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ihcy conclude right, that *' cogitation belongs not to
"cxtenfion or folidity; or is not included in cither of
" them, or both together;" but this is not theconfequencc
that they draw, but infer a conclulion that is not con-
tained in the prcmifes, and is quite bcfides them ; as
Mr. Norris, if he would make ufe of fyllogilm to its

t roper purpofe, might fee. ]^xteniion, and folidity, wc
ave the ideas of; and fee, that cogitation has no nc-
ccflary connexion with them, nor has any confequen-
tial rcfult from them ; and therefore is not a proper
aftedion of extenfion anJ. folidity, nor doth naturally
belong to them ; but iiow doih it follow from hence,
that it may not be made an atVec^tion of, or be annexed
to that fubdancc, which is vefted with folidity and ex-
tenlion ? Of this fubflanre wx have no idea, that excludes
cogitation, any more than folidity. Their concluiion,
tl;crcforc, lliould be the cxclufion of cogitation froni


Several Letters. 2S5

the fubflance of matter, and not from the other affec-
tions of that fubflance. But they either overlook this,
which is the true ftate of that argument, or clfc avoid to
fet it in its clear light; left it fhow too plainly, that their
great argument either proves nothing, or, if it doth, it
is againft them.

What you fay about my ElTay of Human Underftand^
ing, that nothing can be advanced againft it, but upon
the principle of innate ideas, is certainly fo ; and there-
fore all who do not argue againft it, from innate ideas,
in the fcnfe I fpeak of innate ideas ; though they make a
noife againft me, yet at laft they fo draw and twift their
improper Mays of fpeaking, which have the appearance
and found of contradiction to m.e, that at laft they ftatc
the queftion fo, as to leave no contradiction in it to my
tlfay ; as you have obfervcd in Mr. Lee *, Mr. Lowde t,
and Mr. Norris in his late treatife. It is reward enough
for the writing my book, to have the approbation of
one fuch a reader as you are. You have done nie and
my book a great honour, in having beftowed fo much
of your thoughts upon it. You have a comprehenfnc
knowledge of it, and do not ftick in the incidents;
which I find many people do ; which, whether true or
falfe, make nothing to the main defign of the ElTay, that
lies in a little compafs; and yet, 1 hope, may be of great
ufe to thofe who fee and follow that plain and e5.fy me-
thod of nature, to carry them the ftiorteft and clearcft
way to knowledge. Pardon me this vanity ; it was with
a defign of inquiring into the nature and powers o^ the
underftanding, that I writ it ; and nothing but the hope
that it might do fomc fervicc to truth and knowledge,
could excufe the publiihing of it.

I know not whether I ever Ihowed you an occafional
iketch of mine, about '* feeing all things in God." If

* ** Anti-Scepiicifm ; or notes upon each chapter ofMr. Locke's EHay
concerning Human Underftanding, with an explanation of all tlie p.irti-
culars of which he treats, and in the fame order. In four books By
Henrv Lee, B. D. formerly fellow of Emanuel College in Cambridge,
now Rertor of Tichmarfh in Northamptonfhire," Lo id, 1702, in fol.

+ Li his ** Difcourfe concerning the ^.ature of Man,'* u;c. and his
« Morai Kflays," &c,

5 I did

2 86 Several Letters,

I did not, if it plcafc God I live to fee you here agairt^
1 will Ihow it you*; and fomc other things. If you
v'ill kt me know before-hand, when you delign us that
favour ; it will be an addition to it. 1 beg your pardon
for holding you fo long from better employment. I do
not, you fee, willingly quit your convcrfarion. If you
were nearer me, vou would fee it more, for I am. See.

I'o the J.


S I R, Gates, 3 April, 1704.

IN good footh, fir, you are an obftinatc lover ; there
Is no help for it, you mull carry your point. Only give
me leave to tell you, that I do not like the puling lit you
fall into, at the lower end of the page; where you tell
inc, '' I have given you an argument againfl: prefuming
*' fo far again upon the liberty 1 allow you." That is to
fay, you may give me books, you may buy books for
me, you may get books bound for mc, you may trudge
up and down with then^ on my errand to ladies; but
my book you may not prcfume to read, ufe your judg-
ment about, and talk to me freely of; though I know
no-body that underfbands it fo well, nor can give me
better light concerning it. Away with this fqueam-
Llhnefs, 1 befeech you ; and be allured, that, among
the many good olhces you daily do for mc in London,
there is none whereby I Ihall reap fo much prolit and
pleafure, as your lUidying for me ; and let us both,
without fcruple or referve, help one another the bell we
can, in the way to truth and know ledge. And wlx'n-
cvcr you find me prefume, that 1 know aJl that belongs
to the fubjecft of my own book, and difdain to receive
light and inltrudtion from another, though of much
lower form than you ; conclude that I am an arrant cox-
comb, and know nothing at all.

• That Diflcrtarion was j^ubUflicd in Mr, Lockc'i Porthumous Works ;
LunJ. i*c6, \\\ yvo.


Sevei'al Letters. 2S7

You will fee by the enclofcd, that I can find bufinefs
for you at Oxford, as well as at London. I have left it
open, that you may read it before you feal and deliver
it. In it you will fee what he writ to nie, on that affair.
He is well acquainted with them in the univcrfity ; and
if he has not, may be prevailed on by you to hfli out the
bottom of that matter, and inform you in all the par-
ticulars of it. But you mull not take his conjectures
for matter of fict ; but know his authors, for any mat-
ter of fact he alhrms to you. You will think I intend to
engage you in a thoufand difputes with him ; quite the
contrary. You may avoid all difpute with him; if you
will but fay after him ; though you put him upon things
that fliow you quellion all he fays.

If Mr, Wynne of Jcfus-College, who epitomifed mj
book *, be in the univerilty, it is like you will fee him,
and talk to him of the matter. Pray, give him my {ci-
vice. But be fure, forget me not, with all manner x^i
refpecft, to Mr. Wright, for whom I havc^ as I ought,
a very peculiar ellecm.

I hope you will be plcafed with me; for you fee I
have cut out work for you ; and that is all that is left for
me to do, to oblige you. I am, (&c.

To the fiUiie.

DtAR Sir, Gates, 19 May, 1704.

NOTHING works fo Readily and eflcv'hially as
fricndHiip. Had I hired a man to have gone to town
in my bufincfs, and paid him well, my commillions
would not have been fo foon, nor fo well difpatched, as
I find, by yours of the i6th, they have been by you.
You fpeak of my affairs, and ad: in them with fuch an
air of intcrefl and fitistaclion, that I can hardly avoid
thinking, that 1 oblige you with emplo}ing you in them.
It is no fmall advantage to me, to have found fuch a

* Mr. Wynne, afterwards lord bifhop of, St. Afaph, was the author of
*' An Abridgment of Mr. Locke's LlTay conccrnini; Human Underllanii-
•* ing." Loud, 1696,111 Svo,


2S8 Letters.

friend, at the laft fccnc of my life ; when I am good for
nothing, and am grown fo ufclcfs, that I cannot but be
fare that^ in every gooti olficc you do inc, you can pro-
pofe to yourfclf no other advantage but the pleafure of
doing it.

Every one here finds himfclf obliged, by your late
good company. As for myfclf, if you had not con-
vinced me by a fenfible experiment, 1 could not have
believed I could have had fo many happy days together.
I (liall always pray that yours may be multiplied.
Could I, in the leali, contribute any thing thereunto, I
fhould think myfelf happy in this poor decaying fbatc
of my health ; which, tb.ough it alVords me little in this
-world to enjoy, )et 1 find the charms of your company
make me not feel the want of Ibength, or breath, or any
thing clfe.

The bifliop of Gloceder came hither the day you went
from hence, and in no very good ftate of health. I find
two groaning people make but an uncomfortable con-
cert. He returned yeflerday, and went away in fomc-
what a better flate. I hope he got well to town.

Enjoy your health, and youth, whild you have it, to
all the advantages and improvements of an innocent and
pleafant life; remembering that mercilefs old age is in
purfuit of you, and when it overtakes you, will not fail,
fome way or other, lo impair the enjoyments both of
body and mind. You know how apt 1 am to preach. I
believe it is one of the difeafes of old age. But my
friends will forgive me, when I have nothing to perfuadc
them to, but that they fliould endeavour to be as
happy as it is poiTible for them to be ; and to you 1 have
no more to fay, but that you go on in the courfe you are
in. I refled: often upon it, w ith a fecret joy, that you
promifed I fhould, in a Ihort time, fee you again. You
are very good, and I dare not prefs you. But I cannot
but remember how well 1 j")al]ed my time, when you
were here. I am, c\:c.


Several Letters, 2 89

To the fame,

D £ A R Sir, Gates, 25 May, 1704.

WHEN you come to my age, you will know that,
with us old fellows, convenient always carries it before
ornamental. And I would have as much of the free air
when I go abroad in it*, as is pofTible. Only I aflc
whether thofe, which fall back, fo as to give as free a
profpecl behind as before, be as eafily managed, and
brought over you again, in cafe of need, as in a fhower;
as one that falls back, upon two ftanding corner pil-
lars ? And next, whether that which falls back fo well,
doth, when it is drawn up over you, come fo far over
your head, when it is eredled, as to fhelter it from the
dew, without fliutting you up from the free open air ?
For I think fometimes in the evening of a warm day to
fit abroad in it, to take the frefco ; but would have a
canopy over my head, to keep the dew oft. If this be
fo, I am plainly, and without balancing, for that which
falls flattefl:. One queftion more, and I have done.
Pray, what place is there for a footman in any of them ?
Moftofmy time being fpent in fitting, I dcfire fpccial
care may be taken, in making the feat broad enough,
and the two cufnions foft, plump, and thick enough.

You know I have great liking to be canonical ; but I
little thought, that you, of all others, was the man to
make me fb. I fliall love it the better for your fake ;
and wifh that canonical were ready, that you might
have the handfcllingof it hither fpeedily. If I did not
take you for myfelf, as you have taught me to do, I
fhould not be thus free with you. Count me in your
turn all yourfcif, except my age and infirmities, thofc I
defire to keep to myfelf; all the reft of me is yours.

* That is, in a chaife, which Mr. Locke dcfired to have made for

Vol. IX, U Jtf

290 Several Letters.

To the fame.

Dear Sir, Oatcs, 26 May, 17C4.

MY letter yellcrday ucnt away without an anfwcr
to one of your demands ; and that was, whether 1 would
have any brafs on the harnefs ? '\o which, give me leave
to tell you, that, in my whole life, 1 have been con-
flantly againll any thing that makes a lliow ; no maxim
being more agreeable to my condition and temper, than
•' qui bene latuit bene vixit." I like to have things
fubllantially good of their kind, and ufeful, and hand-
fomely made, and fitly adapted to their ufes ; for, if
either were nccelfary, I had rather be taken notice of
for fomething that is falhionably gaudy, than ridicu-
loufly uncouth, or for its poornefs and meannefs re-
markable. Therefore, if you pleafe, let the harnefs,
and all the whole accoutrements be of as good materials,
and as handfomely made and put together as may be;
but for ornanients of brafs, or any fuch thing, 1 dcfirc
it may be fpared.

One qucftion more comes into my mind to alk you,
and that is, whether the back of thofe, that fall down
fo Hat, are fo made that, when it is up, one may lean
and loll againft it at one's eafe, as in a coach or a cha-
riot; for I am grown a very lazy fellow, and have now
three eafv chairs to lean and loll in, and would not be
without that relief in my chaife.

You fee I am as nice as a young fond girl, that is
coming into the world, with a face and a fortune, as flic
prefumes, to command it. Let not this, however, deter
you ; for I fhall not be fo hard to be pleafcd. For what
you do will be as it I did it myfclf. 1 am, ^:c.

To the fa?iu\

Dear Sip, Oatcs, 29 May, 1704.

MOW iliould I value the chaife vou take fo much

pains about, if I could hope I could have your company


Several Letters, 291

with me abroad in it, every two or three days. How-,
ever, it wears the fignature of your friendfhip, and fo
will always have fomething in it to pleafe me.

I know not whether it be worth while to clog it with
any thing, to make a place for a footman. That muft,
I fuppofe, make it bigger and heavier, which I would
avoid ; and I think, upon the whole matter, there will
be no great need of it. But when I hear from you again,
I fhall know that. In the mean time, all the reft, I
think, is refolvcd ; for, I fuppofe of courfe, you will
choofe a cloth for the lining of a dull colour ; that is the
proper colour for fuch a prieft as you mention in your

If poor PfalmanafTar be really a convert from paga-
nifm (which I would be glad to be alTured of) ; he has
very ill luck, not to herd any where among the variety
efforts that are among us. But I think it fo, that the
parties are more for doing one another harm, than for
doing any body good. 1 am, &c.

To the fame.

Dear Sir. Oates, 9 June, 1704*

I MIGHT number my days, fand it is a pleafant
fort of almanacj by the kindnelfcs I receive from you.
Your packet I received, and have reafon to thank you
for all the particulars in it ; however, you thought fit
to prepare me for being difappointed, in the binding my
Greek Teflament. There is nothing in it that offends
me, but the running of hi'i paring-knife too deep into
the margin ; a knaviih and intolerable fault in all our
Englifli book-binders.

Books fcem to me to be peffilent things, and infe(5t all
that trade in them; that is, all but one fort of men, with
fomething very perveric and brutal. Printers, binders,
fellers, and others that make a trade and gain out of
them ; have univerfally fo odd a turn and corruption of
mind, that they have a way of dealing peculiar to them-

U % felvc^:,

292 Several Letters.

»'jlves, and not conformed to the good of focictyj and
that general fairnefs ih:it cements mankind.

Whether it be, that thefe inftruments of truth and
know ledge \vill not bear being fubjectcd to any thing
but thofc noble ends, without revenging themfclves on
thofc who meddle with them to any other purpofe, and
proHitute tlicm to mean and milbecoming dellgns ; I
\\'\\\ not inquire. The matter of fad:, I think, you will
find true; and there we will leave it to thofe who fully
themfelvcs with printer's ink, till they wholly expunge
all the candour that nature gives, and become the word:
fort of black cattle.

I'o the fame.

Dear Sir, Gates, June 29, 1704.

IF the chaifc you have had fo much trouble about
gives me as much fatisfaction afterwards, as it w 111 in
the firll: fervice I iliall re'eivc from it; the conquerors
of the world will not ride in their triumphant chariots
with more pleafurc, than I fliall in my little tumbrel.
It will bring mc what I prefer to glory. For, methinks,
he underllands but little of the true fwcetnefs of life,
that doth not more relilh the converiation of a worthy
and ingenuous friend in retirement, than the noife and
rout of the croud in the flreets, with all their acclama-
tions and huzza's. I long, therefore, that the machine
ihould be difpatched ; and expecl it as greedily as a
hungry merchant doth a ihip from the Eaft-Indies,
which is to bring him a rich cargo. I hope the coach-
maker doth not li^e far from you ; for if he be a flow
man of L.ondon, I would have him quickened once a
day, that he may ir.akc as much halle as if the fatlsfac-
tion of two lovers depended on his difpatch. In the
mean time, give n^ leave to defirc you to bellow fomc
of your fpare hours on the epillles to the Corinthians,
and totrv whether vou can find them intelligible or no.


Several Letters, 2^j

You will cafily guefs the rcafon of this * ; and when I
have you here, I hope to convince you it will not be
lofb labour; only permit me to tell you, you muft read
them with fomething more than an ordinary application.
The famples you have fent mc f, I muft conclude,
from the abilities of the author, to be very excellent.
But what fliall I be the better for the mod exadi and befh
proportioned picture that ever was drawn, if I have not
eyes to fee the correfpondence of the parts ? I confcfs
the lines are too fubtile for me, and my dull fight cannot
perceive their connexions. I am not envious, and
therefore fliall not be troubled, if others find themfclvcs
infi:rud:ed with fo extraordinary and fublime a way of
reafoning. I am content with my own mediocrity.
And though I call the thinking faculty in me, mind ;
yet I cannot, becaufe of that name, equal it in any thing
to that infinite and incomprehenfible being, which, for
want of right and dillind: conceptions, is called mind
alfo, or the eternal mind. I endeavour to make the belt
ufe I can of every thing; and therefore, though I am in
defpair to be the wifer for thefe learned inftruclions ;
yet I hope I fhall be the merrier for them, when you
and I take an air in the calafh together. I am, &:c.

To the fame.

Dear Si r; Gates, July 23, 1704,

THE gentlemen you fpeak of, have a great deal of

reafon to be pleafed with the Difcourfc J you mention;

* Mr. Locke writ this to Mr. Collins, in order to prepare him to read
afterwards with him his** Paraphrafe and Notes on the Epillles of vSt. Paul
•* to the Corinthians;" which have been publiihed fincc his death.

T That is, out of Dr. Sherlock's '* Digreflion concerning Connate Ideas,
« or Inl)red Knowledge,' againll Mr. Locke ; infer ted in the 3d fe(ftion
of the 2d chapter of his " Difcourfe concerning the hai'pinefs ot good
** men. and the punifhment of the wicked, in the next world, c^c" Lond.
1704., in S\o.

\ Y)i, Sherlock's ** Digreflion concerning Connate Ideas, ^c'' men-
tioned in the f'j|<'going letter,

U 3 th(.re

2 94 Several Letters.

there being nothing ever writ in their llrain and way
more perfectly than it is ; and it may Hand for a pattern
to thofe that have a mind to excel in their admirable
\ifc of language and method of talking; if, at lead,
there be any need of a pattern to thofe, who fo natu-
rally, and by a peculiar genius of their own, fall mto
that, ^vhich the profane illiterate vulgar, poor wretches,
are Grangers to, and cannot imitate. But more of this
to make us merry, when the chaifc brings us toge-

I now every moment wifli the chaifc done ; not out of
any imj^atience I am for the machine, but for the man ;
the man, 1 fay, that is to con^iC in it. A man, that has
not his fellow ; and, to all that, loves me. If I regret
j-ny old age, it is you that make mc, and call me back
to the world juli: as I was leaving it, and leaving it as a
place that has very little valuable in it ; but who would
jiot be glad to fpend fomc years with you ? Make hai\e,
therefore, and let me engrofs what of you I can.
1 am, ^c.

^0 the fame.

Dear Sir, Dates, Augufl 2, 1704.

THOUGM I cannot, by writing, make you a furer
title to myfelf than you have already ; yet I cannot for-
bear to acknowledge, under my hand and leal, the
<rreat fenfe I have of the late favour you did me. Whe-
thcr that, or any thing elfe, will be able to add any du-
ration to my mouldering carcafe. I cannot fay j but this
1 am fure, your company and kindnefs have added to
the length of my life, which, in my way of meafuring,
doth not lie in counting of minutes, but tailing of en-
joyments. I uilh the continuance and increafe of yours,
w ithout flint, and am, c^'c.

To the fame.
Dfar Sir, Oates, Augufl i i, 1704.

KIND and good-natured friends do, like you, befl:ow
their favours, and thank thofe that receive them. I was


Several L'^ttevs. 09^

never more obliged, nor better entertained, than by your
company here ; and you heap upon me your acknow-
ledgments, as if I had made a journey to London for
your fake, and there done you I know not how many
courtefies. This, however, has the effect you could
willi upon me. I believe all that you would have mc.
And fmce one naturally loves as well thofe that one has
done good to, as thofe whom one has received good
from ; I leave it to you, to manage the account as you
pleafc. So the alfeclion and good-v.ill between us doth
but increafe, whofc hands lay moll: fuel on the fire, that
warms us both, I lliall not be nicely folicitous ; fince I am
fure you cannot impute to mc more than I really wifh,
but at the fame time know that wifliing in me is all, for
I cando jufl nothing. Make no apologies to me, I be-
feech you, for what you (liid to me about the digreilion*.
It is no more, but what I find other people agree with
you in ; and it would afford as much diverlion as any
hunting you could imagine, had I flrcngth and breach
enough to purfuc the chace.

But of this we may, perhaps, have better opportunity
to talk, when I fee you next. P'or this I tell you before-
hand, I muff not have you be under any rellraint to
fpeak to me, whate,vcr you think ^n for mc to do ; whe-
ther I am of the fame mind or no. The ufe of a friend
is to perfuade us to the right, not to fuppofc always
tliat we arc in it. I am, &c.

To the fame.

D E A R S I R, Gates, Auguff 16, 1704.

WHICH way foever I turn myfcif, I meet on all fides
your friendlhip, in all manner of ffiapcs, and upon all
Ibrts of occafions, bcfetting me. Were I as avcrfe, as
I am pleafed, with my happinefs in your kindncfs; I
muff, however, yield to fo powerful and con ff ant at-

* See above* page 293.

U 4 tacks.

ri()G Several Letters.

tacks*. But it is pad that time of day. I have long
iincc furrendcrcd myfclf toyou. And I am as certainly
in your coach, as count Tallard in the duke of Marlbo-
rough's, to be dilpofed as you plcafe ; only with this
ditVcrcncc, that he was a prifoner of war againft his
will ; I am your captive, by the foft, but lironger, force
of your irrefidiblc obligations, and with the content and
joy of my own mind.

Judge then, whether I am willing my fhadow fhould
be in polRlTion of one with whom my heart is ; and to
whom all that I am, had I any thing befides my heart,
worth the prefenting, doth belong. Sir Godfrey, I
doubt nor, will make it very like. If it were polTible
for his pencil to make a fpeaking picture, it Ihould tell
)ou every day how much I love and edeem you; and
how pleafed I am to be, fo much as in effigy, near a
perfon, with whom I lliould be glad to fpend an age to
come. I am, Sec.

To the fame.

Dear Sir, Oatcs, September ii, 1704.

He that has any thing to do with you, mud own that
friendlliip is the natural product of your conflitution ;
and your foul, a noble foil, is enriched with the two
mofl: valuable qualities of human nature, truth and
fricndfliij). What a treafurc have I then in fuch a
friend, with whom I can converfc, and be enlightened
about the higheft fpeculations ! When one hears you
upon the principles of knowledge, or the foundations of
government, one would hardly imagine your thoughts
ever dcfcended to a brudi, or a curry-comb, or other
i'uch trumpjry of life ; and yet, if one employ you but
10 get a pair of flioe-buckles, you are as ready and dex-
terous at it, as if the whole bufmefs of your life had been
with nothing but Ihoe-buckles.

* Mr. Collins had dcfirt-d Mr. Locke to let fir Godfrey Kncller come
down into the country, to dra.v Mr, Locke '3 picture i which fir Godfrey


Several Letters, ^07-

As to my lady's pidurc, pray, in the firfl place, fee it,
and tell me how you like it. In the next place, pray
get fir Godfrey to write upon it, on the back-fide, lady
Mafham, 1704; and on the back-fide of mine, John
Locke» 1704. This he did on Mr. Molyneux's and
mine, the lafl: he drew ; and this is necclfary to be done,
or elfe the pidcures of private perfons are loft in two
or three generations ; and io the picl:ure lofes of its
value, it being not known whom it was made to repre-

To the fame.

Dear Sir, Oates, October i, 1704.

TO complete the fatisfadlion I have lately had here,
there has been nothing wanting but your company.
The coming of his father-in-law*, joined with the

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