mainly from the ' *• Statesman' s Year-Book' ' for 1895. For Cities of the United States see page 375.
Note. —The population of Chinese cities other than Canton, Pekin, and Shanghai is omitted,
because reports respecting it are utterly untrustworthy. There are forty or more Chinese cities whose
inhabitants are numbered by rumor at from 200, 000 to 1,000,000 each, but no official censuses have
ever been taken; and setting aside consideration of the Oriental tendency to exaggeration, there is
reason to believe that the estimates of population in many instances covered districts of country bear-
ing the same names as the cities, instead of definite municipalities.
The French Grovernment.
(For the Ministry, see page 342. )
POLITICAL DIVISIONS IN THE BEICHSTAG.
National Reform Party \ Anti- /.
National Social Party. . / Semites \ .
Liberal People's Party
National People's Party
Alsatian (meaning Anti-German).
The largest group, the Clericals or Centre, represents mainly the Rhine districts and South Ger-
many. The Conservatives, though sometimes in opposition, especially on agrarian questions, are
regarded as the ministerial party, and with them are allied the National Liberals and some smaller
groups, insuring the government a majority. The President of the Reiclistag is Baroa vou Buol-
The Commander-in-Chief is the Emperor.
Field- 3Iarshal- Generals— Count von Blumenthal, Prince George of Saxony, Prince Albrecht of
Prussia, Grand Duke Frederick of Baden, Grand Duke Charles Alexander of Saxony, Prince von Bis-
marck, Baron von Loe, Archduke Albert Frederick of Austria, King Albert of Saxon5% Count von
General Staff, CTiicf— Count von Schlieffen.
Commission of the National Defence— Vr'incQ Albrecht of Prussia, President ; General von Kessler,
Inspector- General; Admiral Baron von Goltz; General Golz, Inspector- General of Fortresses; Rear-
Admiral Karcher, of the Department of Marine; General von Winterf eld, General Edler von der
Planitz; General Count von Schlieflfen, General Prince Frederick von HohenzoUern, Major-General
Baron von Falkenhausen, Commanding Admiral Knorr and Colonel- General Baron von Loe.
Corps Commanders— First Cm-ps, Eastern Prussia, Konigsberg, General Count Finck von Fincken-
stein; Second Corps, Pomerania, Stettin, General von Blomberg; Third Cm-ps, Berlin, General Prince
Frederick von HohenzoUern; Fourth Corps, Erfurt, General von Haenisch; Fifth Coips, Posen,
General von Seeckt; Sixth Corps, Breslau, General The Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen;
Seventh Corps, Miinster, General von Goetze; Eighth Coi-ps, Coblentz, General von Billow; Mnth Carps,
Altona, General Count Waldersee; Tenth Corps, Hanovei, General von Seebeck; Eleventh Coi"ps,
Cassel, General von Wittich; Twelfth Coi'ps, Dresden, Field- Marshal- General Prince George of
Saxony; Thirteenth Corps, Stuttgart, General von Woelckern; Fourteenth Corps, Carlsruhe, General
von Schlichting; Fifteenth Corps, Strassburg, General von Blume; Sixteenth Corps, Metz, General
Count von Haeseler; Seventeenth Cmps, Dantzig, General hentze: First Bavarian Army Corps, Munich,
General Prince Arnulf of Bavaria; Second, Bavarian Army Coips, Wiirzburg, General von Parseval.
Cojnmander of the Guards— General vou Winterf eld.
CFor the Ministry, see page 342. )
Ih-esident Francois Felix Faure.
The annual allowance to the President of the Republic is 600,000 francs, with a further allowance
of 600,000 francs for his expenses.
Senate. —P/-g^id6?? if, P. A. Challemel-Lacour; Vice-I^-esidents,'MM, Magnin and Loubet ; /Sscretor-y-
General, M. Sorel.
Chamber OF Deputies. —P?-e5!'de?i/, M. Henri Brisson ; Secretary- General, M. Pierre Richard.
The number of Senators is 300, and they are at present politically divided into about 250 Republi-
cans and 50 representatives of the various shades of the opposition.
The Deputies number 581, and are dividedapproximately into the following groups: Republicans,
right and left centre, 58, led principally by Leon Say, Vogue, and d'Anemberg; 140 Iladicals, led by
Pelletan, Brisson, and Lockroy; 269 Opportunists (a group created by Gambetta), led by Meline,
Dupuy, andRibot; 54 Conservatives, led by Mackau and La Rochefoucauld ; 60 Socialists and Radical
Socialists, led by Goblet, Millerand, andGuesde.
Military Governor of Paris— General Saussier.
Corps Commanders— First Cb?-/).<r, Lille, General de France; Second Cbj-ps, Amiens, General d'Aubigny;
Third Corps, Rouen, General de Giovaninelli; Fourth Cb?7J.9,Mans,General CoiflP6; Fifth Corps, Orleans,
General Boussenard; Sixth Corps, Chalons, General Jamont; Seventh Corps, Besancon, General de
Negrier; Eighth Cmps, Bourges,^ General Bruyere; Ninth Corps, Tours, General Cramezel de Kerhue;
TSpii/li /^rvt*r\o Tf a-n-nac /^£inoi»Ql r'aillir^t. 7i^7/^ty£>yifh ^Irt^'fiv "^"^ ^ — ^' — ■• """ '^ " "' ^ ^ '
General Larchey; Nineteenth Coi-^ps, Algiers, General Herve; Tunis, General Leclerc,
Vice- Admirals— G&Tnna.u\t and Duperre, Members of the Supreme Naval Council; Rieunier, In-
spector-General of the Navy; Vignes, Commander-in-Chief at Toulon; De Boissoody, Commander
of the Mediterranean Squadron; DeColstoun, Commander of the Northern Squadron; Besnard,
Commander at Brest; De Presmenil, Commander at Lorient; Gervais, Director Ministry Marine;
Puech, Commander at Rochefort ; Parrayon, Member of the Supreme Naval Council.
The Austrian -Hungarian G-overnmeiit. 359
Wc^t 3Clttssian ^obrrnment.
(For the Ministry, see page 342. )
COUNCIL OF THE EMPIRE.
Pi-e^ldent His Imperial Higtiness the Grand Duke Michael Nicolaevitch.
GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF PROVINCES,
The Commanders of Military Conscriptions (given below) are the Governors-General of Provinces.
The Commander-in-Chief is the Emperor.
Commanders of Military Conscriptions— First ConscHption, TraiisbaLkalia, General of Infantry
Doukhovsk3'. Second ConscHption, Caucasus, General of Cavalry ScheremeteflF. Third Conscription^
Finland, General of Infantry Count Heyden. Fourth Conscription, Eastern Siberia, General of In-
fantry Goremykine. Fifth Conscription— 'K&22a\ General of Infantry Mestcherinoff. Sixth Conscrip-
tion, Kiew, General Dragomiroff. Seventh Conscription, Moscow, General of Artillery Kostanda.
Eighth Conscription, Odessa, General of Cavalry Count Moussine-Poushkin. Ninth Conscription, West-
ern Siberia, General of Cavalry Baron Taube. Tenth Conscription, St. Petersburg, His Imperial High-
ness the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovitch. Eleventh ConscrijMon, Trans-Caspian, Lieutenant-
General Kouropatkin. Tivelfth Conscription, Turkestan, Lieutenant-Geueral Baron Vrevsky. Thi7 -
teenth Conscriptimi, Poland, Adjutant-General General of Infantry Count Schouvaloff, Fourteenth
Conscription, Vilna, General of Infantry Trotzky.
Commander-in-Chief, His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Alexis Alexandrovitch.
(For the Ministry, see page 342. )
I^esident of the Senate— ^\gn.ov Domenico Farini. Fresident of the Chamber of Deputies—SignoT Villa^
C/i7'e/o/;S'to#— Lieutenant-General Domenico Primerano.
Corps Commanders— Turin, Lieutenant-General Corvette; Alessandria, Lieutenant-General Count
Bava; Verona, Lieutenant-Geueral Luigi Pelloux; Bologna, Lieutenant-General Marselli; Ancona,
Lieutenant-General Leone Pelloux; Florence, Lieutenant-General Count Morra di Lavriano ; Rome,
Lieutenant-General Count San Margano; Naples, Lieutenant-General Sterpone; Bari, Lieutenant-
General Tournon; Palermo, Lieutenant-General Mirri.
COMMANDERS OF MILITARY DIVISIONS.
1. Turin, Lieutenant-General Pelloux; 2. Novara, Lieutenant-General Baldissera; 3. Alessandria,
Lieutenant-General Boido; 4. Cuneo, Lieutenant-General Besozzi; 5. Milan, Lieutenant-General
Testafochi; 6. Brescia, Lieutenant-General Orero; 7. Piacenza, Lieutenant-General Carenzi; 8.
Genoa, Lieutenant-General Saletta; 9. Verona, Lieutenant-General- Racagni ; 10. Padua, Lieuten-
ant-General Bigotti; 11. Bologna, Lieutenant-General Ferraro; 12. Ravenna, Lieutenant-General
Bosco; 13. Anconaj^ Lieutenant-General Marchesi; 14. Chieti, Lieutenant-General Santarelli; 15.
Florence, H. R. H. The Prince of Naples; 16. Leghorn, Lieutenant-Geueral Rugiu;17. Rome, Lieu-
tenant-General Pelloux; 18. Perugia, Lieutenant-General Del Margno; 19. Naples, Lieutenant-Gen-
eral Abate; 20, Salerno, Lieutenant-General Corsi; 21. Bari, Lieutenant-General Gandolfl; 22.
Catanzaro, Lieutenant-General Rimedotti; 23. Palermo, Lieutenant-General Parravinco; 24, Mes-
sina, Lieutenant-General Picrantoni.
(For the Ministry, see page 342. )
THE AUSTRIAN REICHSRATH.
Fresident of the House of Lords— Coxint Ferdinand Trautmannsdorflf. Fi-esident of the House of
Deputies— ^aron Chlumecky.
THE HUNGARIAN REICHSTAG.
Frestdent of the House of Ifagnates— Count Tibor Karolyi. Fresident of the House of Eepresenta-
?it;&s— Desiderius Szilagyi.
The Commander-in-Chief is the Em^peror.
Corps Commanders— First Corps, F. M. L. , Baron E. Albori ; Second Corps, F. M. L. , Count A,
UxkliU-Gyllenband ; Third Corps, F. Z.M. , Baron W. Reinlander; Fourth Coips, F. Z. M. , Prince R.
Lobkowitz ; Fifth Corps, F. Z. M., Archduke Frederick ; Sixth Corps, F. M. L. , Georg Kovais de Mad ;
Seventh Corps, F. Z. M., Baron J. Waldstatten; Eighth Corps, F. Z. M. , Philipp Count Griinne;
Ninth Cbrps, F. M. L. , E. Merta; Tenth Cai'ps, F. M. L. , Anton Galgotzy; Eleventh Corps, G.D. C. ,
Prince L. Windischgratz ; Twelfth Corps, F. M. L. , Theodor Galgoczy; Thirteenth Corps, G. D. C. ,
Baron A. Bechtoldsheim ; Fourteenth Corx)s, F. Z. M., T. Reicher; Fifteenth Ooi-jis, G, P, C, , Baron
GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES.
Austria Lower— Count E. Kielmansegg. Austria Upper— Baron Puthon. Bohemia— Count Thun-
Bukowina— Count Zeno Goes. Carinthia— Victor Baron Hein. Carniola— Baron Schmidt-Zabierow.
Dalmatia— George Conte Vojnovic. Galicia— Vacant. Coast Land (Goritz, etc.)— Chevalier de Rinal.
dini. Moravia— Baron A. Spens-Booden. Salzburg— Count S. Thun-Hohenstein. Silesia— Count
Charles Coudenhove. Styria— Baron Guido Kiibeck. Tyrol— Count F. Merveldt. Hungary and Tran-
sylvania—Baron Banffy (Minister- President). Croatia— Banns Count Khuen-Hedervary.
dominion oi (tanatia.
Governor- General (Salary, §50,000) The Eael of Aberdeen.
The salary of each member of the Dominion cabinet holding a portfolio is $7, 000 per annum,
except the Premier, who receives $8, 000. The present ministry was sworn into office Decem-
ber 21, 1894. »
Pi-emier and Pi-esidrM of the Privy Cou7icil—B.on.
Sir Mackenzie Bowell, K.C.M.G.
Minister of Public Works— Hon. J. A. Ouimet.
Minister of Trade and Cbmnw^-ce— Hon. W. B. Ives.
3finister of Bailways aiul Cariots— Hon. John Ci.
Minister of Militia and Defence— TS.on. A. R. Dickie.
3finister of Agriculture—
Secretary of State— Hon. W. H. Montague.
Minister of Pinance— Hon. George E. Foster
Minister of Marine and Pisheries — Hon. John Costi-
Postmaster- General— Hon Sir Adolphe P. Caron,
Minister of the Interior aiul Superintendent- General
of Indian Affairs — Hon. Thomas M. Daly.
Minister of J U)it ice— Hon. Sir Charles H. Tupper,
Comptroller of Inland Revenue — Hon. John F.
Comptroller of Customs— Hon. N. Clarke "Wallace.
Solicitor- General —
Without Portfolio— Hon. Sir Frank Smith.
" "■' Hon. Donald Ferguson.
The Senate (Dominion Parliament) is composed of 80 members, Hon. J. J. Ross, Speaker,
whose salary is §4, 000. Each Senator receives a sessional indemnity of $1, OOO and mileage.
The House of Commons is composed of 215 members, Hon. Peter White, Sp'^aker, whose salary
is $4, 000. Each member of the House receives a sessional indemnity of ^1, 000 and mileage.
The members of the House of Commons are elected under a Federal Act, by which 91 per cent
of the males over 21 years of age have votes. The Senators are appointed for life by the Crown
on the nomination of the Governor- in- Covmcil.
Area, Population, and Seats of Government, and Lieutenant-Governors oe
Hon. Cbas. H. Macintosh
i ( 11 11
1 ( 1 i 11
Hon. Edgar Dewdney
Hon. J. C Patterson
Hon. John James Fraser
Hon. M. B. Daly
Prince Edward Island
Hon. George A. Kirkpatrick
Hon. George W. Howlan
Hon. J. A. Chapleau
Hon. Chas. H, Macintosh
Uugava & Franklin
*Land and water included in area.
High Commissioner in London, England, Sir Charles Tupper, Bart. Salary, $10, 000.
The Dominion of Canada has an area of 3, 457, 000 square miles, and comprises one- sixteenth
of the land surface of the globe. It is the largest of all the British possessions, Australia, the
next in size, containing 2, 944, 628 square miles. The Government of Canada is Federal, centred
at Ottawa, which city is the capital of the Dominion, while the seven provinces and the North-
west Territories have their respective local legislatures. The head of the Federal Government
is the Governor- General, appointed by the Queen of Great Britain, and holding office for five
years, his salary being paid by the Dominion Government.
The Lieutenant- Governors of the several provinces are appointed by the Federal Government
for a term of five years. The Legislatures are elected by the people of each province. The
highest Court in the Dominion is the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice and five Judges,
each of whom receives a salary of §7, OOO per annum, except the Chief Justice, who is paid an
additional §1,000. From the decisions of this Court the only tribunal to Avhich appeal can be
made is to the Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council of Great Britain. The only
other Federal Court is the Exchequer Covu-t, presided over by a single Judge, for trying cases
connected with the revenue. All others are of a provincial character, limited to jurisdiction in
their respective provinces only.
Revenue (financial year ending June 30, 1894), §30,374,693, of which'§19, 198, 114 was
from customs; §8,381,089 from excise; §2,809,341 from ix»st-office; §3,702,746 from public
works, including government railways ;, §1, 217, 809 from interest on investments, and §210, 096
from Dominion lands.
The expenditure on account of consolidated fund was §37, 585, 026, of which §10, 212, 696
was for interest; §1,679,231 for civil government; §745,504 for administration of justice-
§698, 007 lor legislation; §476,635 for lightliouse and coast service; §530,703 for mail subsi-
dies and steamship subventions ; §968, 563 for Indians ; §466, 751 for fisheries ; §158, 010 for
geological survey and observatories; §466, 749 for arts, agriculture, quarantine, and statistics ;
Dominion of Canada.
DOMINION OF CA.l^A'DA.— Continued.
$1, 284, 517 for militia and defence ; $2, 033, 954 for public works ; $4, 206,655 for
provinces; $3, 517, 261 for post-oflBce; $3,760,556 for railways and canals; $921,
lecting customs revenue ; $211, 923 for ocean and river service.
040 for col-
The gross public debt of Canada on June 30, 1893, amounted to $308, 348, 024, of which
$207,275,505 is payable in London, England, and the remainder in Canada. Among the
amounts payable in Canada are government savings banks' deposits, $43,036,012, and
Dominion notes, $20, 101, 253. The total assets counted against gross public debt amount to
$62, 164, 994, of which amount $32, 356, 777 are sinking funds.
The total strength of the Canadian militia on June 30, 1894, was 35, 288 men. including
2, 038 cavalry, 1, 345 field artillery, 2, 099 garrison artillerj- , 90 engineers, 28, 704 infantry.
Attached to the military schools and college there are 1, 012 men, who constitute the perma-
nent force of Canada.
Exports fiscal year (1893-94): To Great Britain, $68,538,856; United States, $35,809,-
940; France, $544,986; Germany, $2,046,052; Spain, $56,274; Portugal, $79,363; Italy,
$109, 188 ; Holland, $281, 058 ; Belgium, $708, 455 ; Newfoundland, $2, 818, 592 ; West Indies ;
$3,443,761; South America, $1,392,285; China and Japan, $540,849; Australia, $322,745,
other countries, $832, 545.
Imports for home consumption (1893-94) : From Great Britain, $38, 717, 267 ; British West
Indies, $1,227,436; Newfoundland, $814,562; other British possessions, $762,519. Total
British Empire, $41,521,784. United States, $53,034,100; France, $2,536,964; Germany,
$5, 841, 542 ; other European countries, $2, 626, 484 ; Foreign West Indies, $2, 449, 975 ; other
foreign countries, $5, 083 , 134. Total, $113, 093, 983, of which dutiable goods were $62, 779, -
182, and free goods, $50,314,801.
Chartered banks (September 30, 1895): Capital paid up, $62,857,252; reserve fund,
$27,158,799; making total banking capital, $90,016,051; circulation redemption fund,
$1. 814, 624. Total assets, $321, 881, 711 ; total liabilities, $234, 074, 548 ; notes in circulation,
$32,774,442; deposits, $188,320,657; loans and discounts, $219,729,450.
Canada has a network of railways, the total mileage of which at the end of June, 1894, was
15, 657 miles.
The following is a statement of the money value of the fisheries within the Dominion of
Canada, 1871-94 inclusive :
1881 15, 817, 163. 00
1883 16, 958, 192. 00
1886 18, 672, 288. 00
Post-offices (year ended June 30, 1894), 8,664; niunber of letters mailed, 130,840,000.
Tonnage of sea- going- vessels entered and cleared, 11, 280, 536 tons register; tonnage of shipping
engaged in the coasting trade, 26, 560, 968 tons ; tonnage of shipping engaged in the Great Lakes
carrving between Canada and the United States, 9, 072, 545 tons registered, carrying as freight
1, 960, 203 tons weight and 579, 605 tons measured ; vessels built and registered, 326 ; tonnage,
20, 243 ; lighthouses, 755.
Population of Cities, Census of 1891.
Montreal, 216,650; Toronto, 181,220; Quebec, 63,090; Hamilton, 48,980; Ottawa,
44,154; St. John, 39,179; Halifax, 38,556; London, 31,977; Winnipeg, 25,642; Kingston,
19 264* Victoria, "R r 1R «4.1 • Vnnpnnvpr T5 C 1.3.685: St. Henri. 1.3.415: Brantford.
St. Cuneguiiue, tj,^vo, ot. \^ixtiiaiiiie!', ;y, i/v7, vviitiuiiajji, \jllv. , k^,\j^^, aji^kik^i^^ x.i.LK^, o, /co,
Moncton, 8,765; Woodstock, Ont. , 8,612; Trois Rivieres, 8,334; Gait, 7,535; Owen Sound,
7,497; Berlin, 7,425; Levis, 7,301; St. Hyacinthe, 7,016; Corn well, 6,805; Samia, 6,693;
Sorel, 6,669; New Westminster, 6,641; Fredericton, 6,502; Dartmouth, N. S. , 6,249; Yar-
mouth, 6,089; Lindsay, 6,081; Barrie, 5,550; Valleyfield, 5,516; Truro, 5,102; Port
Abbreviations of JBritlsh Titles.
(ttnit^l antr ^outl) American ^tatre*
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
Argentine Republic ,
Expo rts. I
The above returns, and those of population following, were furnished Thk World Almanac by
the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, D. C.
POPULATION ACCORDING TO LATEST ESTIMATES.
Argentine Republic (official) 4,750,000
Bolivia (estimate) 2,300,000
Brazil (official) 18,000,000
Colombia (estimate) 4,600,000
Chile (official) 3,500,000
Costa Rica (estimate) 265,000
Ecuador (estimate) 1,300,000
Guatemala (estimate) 1,550,000
Havti (estimate) 950,000
Honduras (estimate) 430,00C
Nicaragua (estimate) 375,000
Paraguay (estimate) 470,000
Peru (estimate) 2,800,000
Santo Domingo (estimate) 700,000
Salvador (ofTicial) 780,000
Uruguay (official) 750,000
Venezuela (official) 2,323,000
For Mexico the latest official figures received by the Bureau of American Republics are 10,400,000.
Thk Bureau of the American Republics at Washington was established under the recommendation
of the late International American Conference, for the prompt collection and distribution of commer-
cial information concerning the American Republics. It publishes translations of the taritts of the
countries of Latin America reduced to the Uuited States equivalents; also handbooks of these coun-
tries, and a monthly bulletin containing the latest information respecting their resources, commerce,
and general features. Replies are also furnished to inquiries in relation to the commercial and other
affairs of the countries, and items of news giving recent laws of general interest, development of rail-
ways, agriculture, mines, manufactures, shipping, etc., are given to the press. The Bureau is sus-
tained by contributions from the several American Republics in proportion to their population.
K\)t (^uljau Bcbolutfonar^ ^obtrnmnit.
JPresident Salvador Cisneros Betancourt, of Puerto Principe.
Vice-I^-csideiil Bartolomo Maso, of Manzanillo.
Secretary of War Carlos Ruloff, of Santos Clara.
Secretai-y of Foreign Affairs Rafael Portuondo y Tamayo, of Santiago de Cuba.
Sea-etarrj of the Tirasury Severo Pina, of Sauti Spiritu.
Secretary of the Interior Santiago Canizares, of Remedios.
Assistant Secretary of TFa?- -Mario Menocal, of Matanzas. Assistant Secretari/ of Foreign Affairs—
Fermin Valdes Domingues, of Havana. Assistant Secretary of t/ie Tt-easta-y—Joixqum Castillo Duany,
of Santiago de Cuba. Assistant Secretary of the Interior— Carlos Dubois, of Baracoa.
The General-in-Chief of the Army in the field is Maximo Gomez ; the Lieutenant-General is Anto-
The revolutionary government of Cuba was organized at Camaguey on September 19, 1895. The
President of the Republic, Senor Betancourt, is the ex-Marquis "of Santa Lucia, who formally re-
nounced his title oinobility when he joined the re-^olution in 1868. and lost his estates, which were
then confiscated by the Spanish Government. The General-in-Chief, Maximo Gomez, is a native of
Santo Domingo, and a Cuban by adoption. Lieutenant-General Antonio Maceo is a native mulatto,aud
was a major-general in the ten years' war.
^f}f}vt\)iationn of i^rftfslj ®:itlcs.
B. C. L . . .
D. Litt. . .
F. R. S. A