
The total true»valuation of the real and personal property in the country at the close of the census
period 1890 amounted to $65,037,091,197, of which amount$39,544,544,333 represents the value of
real estate and improvements thereon and $25, 492,546,864 that of personal property, including rail-
roads, mines, and quarries. At the same time the total assessed value of real and personal property
taxed was $25,473,173,418, of which amount $18,956,556,675 represented real estate and improve-
ments thereon and ^6, 516, 616, 743 personal property.
Thetrue valuation is what would be deemed a fair selling price for the property, and is thus
termed in distinction from the assessed valuation, which is a value placed upon certain taxable prop-
erty for taxation purposes only.
The true valuation of property for 1890 is classified as follows: .
Real estate, with improvements thereon $39, 544, 544, 333
Live stock on farms and ranges, farm implements and machinery 2, 703, 015, 040
Mines and quarries, including product on hand 1, 291 , 291, 579
Gold and silver coin and bullion 1,158,774,948
Machinery of mills and product on hand, raw and manufactured 3, 058, 593, 441
Railroads and equipments, including $283, 898, 519 street railroads 8, 685, 407, 323
Telegraphs, telephones, shipping, and.canals ; . 701,755,712
The value of visible and tangible property only is included in the figures of true valuation herewith
published, and the amounts are distributed among the respective States where the property. is located
without reference to ownership.
The true valuation of real estate includes all improvements thereon, and is based on reports of
local officers or of private individuals believed to be familiar with real estate values in their respective
localities, butdoesnotinciude the value of railroads or mines and quarries. In every case a state-
ment showing such true valuation of the State by counties has been submitted to the Governor of the
State for his approval or correction, and all changes suggested by him have been made.
The true value of personal property in most cases is that placed upon it by its owners and given to
the enumerators and other census officials, as required by law.
The value given to railroads and equipments, however, represents the cost of construction and
equipment of the roads in question, and is distributed among the several States according to mileage.
The gold and silver coin and bullion is the amount reported by the Director of the Mint as in the
country at the close of the fiscal year 1890,
The value of merchandise in stock and of cattle notion farms or ranges is based upon the value of
such property assessed for taxation ; that of furniture and personal belongings upon their insured
values as shown byan examination of 8,000 policies upon contents of houses not in large cities ; that
of libraries and other exempt property upon returns received from nearly every municipality in the
country; that of foreign goods in bondupon the report of the Treasury Department, and that of agri-
cultural products on hand upon the report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1890. These values
are included as miscellaneous, and represent, it is believed, substantially all the wealth of the country
not elsewhere classified.
The true and assessed valuations for 1890, compared with like valuations of the previous decades
for which valuation statistics have been published by this office, are as follows:
Tkue Valuation of Alx, Real and
Assessed Valuation op Real and
Personal Property Taxed.
The assessed valuation of 1880 has been somewhat increased above the amount reported by the
tenth census by the inclusion of railroad values omitted but on which ad valorem taxes were levied.
2^ecortr oi iSijntts in 1895.
Jan. — . Massacre of Armenian Christians by
Turks and Kurds continued througout the year,
the estimate of deaths being some 30,000, and
of people plundered and rendered homeless over
Jan. 8. Royalist outbreak at Honolulu was
suppressed by the Dole Government and the
leaders were arrested.
Jan. 14, Feb. 2. Trolley railroad strike and
violence in Brooklyn, N. Y. The New York
and Brooklyn troops were under arms until
the disturbances ended.
Jan. 15. Casimir-Perier resigned the Presi-
dency of the French Republic.
Jan. 17. Feliz Faure was elected President of
the French Republic by the National Assembly
at Versailles. The first ballot was: Brisson, 338;
Faure, 244; Waldeck- Rousseau, 184. The sec-
ond ballot was: Faure, 430; Brisson, 361
Jan. 20. The Pope issued an encyclical to the
Roman Catholics of the United States.
Jan. 21. Lord Randolph Churchill died &t
Jan. 26. M. De Giers, Russian Minister of
foreign affairs, died.
Jan. 28. The President sent a message to Con-
gress on the financial affairs of the Government
and asked authority to issue gold bonds.
Jan. 30. Ex-Queen Lilioukalani formally re-
nounced her right to the throne of Hawaii.
Jan. 30. The North-German X,loyd steamship
Elbe was ■unk by a collision in the English
Channel with a loss of over three hundred lives.
Jan. 31. The Japanese captured Wei- Hai- Wei.
Feb. 6, President Cleveland decided the
boundary dispute between Brazil and the Argen-
tine Republic in favor of Brazil.
Feb. 8. The President informed Congress of
arrangements made with the hankers' syndi-
cate to taKe an issue of $62, 4O0, 000 Government
Feb. 20. The Cuban revolution began by sim-
ultaneous risings in different parts of the island.
It continued with varying results through the
year, and was in progress when the year closed.
Feb. 23. The ex- Queen of Hawaii was sen-
tenced by the Dole Government to five years'
imprisonment for conspiring against the Re-
Feb. 27. Postmaster- General Bissell resigned.
He was succeeded by William L. Wilson, of West
March 4. Miss Anna Gould, daughter of the
late Jay Gould, was married to Count Ernest
Castellane, a Frenchman, in New York.
March 5. The Japanese captured Neu-chwang
after a battle of thirteen hours.
March 6. Justice Barrett, New York, granted
a decree of divorce to Alva 8. Vanderbilt from
her husband, William K. Vanderbilt.
March 8. Harry Hayward was found guilty at
Minneapolis of the murder of Catherine Ging.
He was hanged Dec. 9.
March 10. Ihe Chinese Government notified
Japan of its wish to treat for peace.
March 12. A number of negroes were killed in
'longshoremen riots at New Orleans.
March 13. Italian coal miners were killed by
a mob In Huerfano County, Col.
March 13. Secretary Gresham directed the
American Minister at Madrid to demand prompt
reparation for the firing on the steamer AUianca
by a Spanish gunboat
March 14. The Chinese Peace Envoy embarked
for Japan. The conferences began at Shimono-
seki March 21.
March 15. The verdict against Erastus Wiman
was reversed by the New York Supreme Court.
March 20. Ex- United States Consul John L.
Waller was sentenced by the French in Mada-
gascar to 20 years' imprisonment for aiding the
March 24. A Japanese attempted to assassi-
nate LI Hung Chang, the Chinese Envoy, at Shi-
March 29. A cessation of hostilities between
Japan and China was ordered by the Mikado.
April. In this month the British expedition to
Chitral gained several victories over the natives.
April 1. The eightieth birthday of Prince Bis-
marck was celebrated by demonstrations
April 6. Gen. Martinez Campos, Spanish Com-
mand er, sailed for Cuba.
April 10. American line steamship St, Paul
was launched at Philadelphia.