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their roots ; this is ufually done in march, and the foil
they ufe is horfe-dung.

In pruning their olive-trees, which they do about the
beginning of march, I obferved them to cut off the top
branches, I fuppofe to make them fpread.

A-bout the beginning of o6^ober they gather the
olives, yet green, that they intend to pickle for eating
(for about the end of oiftober they turn black) an4
having carefully picked out thofe thai; have worms, they
foak the found ones, in the flrongeft ley they can get,
four, fix, or eight hours, according as they defiga tp
eat them fooner or later : the longer they foak in the
ley, the more of their bitterncfs is taken way, but they
will keep the lefs while. This ley they buy for this
purpofe at the fo^p^boilers. After th.ey have been
foaked in ley, they put them into water, which, for the
three or four firil: days, they change two or three times
a day, and afterwards once ; jn all a fortnight : this they
do to take away the tafle of the ley. The ley and water
they ufe both cold. When this is done, they put them
into pickle of fait and water, and fo keep them.

I have been told, that cutting each olive in two or
three places to the ftone, and lb foaking them in fair
water feven or eight days, changing it everyday, will
take away their bittcrnefs, and prepare them well
enough for the pickle : but fhey count the ley the better
way.

They often pickle them alfo after they arc turned
black;, cutting rhem in two or three places to the ftone,

Z -x '>ind



^.p Ohfervattons upon Olives,

and then foaking them about a fortnight In water
changed every day, and then boiling them in fa^t and
water, whirh is the pickle they keep them in. Thefc
have a p.uk h worfe tarte than the green, having no very
plealant mixture of bitter and oily : but the good houfc-
wives think they will go much farther (for they arc
oftcner food than fauce there) and fo in their private
families are commonly ufed.

They count their olives ripe enough for oil about St.
Crtharine's day, the 25th of november ; and about that
tinie thev begin to gather them : though I have {cQn
them let them hang on the trees, and not gathered till
the latter end of January.

In the gathering there \\\\\ be leaves and branches
mixed with them ; to feparatc thefe they lay them down
in a heap in a lield, and a workman, taking up a few in
a il.ovel, throws them into a winnowing flieet fet up at
a good diilancc from him, v.hither the olives come
alone, the leaves and branches falling by the way.

The manner of making oil is this ;

Thev take four feptics of olives a little heaped, and
put them into a niill, which is draw n by a mule, where
they grind them, as tanners grind bark, to a line pulp,
one liaiiding by as the mill goes rcund, and lliovelling
in a little of the (^lives or pulp towards the centre, and
clearing a part of the Wom^ at the bottom, where he
Ihiuls vith a lliovel, which he doth fo by degrees and
in fuccelfion, that 1 believe tlie mule goes round forty
or fifty tinu's for his once.

Thev being fufliciently ground, they put them into a
Aonc trough, two whereof Hand between the mill and
the prefs ; out of thefe troughs they take the pulp, and
j)iit it into frails, and fpread it in them equally, fo that
thev mav iny them plain one upon another. Of thefe
frails there were, when 1 law them prels, twenty-four
ur.'on each pedelial ; viz. in all forty-eight; in which
M'crb co.ntained icn fepties o\' olives. Sometimes they
prefi twelve feptic-; of olives at once, and then they ufc
more frails proportic^nably.

The frails being lilled with pulp, and placed evenly
and upright upon the two pedellals in ev]ual number,

they

9



Ohjey-vations upon Olives. 341

they fet the prefs a-working, firft lifting up the fcrcw
end, and fo the other end of the beam, finking upon
the hinder pile of frails, and prclTing them, may make
way for the putting in the wedges into the great mortife,
anddifcharge the wedge in the little mortife, which, whilll
they were placing the frails upon the pedeftals, fupportcd
the beam; which being taken out, they work the fcrcw
the other way, and fo bringing down the fcrcw end of
the beam prefs both on the fore and hinder pile of frails ;
a man attending in the mean time at each pile of frails
with a lever in his hand, which reding in the groove or
gutter where the oil runs, he thrufls againft the fide of
the pile of frails, whenever he perceives it begin tofwell
out on any fide, and thus keeps it upright from leaning
any way whilft it is prelTing, efpecially at the beginning ;
another man in the mean time not ceafing to turn the
fcrew till the great ftone at the end of it be clear off
from the ground.

When the oil ceafes to run, or but in fmall quantity,
they lift up the fcrew end of the beam, and then putting
a wedge in the little mortife, bring down the fcrew end
of the beam again, and fo lift up the great end that
prefTed the frails, and fo bringing the beam to a level
(the whole weight whereof lies upon the wedge in the
little mortife, which fupports it in the middle) dif-
charge it clear from the frails.

Then they take off all the frails, except the eight or
ten lower, on each pedeftal, and flirring the pulp in
one of the frails taken off, replace it again upon thofe
that remained ftill on the pedeftal ; and then one pours
on it a bucket of fcalding water; after which he ftirs the
pulp again, and lays it fiat and equal as at firft, and then
fbirs and puts on another frail as before, with a bucket of
fcalding water poured on it ; and fo they fervethem all,
till all the frails that were taken off are replaced on the
two piles as at firft ; and then they fet the prefs a-
working again as long as any quantity will run ; and then
lifting up the beam again, take off all the frails, ffir the
pulp, and pour on frefli hot water upon every frail, a
little bucket-full as at fnil, and then prefs as long as
any thing will run, fere wing the ftonc up clear from the

Z J ground.



342 Ohfe^-vations upon Olives,

ground, and lettino; it hang fo a good wHilc. When
not one jot more of liquor w ill be prefTed from the frails,
knd they perfectly ccafe running, they let down the
ftone, and that prefltng is done; and then one with a
broad, but very Ihallow fkimming-diih of brafs, fkims
off the oil from the water, puts it into a brafs veflel like
a tumbler, but holding, as I guefs, about three pints,
and out of that pouring it into the vefFels of the owners
by a brafs funnel.

When the oil is well fkimmed off from the water, they

{mil out a ftopple in the bottom of the cifl-crn, and fo
et go the water, which runs into a great ciflern called
hell, which is locked up and out of fight ; into this hell
all the water that hath fcrved in prelling the oil, runs,
and is made fo, that though it be always full of this
water, yet the water alone i'uns out, and the oil that
fwims on top ftays behind, by which means all the oil
that efcaped the Ikimming-dilh is here caught : but this
I fuppofe belongs to the m?.frer of the oil-prefs, for
(every body's water runs in here to the former oil and
ivatcr.

N. B.

P. That the mill which grinds the olives is much
after the fame fafliion with that which our tanners ufe to
grind bark, only with fome dilfcrence.

As, 1% that in the centre of the oil-mill there (lands
iipa round ftone, very fmooth And true wrought, about
two feet Englifh in diameter, and about the fame height,
uhich the inlide of the great grinding llone touches in
its going round about it, fo that no olives can efcape the
great flone towards the centre, nor get bcfide it that
way.

2^. That the floor of the mill, upon which the great
turning ftone bears in its turning round, ir. alfo of hard
flone and fmooth, and a little fnelving» the declivity
being towards the centre ; to anfwer which, the edge of
the tiTrning flone which is to grind the olives, that it
may bear in its uliole breadth upon the Hones in the
floor, is not cut with a direct perpendicular to the fides,
but the line of the infide of the laid grinding (lone, and
of the edge or circumference, make an angle fomething

Icfs



Ohfervations upon Olives. 343

lefs than a right one, and on the outlide there is left no
angle, hut it is cut off w ith a round ; by which means, I
iuppole the great grinding flone flidcs conflantly to-
wards and is kept clofe to the round ftone that flands
fixed in the center, defcribcd N*^ 1', upon which the
perpendicular turning beam Iliads.

3*. So much of the floor or infide of the mill as the
grinding ftone docs not touch, or is a little without his
breadth, is covered with boards lying more flielving
than the ftone-floor within it ; on which board-floor
the olives to be ground are at iirll laid, which are not
thrown all at once under the grinding ftoiie, but are by
fmall parcels iliovellcd down under the grinding ftone
by the man that attends the mill ; every palfmg round of
the ftone a few ; and here lies alfo the pulp which the
. ftone v/orks out in its grinaing, which is alfo fnovclled
in its turn ; for the floor of the mill, where the grinding
ftone bears on it, has always very little upon it, its
great weight working it ftill out towards the circum-
ference of the floor, for the ftone in the middle hinders
it from going inwards.

4^. 1 he grinding ftone is about fix feet diameter, and
about eleven inches thick, and on the edge and infide is
wrought very fmooth, and ftands upright without lean-
ing, that I could perceive; though, as I have faid, the
edge be not fquare to the fides, which is recompcnfed
in the finking of the floor towards the centre. The
ftone whereof it is made fccms to be very hard, and it
need be hard and heavy to break olive-ftones and grind
them to powder.

II'. That the ftiovcls which they ufe to ftiovel in the
pulp under the grinder, and when it is fine enough to
take it out, and put it in the ftone troughs, and then
into the frails, are more like bakers peels than ftiovcls,
and there is not any iron upon any of them.

111**. That there are between the mill and tlie prcfs
two great ftone troughs to put the pulp in wW.n ground;
two pedeftals and two ftone ciftcrns, into which the oil
runs from the two pedeftals by diftind paflages, fo that
two people's oil may be preftcd at once, without the
danger of mingling a drop.

Z ± IV^ The



-^44 Ohfervations upon Olives.

IV*. The prefs is mack thus : there are two pcdcdals
about nineteen or twenty inches afunder, which lie juft
under the great end of the great beam; that which I
call a pcdeftal is a round plain (lone about twenty-lix
inches diameter, round about which is cut a groove or
little trench in the fame (tone nine or ten inches broad ;
from the groove of each pedeftal there is made a diftinCt
palfage for the oil to run to the two ciflcrns : upon thefe
pcdeilals the frails arc bid, and into thefe grooves or
trenches the oil runs when prcllcd out of the frails, and
fo is conveyed feparately to the two cifterns.

V**. Behind the hindmofl: pedeftal Ihmd erecl in the
r^round two great beams, well faftened in the ground,
as far on funder from each other as the breadth of the
preirmg beam which is to pafs up and down between
rhem. ^ From the ncarcll iide of the ncarcfl pcdcftal to
ihe m.iddle of thq thicknefs of thefe beams horizontally
js about twenty-nine inches : in the middle of each of
thefe beams, in refpedl of their thicknefs, is cut a mor-
tife or Hit quite through,, about forty-four or forty-five
inches long, and about five or lix inches broad ; the bot-
tom of this mortilc is about forty-four inches higher
than the pcdeftal.

iV". This which I call the great mortife, they fill
with feveral pieces of wood reaching quite athwart from
outlide to outfide, and more, of the two erect beams ;
thefe pieces of wood, or, as I call them, wedges, arc
as thick as jufl eafily to go into the mortife, and fome-
what broader; with thefe they fill up this mortife when
this end of the prelling beam is funk below the lowed
part of it, and thereby pin down the great end of the
laid beam to keep it tiown uiwn the frails, when the
other end is drawn down b) the fcrew ; for by more or
Icfs of the wedges put into this m.ortife, thev keep down
the great end of tlie beam to the height that is litcell to
prefs with.

Vil". The prellnig beani is thirty-eight pans, or
aho'.it thirty-two feet long, and about thirty- four inches
broad ; and, to increafe its weight and llrength, an-
other great beam \n as lallencd to it all along with bands
of iron.

VI 11°. At



Ohfervations upon Olives, ^A^

VHP. At the little end is a fcrew, whereof the very
fcrew (for it Itanding upright I could not mcafure it)
was, as I guefs, about thirteen or fourteen feet; the
fquare of it, wherein the holes for the levers were cut,
fomething above a yard ; and at the bottom was a great
round ftone, in which this lower end of the fcrew is
faftcned with iron- work, fo as to have the liberty to
turn. The fcrew, when it is turned fafler than this
end of the prcfTing beam fmks, lifts up this great flonc
from the ground, which is as broad, thick, and heavy
as an ordinary mill-ftone.

IX'. Between the fcrew and the two erecl beams
placed behind the pedeftals before dcfcribcd, ftand two
other beams, erect as the former, with a mortife in
them long enough to hold only one wedge ; this I call
the little mortife, the top whereof is higher than the
level of the highefl: frail, when they lay on mod : upon
this wedge the beam is to reft, when they are laying in
or taking out the frails. So that the length of the great
beam is thus divided : behind the pinning wedges three
pans, from the pinning to the fupporting wedge twenty
pans, from the fupporting wedge to the fcrew fifteen
pans.

There is a piece of wood faftened on to the great
beam, crofs it, hanging over on each fide, and placed
juft by the middle creCl beams on the fide towards the
pedeftals, to keep the great beam from Hiding towards
the fcrew.

X°. The ground where the great fcrew-Hone lies is
much lower than the level of the pedeftals, which affords
alfo a convenience for the placing the two cifterns,
which arc juft under the great beam, and a little dillance
from the outmoft pcdcflal.

XI'. The matter of the frails they ufc in prcfTing,
and the texture, is the fame with the frails that bring
raifins to Em^land ; but the fio-urc iuft the fame with
that of an hat-cafe, the crown being taken away :
they arc exadly all of a breadth, and fcarce difcernibly
narrower than the pedcflal ; the hole to put in the pulp
about one third of the breadth or diameter.

XII'. The



^j^6 Ohfervations upon Olives.

XII*. The oil that runs at firft prcfllng, before the
mixture of water, they call virgin oil, which is better
than the other ; but they all fay it will not keep, but
fpoil in a month or two, unlefs you put to it fait or
fugar, fait is the better of the t\\o, and then it will keep
fix months : as much as you can hold in your two hands
is enough to put into a feptie of oil. ■ A fcptie is thir-
ty-two pots, and their pot is more than our quart.

XIII*. They ufually, therefore, let the virgin and
other oil, of the fecond and third prefTmg, mingle all
together in the cill:ern, which being afterwards put up
in jars, and kept in cool cellars, will keep good feven
years : but the mingling of fome of the hot water, after
prciung, with the virgin oil, will not prcferve it. So
that it fcems to be fomething either in the fkins or
ifoncs of the olives, that comes not out but by the mix-
ture of hot water and hard prciTing, that fcrves to
prcferve it.

XIV'. I'hey begin to gather their olives, as I have
faid, about St. Catharine's day, i. e. the 25 th of no-
vembcr.

XV*. All confefs that oil is better which is m.ade of
olives frefb gathered, than thofe that have been kept a
month or two : but fome tell me they delay fo long (for
when I faw them making oil, it was almofl the middle
of fcbruaryj becaufe olives that are kept yield the more
oil ; others fay, the rcafon why they are not prelFed
fooner, is, becaufe every body's grifi: cannot be ground
at once, and they mull: Ray till they can get a turn; and
by keeping, they fay alio, they grind better, for the
new gathered fpirt away from the mill.

XVI*. After they have gathered their olives, they lay
them in heaps in the corner of a cellar, or fome fuch
other place, upon little faggots of dried vine branches
(a good part of the fuel of the country) between the
olives and the ground, where fometimes a black water
will run from them ; this they call purging them. In
thcfe heaps they lie till they prefs them ; none lie lefs
than fifteen days ; but, for the re^ifons abovc-nKiition-
tdi, thev fometnnes he two months.

XVIir Though



Ohfervations upon Olives, ^/^>^

XVII*, Though they begin to gather their olives
dbout the end of november, as has been faid ; yet they
never fet their mills on work till after Twelfth-day, or
Ncv/-year's-day, at fooneft : the reafon whereof is this :
the mafter of the mill hires a great many men, for the
time that oil is made, who keep the mill going day and
night. Thofe whofe oil is making give thefe workmeii
meat and drink, \\hiin: they are employed about their
olives ; fo that if the mailer fhould entertain them be-
ifore Chriflmas, he muft not only pay them for fo many
holidays, whilfl they fland ilill, but maintain them
too.

XVIIP. Four feptics of olives ufuaily yield one
ieptie of oil ; but I obfervcd they were fomevvhat
heaped.

XIX*. The goodnefs of the oil depends exceedingly
on the property of the foil : this makes the oil oi Ara-
mont in Provence, not far from Avignon, the beft in
France.

XX"*. When they are either filling the Frails, or new
ftirring the pulp in them, there are two men at work at
each pcdeflal, befides a fifth, that takes the pulp out
of the trough thereby, wherein it lies ready ground, and
with a iliovcl puts it into the frails as they bring them;
or elfe lades boiling water out of the furnace (which is
■alfo by, and the top of it level with the ground, with a
trap-door overj and pours it into the frails as they are
ready for it.

XXI'. When the oil is made, carried home, and has
fettled, they ufually take three-fourths of the upper part;
this they call the Rower, and put it into earthen pots for
eating; the remainder, being thicker, is kept for lamps
and fuch other ufcs: and the very thick fcdiment they
put in the fun, to get as much oil out as they can.

XXIl*. The pulp, that is left after all the prcfTing
and affufion of boiling water, belongs to the mailer of
the mill, who fells it for a groat, or five-pence a mill-
full, toothers, who prefs it again, and make a coarfc
V3il for foap, and other fuch ufcs.

XXIIP. The



34^ Ohfervatlons upon Olives.

XXTir. The remaining pulp the bakers ufe to throw
a little of it into their o\ens as they are heatin^-, it
making a very violent fire.

XXIV°. Oil they count one of the beft and furefl
commodities of their country. The ordinary rate of
good oil at Montpelier is fome years three, fome four,
and fome years four livres and a half per quartal, i. c.
one fourth of a feptie, or eight pots.



I R U I T.



R U



PLUMS.



'HE bcfl plums are.



7-
8.



Damar violett.
Roche corbon,
Mirabell.
Catalane.



Perdrigon. 6.

D*Apricot.

Diapre.

Ste. Catherine,

Vert Sc long.

Ofthefe the befl to dry is the roche corbon, a large
red plum ; and the next to that the Ste. Catherine,^
large and yellow ; becaufe they are large and ficihy;'
not but that they dry of the other forts too.

The way they take in drying them is this :

i''. They let them be fo ripe, that they drop off from
the tree of themfelves, which is bcit ; or elfe fall with a
little fliaking.

2. When you have them thus ripe, the befl way
(though not always obferved) is to put them two or
three days in the hot fun-Hiine, which will dry up gently
fome part of the fuperfluous moiflure.

3*. When they have been thus a little dried in the
fun, you muft heat the oven gently ; one little bruili
faggot is enough the firit time ; and having placed thcni
fmgly upon wicker driers about two feet broad, and
four or ?i\c feet long (or of a round figure fo large as
will go into the oven's mouth) put them into the oven,
and fo let them dry there till the oven is cold ; and then
they muft be taken out and turned, whilfl the oven is
heating again. The oven may be thus heated twice a
day, at eight in the morning, and at eight at night.

4\ The fccond time the oven may be made a little
hotter than the [irll; and thus the heating of the oven,

and



3^o Ohfervations v.p^n Fruit,

and turning the plums, be repeated till they are dry
enough, which is when they arc of a due confidence and
brow nilh colour.

5". When they arc fo far dried as to be capable of
prcfnng, the bed way is to prcfs them gently with the
fingers, not into a flat, but round figure, for that way
they keep bed.

6**. The great care to he taken is in the firft putting
them into the oven, that the oven be not too hot ; for if
it be, it makes them crack their fkins and run out,
w hich makes them much worfe.

PEACHES.

After the fame manner one dries peaches, with this
difference, that after the firft time they have been in the
oven, one peels them with a knife, for the fkin will
cafily drip ; and the done then is to be taken out, and,
if one will, a little peach thrud into its place, which
makes the other large and better. This alfo they often
do in drying their plums, when they take out the done
of a great one, thrud a little plum into the place of it.

PEARS.

Thus alfo pears are to be dried ; but that the oven
may be made a little hotter for pears than plums ; they
are to be dripped alfo after their fird coming out of thp
oven.

The bed pears to be dried, are the roufelette de
Champagne.

The pears in mod edcem amongd them about Tours
and Saumur (for this is the part of France where are the
bed pears, plums, peaches, and melons) arc,

1. Moulebouche. 9. Buree Blanche.

2. Virgolcufe. 10. Roufelette de Champagnp,

3. Martin fee. 1 1 • I-i poire de citron.

4. Double Hcur. 12. La citron de carmes.
r. Roufelette. i^ I'ii poiredc monfieur.

6. Colmar. 14- I-'^iverate.

7. St. Marfiac. i.s- L'amadoie nuifquee.

Z Vert cSc long. 16. La mufcatc d'Almagne.

The



Ohfervations wpon Fruit. 351

The 10, II, 12, 13, arc their bed fummcr pears.

The Virgoleufe, Amadote mufquec,

Verate, -Mufcate d'Ahiiagnc,

arc their befl: winter pears.
In the rccolcts garden at Saumur there is abundance
of good fruit, amongft the refl a fort of pear, which they
call

17. Poire fans peau,

which is ripe at the fame time cherries are. They told
me it was a very good pear, and a great bearer. Before
the middle of auguft, when I was there, they were all
gone.

They have in the fame garden another pear, which
they call

18. Poire de jafmin.

which, as they fay, hath fomcthing of the flavour of
jafmin.

MELONS.

The melons of Langcrs (a town upon the Loire, fix
leagues above Saumur) are counted the beft in France j
and from hence the court is fupplied with them. Here,
and at Saumur (where they are loth to give any pre-
ference to the melons of Langers) they fet them in the
common earth of their gardens without dung, or any
other art, but barely nipping the tops of the branches
when the young melons are knit, to hinder the fap from
running too much into leaves and branches.

PRUNES.

The prunes we have from France are a great black
plum, that grows about Montauban and thofe parts :
they dry them as much as they can in the fun, and what
wants to dry them perfcLtly, they make out by the heat
of the oven.

Prunella's, or rather brignols, are a fort of plums that
grow in Provence, not far from Aix : they gather rhcm
thorough ripe, and having Ilripped off the Ikins, they
IHck them on fcucrs about fix inches \ongy and very
ijcndcr ; they take care not ;o put them too dole to one

another



2^2 Ohferuations upon Fruit.

another on thcfc fcucrs. Thcfc little fpits, loaded thus
with plums, they faftcn one above another, either in a
cane, or a rope of ilraw like that \vc make for onions ;
and as we hang them up in our houfcs to keep, fo do
they thofe in the fun to dry.

When they arc a little hardened, or half dry, they take
out the ftones, and prefs them with their fingers into
that flat figure we fee them, wetting their fingers a little
to hinder them from flicking to them in handling: when
this is done, they put them to dry again in the fun till
they are quite cured ; fome fay on the fi:uers again,



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