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and that a more powerful hand mav not take it trom him.

Vol. IX. Y 1 rely



32 2 Seve ml Lett e rs ,

1 rely very n-;uch on my lord Rochcflcr's mediation,
and your own kindnclfc to mc, that may induce you to
believe, that an obii^iation will not be abfolutely call



'to

a\\3v on.



S I R,

Your affectionate friend and fcrvant.



My Loi'd,

I DOUBT no:: but your lordfnip hath before this
time heard of the death of Mr. Locke, who was in the
full poflellion of his reafon and underflanding to the
iall m.inutc of his life ; he hath made m.e his executor,
by means whereof his writings are come to my hands,
amongll which I find three or four fliccts of memoirs of
vour grandfather's life, with an epitaph on your grands
father. Mr. Locke defigncd, if he had lived longer,
to have gone on farther with thofc memoirs. I beg
your lordlhip's pardon that I ha-vc not acquainted your
lordfhip herewith fooncr; but Mr. Locke happening
to dye in the term, I had not leifure to look into his
concerns, beyond what was abfolutely necelTary, till
within thcfc few days. Thefe papers properly belong
to }our lordHiip, and I thought it my duty to acquaint
vour lordfliip therewith, and lliall difpofe of them as
vour lordlliip ihall direc^h

I am, with all finccrity,

Vour lordfliip's mod dutiful,

and affedionatefervant.

Inner Temple, Peter King.

Dec, 9, 1704.



OBSERVATIOKS



OBSERVATIONS

U P O N T H E

GROWTH AND CULTURE

O F

V I N E S AND OLIVES:

THE

PRODUCTION of SILK;

THE

PRESERVATION of FRUITS,

Written at the Request of .

The EARL of SHAFTSBURY.

To whom it is infcribed,
(First Published in M.DCC.LXVI.)



Y 2



THE

EDITOR TO THE READER.



AT this time, when every improvement of the gar-
den is fo much the ftudy and delight of our coun-
trymen ; vihen artificial means have been difcovered to
fupply every defedl of climate, and the vegetable pro-
ductions of every other region of the globe have been
raifed in our own foil; it is prefumcd the following
fmall trad, printed from a manufcript very neatly writ-
ten by Mr. John Locke, with his ufual accuracy, will
be no unwelcome prefent to the public.

Subjects of curiofity and inftruiftion, to the inquifitive
philofopher and his noble patron, will, doubtlefs, be
entertaining to every reader.

Should it gain a pafTage to America, it will be of
far more extenfive ufe both to that country and to
Britain.

No union, no alliance, is fo firm and lading as that
which is founded upon the folid bafis of a mutual in-
tereft.

NecefTity, natural or artificial, is the real caufe and
fupport of trade and navigation. Our commerce with
Spain and Portugal, and other countries, will fubfiil
under every change of government or inhabitants,
whilft we are in want of the produdtions of their foil and
induftry.

Politicians, who ought to know how comm.ercc, and
confequently naval force, has fluctuated in the world,
will take care not to opprcfs. by ver\ heavy and impro-

Y J vident



326 Thf Editor to ihf Reader.

vidcnt taxations, their manufactures, and other arti-
cles of trade at home, nor fuch commodities imported
from abroad, as may difpofe otlier nations to cultivate
thofc very articles among thenifclvcs, which they have
hitherto received from us.

However populous and great, induHrious and rich,
the fettlements in the vad: continent of America may
hereafter become, this the mother-country may for
ever be conneded with it more intimately than the
fouthern nations, by encouraging the growth and pro-
duce of vines and olives, filk and fruits, which cannot
advantageoufly be raifcd in England: and found policy
will always engage the fubjevrls in England and Ame-
rica not to be rivals in trade, by fctting up fuch ma-
nufactures in one country as mull nccellarily diilrefs the
other.

The wifdom of this country will inflrucl: governors
to do all that is poffible to promote the linen manu-
facture in Ireland; and the wife and good in both king-
doms will never defire fuch ufe of their wool and their
ports as muH: be directly prejudicial to England.

The moil: pcrfccfl harmony will fubfifl between Great
Britain and her colonies, as long as britifli fubjects,
cemented by blood, by mutual intercft and commerce,
continue friends to liberty and the protcllant religion,
and fucceflion in the prcfcnt royal flimily ; this is a
true and lading famiiy-compad: : all which incRimablc
blelfuigs will be rendered permanent and inviolable by
the fleets of England, which, whilll the britidi empire
is united, will be fuperiour to all other powers in the
"world.

The editor cannot take his leave of the reader with-
out obferving, that very important fervices have been
done to America, by a })lan of government drawn up
for the province of Carolina by Mr. Locke, under the
(]irccl:ion of that eminent and able Ihucliiian the firil
carl of Shaftibury ; and by the prefeju eail o'l Shaftf-

burv,



The Editor to the Reader. 327

bury, as an adlive and zealous trullce for the colony
of Georgia ; from which, in time, we may exped a
confiderable quantity of raw lilk will be imported into
England.

Vines arc natural to the foil of many parts in Ame-
rica ; and, if olive-trees are planted in fuch provinces
as are moft proper for the growth of them, the plan-
ters will foon be enriched, and England relieved m fe-
veral articles made from this profitable fruit, and which
are necclTary to the fupport of every individual, and every
manufadlure in the kingdom.

Temple, March 1766.

G. s.



TO THE RICH I HONOURABLE



ANTHONY Earl of SHAFTSBURY.



My Lord,

'TPHE country, ulicrc thcfe obfcrvations were made,
-*- hath vanity enough to over-vahic every thing it
produces : and it is hard to live in a place, and not
take fome tindurc from the manners of the people.
Yet I think 1 iliould fcarce have ventured to trouble
your lordrtiip with thefe french trifles, had not your
lordfliip yourfclf encouraged mc to believe, that it
would not be unacceptable to you, if I took this way
(for I ought all manner of ways) to cxprcfs that duty
and obfcrvancc wherewith I am.



My Lord,

Your lordfln'p's moft humble,

and mod obedient fcrvant,

Ch. Ch. Feb. I,
1679.

JOHN LOCKE.



WINE.



IN Languedoc they plant their vineyards in February ;
and they choofe the quarter before the full, as the
fitteft time of the moon to do it in.

They fet the cuttings they plant exadlly in quincunx,
and the rows at four and a half, five, and lix pans dif-
tance. — A pan is 9I- inches.

About Tholoun in Provence, and alfo about Bour-
deaux, I have feen vines and corn interchangeably ; viz.
two or three rows of vines, and then a ridge or two of
corn.

They fet their plants about a fpit deep, and always
leave two knots above ground.

In fctting the vines, they dig the ground fometimcs
all over, fometimes only in trenches.

They plant their vineyards both in plains and on hills,
with indiiferency ; but fay that on hills, efpecially open-
ing to the cad or fouth, the wine is bell : in plains they
produce mod. The foil about Frontignan, where the
bed mufcat grows, is fo dony, that one can fee no earth
at all. And the vine de Pontac, fo much edecmed in
England, grows on a ridng open to the wed, in a
white fand mixed with a little gravel, which one would
think would bear nothing ; but there is fuch a particu-
larity in the foil, that at Mr. Pontac's, near Bourdcaux,
the merchants allured me that the wine growing in the
very next vineyards, where there was only a ditch be-
tween, and the foil, to appearance, perfectly the fame,
was by no means fo good. The fame alfo they obfcrve
about Montpelier, where two vineyards, bounding one
I upoa



210 OhfervatioHS up^jit Vine^,

upon another, conftantly produce the one good and the
other bad wine.

A vineyard, from its planting, vill lad fifty, eighty,
or an hundred years. The older the vineyard, the fewer
the grapes, but the better the wine. New planted
vineyards produce inore> but the wine not fo good :
it is generally green, i. e. more inclining to verjuice.

The vineyard thus planted, the next year at pruning
they cut them, fo that (if conveniently there can) there
may be four ihoots next year, near the ground, at lealt
three, fpreading feveral ways, which may come to be
{o many (landing branches, out of which the Ihoots are
to fprout. There being thus left the beginnings of
three or four branches fpreading different ways, ever af-
terwards, when they come to prune, they leave about an
inch of that lafl year's flioot, which grew ftrait out of
the top of each of the four Handing branches ; all the
red they cut off clean to the old dock.

If by chance they find (when they are pruning) a
vine decayed, or gone in any place, they dig a trench
from the next ftock to that place, and laying the old
llock along in the trench, order it lb that one laft year's
flioot of the faid ftock Ihall come out juft where the
laid flock grew, and another where there was one want-
ing: thefe they cut off about eight or nine inches above
the ground, which being fed by the great old root
(which they move not when they lay the old Hock,
but fo loofen it only as it may let the old llock be
gently bent down, and ^o be buried in the trench) will
bear the next vintage; whereas, if they planted a cut-
ting in the place where they found a liock wanting, it
would not bear in three or four years. By thefe young
plants, they flick in a good llrong branch, a pretty
deal longer than the plant, which ihcy leave there to
defend it.

They prune their vines in december, January, fe-
bruary, and march: they that do it fo Lire as the latter
end of fcbruary, or the month of march, are fuch as
have vineyards apt to flioot early in the fprmg ; and, if
cold weather nip the young Ihoots, they liavc the fewer
grapes at the vintage. And in pruning their vines they

obfci ve



Ohfcrvaiions upon Vines. '}^'-^\

obfene to do it in one year in the new and another in
the old of the moon, or elfe they i^y they will grow too
much to wood.

They turn the ground of their vineyards twice a year;
about the end of february or in march, and again in
may ; they do it either by ploughing betwixt the rows
of vines, or, which they count better, by digging, in
which they fometimes ufe little fpades, but nrioil com-
monly large houghs, the ufual way of delving in this
country ; in which way they turn up the earth as deep
and much faftcr than our men do vvith fpades in Eng-
land.

Pigeons dung and hens dung they make ufc of in
their vineyards, as an improvement that will increafe
the quantity without injuring the goodnefs of their wine :
but horfe dung, or that of any beall, tlicy fay, fpoils
the goodnefs of their wine. This they have fo ftrong
an opinion of at Galliac, a place about thirty leagues
from Montpelier, that, if a pcafant there Ibould ufc anv
but birds dung about his vines, his neighbours would
burn his houfe; becaufe they would not have the wine
of that place lofe its reputation.

I have been told that a flieep's horn buried at the
root of a vine will make it bear well even in barren
ground. I have no great faith in it, but mention it, be-
caufe \i may ^o eafily be tried.

But I fuppofc the hulbandry in their vineyards differs
much, both according to the fafliion of feveral countries,
aud the difference of foil; for I remember that, at
Mr. Pontac's vineyard near Bourdcaux, the vines in
fome parts of the vineyard grew four or five feet high,
and were tied to ftakes ; and in another part of the fame
vineyard they were directed along upon the ground, not
above a foot from it, between little low Hakes or laths,
fo that the old branches ftand on each iide the root like
a pair of arms fpread out, and lying open towards the
fouth. The reafon of this different way of culture I
could not learn of the labourers for want of undcrlland-
ing (iafcoin. In Languedoc they ufe no Hakes at all
to fupport their vines, but they trufl them to the Hrength
of their own growth, pruning them as I have above

mentioned \



^-^2 Obfervations upon Vines.

mentioned ; which makes them fay in the more
northerly parts of TVance, that in Languedoc they have
wine without taking pains for it.

When the grapes arc ready to turn, they go into the
vineyards, and there taking four, five, or lix of the
neighbour ihoots, twifl them together at the top ; and
thus the flioots all through the vineyard, being as it
were tied together, fland upright, whereby the grapes
have more fun, and perhaps the fap too is hindered
from running into the wood and leaves.

'I'hey have about Montpelier thefe following forts of
grapes :



I.

2.

3-

4-

5-
6.

7-
8.

9-

lO.

ir.

12.

13.

14.

15-

16.

n-
18.

19.
20.
21.



Efpiran.

Efpiran verdau,

Tarret.

Barbaroux.

Orumcau negrc.

Grumcau blanc.

(xrumeau blanc niufcat.

Laugeby.

L'ougre.

Rai(in de St. Jean.

Marroquin.

Marroquin gris.

Marroquin bleu.

Clarette.

Clarettc rouge.

Ovilla de negrc.

Ovilla de blanc.

Covilla de Gal.

Kamou nen.

Unio negro.

Unio blanquo.



23.

24-

25-
26.

27.

28.

29.

JO-
32.
33-
34-
35-
36.
37.
3«.
39-
40.
41.



Corinth.
Effouimu.
Iragnou.
Piquepoul.
Farret.
Piquardan.
Mufquat negrc.
Mufquat blanc.
Mufquat d'Efpagne.
Palofedo.
Servan.
Damas violet.
Raifon de la fon.
Sadoulo boyyier.
Sergoufan.
L'anibrufquc.
Rovcrgas.
Cohort.
Mufquadaflas.
Crifpata.



Thefe are the names of grapes they have about Mont-
pelier, as they are called in the pattoy of that country.

r. The efpiran, a round, black, very fweet and very
w holefome grape : they cat them in great quantities
when thorough ripe (which is about the middle of
auguft llylo novo) without any fear of furfeit ; and they

are



Ohfervaiions upon Vines, 33J

are often prcfcribed by phyficians to be eaten plentifully.
I think them one of the beft fruits in the world. Thefc
alone, of all the red grapes, make good wine by them-
felves ; but they plant them not in fo great quantities
as the other forts, becaufe in hot and dry fcafons they
will dry up before they are ripe.

2. Efpiran verdau, or the green cfpiran, called fo
from its colour; an admirable grape alfo to eat, though
not altogether fo delicate as the black efpiran; but its
excellency is, that it will keep long in the winter for
eating; and I have eat very good of them at Chrillmas.
Their way of keeping them is to gather them when ripe,
and fo hang them up, every bunch fingle, to the roof of
a clofe room.

3. Tarret is a black, very large, but not veryfweet
grape, and therefore ufed only for w ine ; wherein it
gives a very large quantity, but not much ftrength.

5. Grumeau negre, or the black grumeau, is an ex-
cellent large grape, very flefiiy, and well enough tafted,
of the fafliion of a pear. I have {iitVi one fingle grape of
this fort which was in compafs above jf- inches engliih
meafure, and in compafs the long way y^y and weighed
of their weights jfs. 9j. gr. iij. and all the reft of the
grapes of the fame bunch proportionable ; but I have
notobferved them ordinarily planted in their vineyards.

10. Raifin de St. Jean is a fort of grape which they
have only at the phyfic-garden at Montpclier: it came
from India; it is a black grape, very good, ripe at Mid-
fummer (and therefore called St. John's grape) two
months before any of the other forts.

7 1. Marrociuin, a very black, large, flcfliy, round
grape, very good to eat, but feldom ufed in wine.

14. Clarette, white, longilh, middle-fized, fweet,
good to cat, and good for wine.

19. Ramounen, black, very fweet, middle-fized, good
for wine, and eating.

22. Corinth; this we have in England; and I do not
find they ufe it much there for wine.

25. Piquepoul, black and very fweet, good for wine
and for e:uing.

27. Piquardan,



3,U Ohfo-vations upon Vines.

27. Piquardan, white, Iohl^, larp^c, very fwecr, with
a very little of the miifcat tailc in it ; makes very good
wine alone or mingled.

■29. Mufquat blanc, or white mufcat ; this is ufiiallv^
}i]anted and prefTcd alone, and makes the w inc we ufually
call Frontiniac, froni Frontignan, a town on the Medi-
terranean, near two or three leagues from Montpclier,
where the mofl and belt fort of this \\ine is made. It is
a pleafant grape, and early ripe, before the ordinary
forts ; but they are not near fo good to eat as the efpiran,
being apt to fume to the head and make it ache.

32. Servan, a long, large, white, flefliy, fwcet grape,
called fo, becaufe they keep well, and you have of thefe
always latefl: in winter.

41. Crifpata; this I faw no-where but in the phyfic-
garden at Montpelier: a good fweet white grape ; called
fo from its jagged leaves, and I fuppofe the fame with
our parfley grape in F]ngland.

At Marmouftier, the great abbey of benediclins near
Tours, I faw in their garden a fort of grapes pretty
ripe, which they called raifms de Ste. Magdalene, be-
caufe they ufed to be ripe about that time, which is the
22d of July.

Upon the fkilful mixture of thefe fcveral forts of
grapes, as well as on the propriety of the foil, depends
in a great meafure the goodnefs of their wine : though,
as far as I could obferve, it was not fo far improved as it
might; nor any other great care taken, but that there
iliould be always a mixture of white grapes when they
made their red wine, which will otherwife be too thick
and deep-coloured : and therefore, if they have a fuffi-
cient quantity of claret or piquardin grapes in their
vineyards, they feem not over curious of an cxa^t pro-
portion of the other forts, which are planted there pro-
nnfcuoufly.

When their grapes arc ripe, and they have leave, they
cut them, carry them home, and tread them imme-
diately ; for they will not keep without fpoiling: this
is the reafon they mud have leave; for, the parfoii
being to have his tithe, and of that make his wine, if
the parilhioncrs were not obliged to vintage all at the

fame



Ohfervations upon Vines, 33^

fame time, he could not make wine of his fliare, fincc
one parcel of grapes could not flay till the other was cut
to be pre lied with them.

The grapes being brought in great tubs, either on
mules or men's backs, to the place where the wine is to
be made, they put them in a kind of grate over the
kuve, and there tread them till they are all broken, and
then they throw them, hufks, ftalks, and all, into the
kuve; and thus till all their whole crop of grapes arc trod-

Whcn all the mafs is in the kuve, they let it work
there one, two, or three days, as they think fit to have
their winet the longer it works, and the more ftalks
are in it (for fometimes they put them not all in) the
rougher and deeper-coloured will the wine be, but keep
the longer.

When it has wrought its time in the kuve, they put
it into buts, and there let it work as long as it will,
filling up the working veficl every day with fome of the
fame mud kept on purpofe, for it walfes much in
working.

Of the marc (which is huflcs, ftalks, and other fedi-
ment, left at the bottom of the kuve when the mufb is
taken out) they make a worfc and coarfe fort of wine
for the fervants, and this they prefs as we do our apples,
to make cyder.

The flones, after prcning, fome people cleanfe from
the refl: of the marc, and fell for food for pigeons: the
flalks alfo cleanfed they ufe in making of verdigris.
And in fome places they take the remaining marc aft.er
prelung, put it in great tubs, and cover it with water,
keeping the marc down with weights, and of this they
give to their horfes, which very much cools and re-
frefhes them there in the hot feafon. This may give
one reafon to confidcr, whether any fuch ufe might be
!nade of the marc of our apples, after making cyder.

When they have a mind to have their winq fine
fooner than ordinary, they put into the cafk a pretty
good quantity of fhavings of fir, and in fome places of
hazel, and with it they fometimes put fome whole
white grapes-

A little bread or oil (they fay ever fo little, and there-
fore th'^y are vci}' carelul in this point) mixed \\ ith the

mufl.



336 Ohjervations upon Vines,

inun", turns the wine to vinegar; and fo does thunder:
but they fay iron laid upon the vciTcIs will keep wine
fronn Touring by thunder.

The kuve is, in fome j^laccs, a great vefTel made of
wood (\Vitners the great kuve that is yet to be fcen at
Marmou flier, which, they fay, will hold two hundred
tun of wine) as our brewers vcfiels for the working of
their kuve is in l^ngland. ]3ut, at Montpelier, it is
iifually a place made in the ground in fome part of the"
houfc, proportionably big accordingly to the quantity
they ordinarily make, and lined v/ith plafler of Paris,
to keep it from leaking. In the kuve (which is made
\x{c of but once a year) as well as all other parts of their
making wine, they are, according to their manner,
fulTiciently naiiy: the grapes often are alfo very rotten,
and always full of fpiders. Beiides that, I have been
told by thofe of the country, that they often put fait,
dung, and other lilthinefs, in their wine to help, as they
think, its purging. But, without thefe additions, the
very fight of their treading and making their wine
(walking without any fc*ruple out of the grapes into
the dirt, and out of the dirt into grapes they are tread-
ing) were enough to fct one's ilomach ever after againfl:
this fort of liquor.

In fome parts of Languedoc, out of the great roads,
their wine is fo cheap, that one m.ay ordinarily buy
three pints a penny.

It is ufual to fet fig-trees, pear-trees. Sec up and
down in their vineyards, and fomctimcs I have fecn olive-
trees. Here at Montpelier, as in other parts of France,
it is notiifcredit for any man to hang out a bufli at his
door, and fell his wine by retail, either to thofe that
Ictch it out of doors, or will come and drink it at his
houfc ; for w hich they ufually, for that time, fct aj-jart
a room or quarter of the houfc, and have a fervant on
jiurpofe to attend it. This I have know n both gentle-
men and churchmen do. I^ut whoever, in Languedoc,
fells his own wine at his houfe, mull not alford his
cuflomcrs fo much as a bit of bread, or any thing clfe,
to eat with it ; for then it will come under the notion of
a cabaret, or common drink ing-houfe, and their tax or

excifc



Obfcrvations npn Vines, 337

cxclfe overtake them. I mention Langucdoc, becaufe
in other parts of France they who fell their own w'inc
by retail, are not excufed from paying the king a part
of what they fell it for. At Saumur, I remember 1 was
told, they then fold their wine (which is a very good
fort of white wine) at their bufhons, i. e. private houfes,
for 18 dcnicrs per pint, which is more than our quart ;
out of which i8d. the king had lod. and the proprietor
the remaining 8d»



Vol. IX. Z OIL.



O I



THE forts of olives, as well as grapes, arc very va-
rious about Montpclier : the names of feme of
them arc as followcth :

1. Groofau, a large olive.

2. Pichulina, little.

3. Verdal, middle-iized.

Thefe three forts are good to eat, and the laft alfo i^
good for oil, and a great bearer.

4. Olivera. -^

5. Corncau. |

6. Salierna. )>Good bearers.

7. Clarmontefa. '[
g. Rcdonau. J
9. Bootiliau.

10. Argcntau.

11. Moorau.

12. Marliliefa.

13. Pigau.

All thefe are little olives, and ufcd only for oil: tficv
plant them promifcuoufly in their olive-yards, and
mingle the olives in making oil. That which they
principally regard in the plants is, that they be of the
forts that are the bel\ bearers, and if they have not
enough of thofe, they plant others, and inoculate them.
The llips will grow, but they commonly ufc oit-fetc;
from the roots.

Their time of planting is fcbruary, march, and april.
Their olive-trees lad to a great age ; they fay t\\ o hun-
dred years. When the old flocks are faulty or decayed,
rhey let up }oung oli'-fets from the roots round about,

and



Obfervations upon Olives. 33^

and when they are grown up to any confiderable big-
nefs, cut awiy the old flock clofe to the ground ; and
when the remaining young trees have not room to
fpread, becaufcof their neighbourhood^ they tranfpla^t
them, till they leave at laft but one Handing.

They fet their olive-trees ordinarily in quincunx, the
rows at thirty or ioxly feet diflancc in their arable
ground ; for this hinders them not from ploughing and
lowing corn in the fame ground.

Tliey dig about their olive-trees every year, and about
the fame time they dig their vineyards, and fon^etimes
at others; and lay foil in the trenches they open about



Online LibraryJohn LockeThe works of John Locke (Volume 9) → online text (page 28 of 51)