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others on boards. Thofe that grow at Brignol are the
beO", and hence they have their name.

They fometimes dry them with their ftones in, and fo
they are better, as fome that have eaten of them have
told me.



THEY ufually put the eggs a hatching in the holy-
week, i. e. the week before Eafter; but that
which bell: regulates the time is the budding of the
mulberry-trees, that, whert the worms are hatched, they
may have food.

To hatch them, they commonly wrap them up in
a linen rag, and fo wear them in fome warm place
about them night and day till they are hatched, which
will be in about three days.

When they are hatched, they feed them with the
leaves of the white mulberry-tree : the leaves of the
young trees are beft whilft the worms are young; but
w^hen they are grown pretty big, and towards the latter
end of their feeding, they muft be fed with the leaves of
old trees, elfe they will not be ftrong to get up into the
branches to work. The leaves of young trees given
them in the beginning make the filk the finer: they
take care alfo not to^give them yellow or withered
leaves ; but to avoid the trouble of gathering frcfli leaves
every day, they will keep two or three days well enough
in an earthen pot covered, or in a cellar.

They take great care alfo that no wet leaves or other
moifture come to them, for that will kill them; and in
feeding them they throw away the tender deep coloured
young leaves at the top of the branches, bccaufe theie,
they fay, will make the worms very big and yellow, and
die alfo without working.

VVhilfl they are young, they keep them up in fome
box or chcft from the cold, which will kill them: they
fay alfo that thunder will kill them, if it happen when
tbev begin to work.

Vol. IX. A- a They

354 Ohfcrvations upon Silk.

They change their fkins four times, from ten days to
ten days, or thereabouts; this they call their ficknefs ;
for about the time they chancre their fkins they forbear to
cat, and therefore they feed them but once a day ; but
at other times they give them frefh leaves oftcner. At
the time alfo of their ficknefs they change ihem, taking
away the cake of dry leaves and dung that was under
them, by removing ihcm with frcfli leaves, which they
\\\\\ (tick to : but after the fourth ficknefs is over, they
change them every day till they begin to work, which
is about ten days after.

The woman of the houfe where I lay, put her eggs to
hatch on good friday, april the 3d ; they were hatched
the monday following, and they began to work on
tuefday, junc the 2d : fo that, allowing one day for
every ficknefs, it fell out pretty near according to their

When the worms are ripe as they call it, they cull out
the ripe ones, i. e. thofe that are ready to work, from
among thofe that arc feeding, and put them upon
Ihclves, where they are to work. They know thofe
that are ripe by their clearnefs ; for if you hold them up
againft the light with their bellies upwards, you will
find them clear about the fore legs, fome yellow, fome
white, according to the fcveral colours of the filk they
will fpin ; and by this clearnefs one may eafily diftin-
guiili them from thofe that are not yet ripe.

The ihclves they put them on to work arc thus or-
dered : they place deal Ihelves one over another, as if
they were for books ; they make them about thirty
inches broad, and the diftance between them is about
twenty-two inches : betwixt thefe Ihelves they fet
rows of a fniall brufliy plant, fomewhat like our heath,
which reaching from one ihelf to another arc at the top
turned partly one way, partly the other ; fo that the tops
of the branches of thefe fcveral rows or partitions
reaching to one another touch, fo that the whole length
ot'cach (helf is by thefe branches divided as it were into
To many little caves, each of about nine or ten inches
breadth ; for the rows of branches that are fet up to
0ukc phcfc caves, which arc as deep as the flielves are


Obfervations upon Silk, l^c^^

broad, arc fct at that diftance. Into one of thcfc cavc5
they put the worms that are firft ripe, which creeping
up the branches find amongfl: the little twigs places to
work in. When one cave has as many of thefe fpinners
ils it hath well room for, they fill the next, and fo on.

They never give them any leaves of the red mulberry-^
tree when they are young, becaufe it being a flrong
nouriflmient, will hurt them ; but if one give them red
mulberry-leaves towards the latter end, they will be the
llronger, and mount the branches the better, which
when they are weak they cannot do ; and the filk of
thofe that thus eat red mulberry-leaves is as good as the

About a fortnight after they begin to work, they take
the cocons (i. e. the pods oflilk they have wrought) out
of the branches ; if you take them down too foon, they
will not have done working, and if you ftay too long,
they will have eat their way out of the pods, and the filk
will be fpoiled. It is time to take them down out of the
branches as foon as any of the papilions, i. e. the flies
that come out of the pods, appear amongft them.
' As many of the cocons as they think neceliary to keep
for a breed for the next year they (trip off the loofe filk
from, and then thread them ; but pafs the needle warily
through the lide of the cocon, fo as it may be fure not
to hurt the worm within. They count that a pound of
cocons will yield an ounce of eggs. The cocons, thus
threaded, they hang up or lay in a convenient room,
that fo the papilions may come out, and make love to
-one another, and then lay their eggs on white paper laid
there on purpofe.

From the remaining cocons they prefcntly either wind
off the lilk, or if they cannot do that (for it is not every
body can do it) they either with the heat of the fun, or
oven, or hot water, kill the worms in the cocons, fo that
they may keep them without having them fpoiled by the
worm, till they can get their filk wound.

Eight pounds of cocons ufually yield one pound of

The way of winding filk off froin the cocons is a thing
that cannot be taught without feeing; and there arc bur

A a 2 few

^^6 Obfefvations upon Silk,

few amongft them, that can do it well, it lying in a dex-
terity not eafy to be learnt, as they fay : they put the
colons in hot water, and fo flirring them about with a
kind of rod, the ends of the lilk twircs of the cocons
flick to it, which they layingon upon a turning reel
draw olFfrom the cocons, which lie all the while in the
hot water ; but the great Ikill is to have fuch a number
of thefe iinglc twircs of the cocons running at a time, ai
may make the thread of filk which they compofe of a
due bignefs ; for in turning (which they do apace) many
of the twires of the cocons break, and fo by degrees the
filk thread, made of fundry of thefe drawn together,
grows too little, and then the woman that is winding
ftirs her rod or little beefom again with her left hand
amongft the cocons, to get new ends of twires to add to
the thread, which all this while keeps running. To
know when to make this addition of new twires and in
what quantity, fo as to keep an even thread all along,
is the great Ikill of thefe winders ; for they do it by
guefs, and keep the reel turning and the thread running
all the while ; for fliould they, as oft as is occafion,
fland ftill to count the twires or conlidcr the thread,
and how many new twires were fit to be added, it would
be an cndlcfs labour, and they could never make wages.

The engines alfo that they ufc for twifting this filk
afterwards, arc too curious to be defcribed, but by a
model. 1 have fcen one, where one woman has turned
a hundred and thirty-four fpindles, and twilled as many
threads at a time; and I have feen another, wherein two
women going in a wheel, like that of a crane, turned
three hundred and iixty.

Their mulberry-trees, where they ftand near towns,
yield them good profit ; I have known the leaves of four
while mulberry-trees (fome whereof were not ver) large)
fold for a pillole, i. e. between fix teen and feventccn
lliillings ftcrling.















OF all the inventions and improvements the wit and
induftry of man has difcovered and brought to
perfection, none feems to be {o univerfally ufeful,
profitable and neceffary, as the art of navigation.
There are thofe that will not allow it to be called the
invention of man, but rather the execution of the di-
rection given by Almighty God, fmce the firft veffel
we read of in the world, was the ark Noah built by
the immediate command and appointment of the Al-
mighty. But this is not a place to enter upon fuch a
controverfy, where fome will alk, why it ihould be
believed there were not Ihips before the flood as well
as after, fince doubtlefs thofc firft men extending their
lives to eight or nine hundred years, were more capable
of improving the world than we whofe days arc reduced
to fourfcore years, and all beyond them only mifery or
dotage? It is impertinent to fpend time upon fuch fri-
volous arguments, which only depend on opinion or
fancy. If then we give any credit to hiftory, on

A a 4 which

360 The Htjlory of Navigation.

which all our knowledge of what is pail depends, \vc
ihall iind that navigation had but a mean and obfcure
original, that it was gradually and but very leifurely
iinprovccj, lincc in many ages 11 fcarce ventured out
of light of land ; and that it did not receive its final
pcrfcc^tion till thefc latter times, if we may be allowed
to call that perfct^t which is fl:ll doubtlcfs capable of a
further improvement : but I give it that epithet only,
with regard to the infinite advancement it has received
lincc its firfl appearance in the world.

The firfl veffel ever known to have floated on the
waters, was the ark made by God*s appointment, in
which Noah and his three fons were faved from the
univerfal deluge. But this ark, Ihip, or whatever elfe
it may be called, had neither oars, fails, malls, yards,
rudder, or any fort of riggmg w hatfoever, being only
guided by divine providence, and having no parti-
cular port, or coaft to l>eer to, only to float upon the
waters, till thofe being dried up, it refted on the moun-
tains of Ararat, ab we read in Gen. viii. 4. From this
time till after the confufion of tongues there was
no ufc of navigation, there being as yet no fufficient
njulritude to people the earth, and thofe men there
were, having undertaken to build the t(^wer of Babel,
from thence were dilperfed into all other parts of the
kiiown world. Theie iirit travellers doubtlcfs met
with many rivers before they came to the fea, as plainly
appears by the liniation of Bahcl, generally agreed
upon by all that treat of fcriptural geography; and
thofe rivers they palfed in a hollowed piece of timber,
no better than a trough, or a fort of bafkets covered
over with raw hides, being the eafiefl that occurred to
invention, and fufiicient for their prefent purpofe, which
was only to pafs on in their way to other parts, with-
out the profpect of trade or commerce, w hich cannot
be fuppofed to have then entered into their thoughts.
What velfels they built when they came to the fea no
hiflory defcribes, and thcreiorc it would be a raflincf^
to pretend to any knowledge of them. That they
were finall, ill rigged, and only durfl creep along the
f loiT^, is out of all difpute ; if we confidcr that many


The Hijhry ef Navigation^ 361

fucceeding ages v/ere no better furnifhed, though they
never failed from time to time to corredl the^ defc6ls
they found in their fliipping, and induflrioudy laboured
to improve the art of navigation. Not to fpeak there-
fore of what is abfolutely fabulous, or only fuppofiti-
tious, let us come to the firft failors famed in hiliory ;
and touching thofe times lightly, defcend ;o matters of
more certainty and better authority.

If we give credit to poets and poetical writers, wc
fliall find Neptune covering the Mediterranean fea with
his mighty fleets, as admiral unJer his father Saturn,
fuppofed to be Noah, as Neptune is to be Japheth ; and
to him is afcribed the firfl building of fhips, with
Iharp ftems, or heads fhod with iron or brafs, to run
againfl other Ihips, and fplit them, and with towers on
them for men to fight when they came to lie board and
board. Yet there are others that give the honour of
inventing of fliips, and fleering them to Glaucus, af-
firming it was he that built and piloted the ihip Argo
in Jafon's expedition againfl: the tyrrhenians ; which
Others attribute to Argos, making him the builder and
pilot. Thefc notions, or rather poetical ficlions, are
rejedled by the learned Bochartus in his Geographia
Sacra, p. 819, 820. where he iliows that the fliip Argo
ought properly to be called Arco, which in the Phoeni-
cian tongue iignifies long, a name given it becaufe it
was the firft long Ihip built by the greeks, who learned
it of the Phoenicians, and called it by their name^
whereas all the velTels ufed by them before that time
"were round. This lliip Argo, or rather galley, he fays
had fifty oars, that is twenty five on each fide, and
therefore muir be fifty cubits in length. Here it ap-
pears that the greeks had round vcfTels before that time,
and all that wc can reafonably conclude is, that this
fliip or galley Argo, or Arco, was larger, and perhaps
better built and contrived than any before it, and might
perform the lono;er voyage, which rendered it famous,
as if it had been the firll fliip. But it is certain there
were many fleets, fuch as tiicy were, before this time ;
for the argonauts expedition was about the year of
fhe world 28OJ, which was after the flood 1 144. years:


362 ^e Wftory nf Navigation.

whereas ve find Semirami^i built a fleet of two thou^
fand fail on the coafls of C\ prus, Syria, and Phfrnicia,
and had them tranfported on carriages and camels backs
to the river Indus, where they fought and defeated the
ileer of Staurobatcs kin^.; of India, confifling of ^our thou-
fand boats made of cane, as Diodorus Siculus writes.
About the year of the world 2622, and 965 after the flood,
Jupiter kinp; of Crete, or CarKlia, ^\ irh his fleet f^olc
away Europa the daughter of / ^;(^nor king of the fido-
nians. In 2700 of the world, and after the flood 1043,
Perfeus went on the expedition by fea againfl: Medufa
in Afric. Now to return to the argonauts fo much
celebrated by the poets, upon the ftrivflefl examination
into truth, we fliall only find them inconfiderablc coafb-
ers in the Mediterranean, and fet out by the public to
fupprefs pirates, though fabulous Greece has extolled
their expedition beyond all meafure. Next follows
the trojan war about the year of the world 2871, and
1214 afl^r the flood, where Ave find a fleet of one thou-
fana one hundred and forty fail of all forts, ftill creep-
ing along the fhorcs, without daring to v«^irM-e out of
fight of land.

Now leaving the Greeks it is fit we return to the
ph(JE-nicians, w^ho are the fame the fcripture calls the
phihfi:ines or canaanitcs, as is largely proved by Bo-
chartus, certainly the earlied and ablcfb mariners in
thofe firfl ages: they made the greateil dilco\\rics of
any nation, they planted colonies of their own in moll:
of thofe countries fo difcovercd, :jid fettled trade and
commerce in tlie mofl: difbant regions. There can be
no greater teftimonies of their wealth and naval power
than what we find in holy writ, Ezek. xxvii. where
the prophet fpcaking of Tyre, fays it is fituate at the
entrance of the fea, is a merchant for many ilks, its
fhip-boards are of fir-trees of Scnir, their mails of
cedars, their oars of oak of Baihan, their benches of
ivory, their fails of fine embroidered linen, and fo goes
on through mod of the chapter, cxrolling it^ mariners,
pilots, Ihips, all things belonging to them. This, thoigh
from the undeniable oracle of fcripture, were no iuf-
ficient proof o^ their- knowledge in this art, were not


ne Hijiory of Navigatioit. 36J

all hiftories full of their many expeditions. The firft
was on the coaft of Afric, where they founded the
moft powerful city of Carthage, which fo long con-
tended with Rome for the fovcrcignty of the world :
thence they extended their dominions into Spain, and
not fo fatisfied, coafled it round, ftill purfumg their
difcoveries along the coaft of France, and even into
this ifland of Great Britain, where they afterwards had
a fettled trade for tin, and fuch other commodities as
the country then afforded, as may be feen at large in
Procopius, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, and many other
ancient authors. Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 69. with others
affirms, that in the flourifliing times of the republic of
Carthage, Hanno being fent out from thence to dif-
cover fouthward, failed quite round Afric into the Red-
fea, and returned the fame way ; and that Kimilco fet-
ting out at the fame time northwards, failed as far as
Thule or Iceland. Both thefe relations are in part re-
jedled by mofl: authors as fabulous, bccaufe it does not
appear that the utmoff extent of Afric was ever known
till the portuguefes in thefe latter times difcovered it;
and the very northern parts of Europe were not tho-
roughly difcovered even in the time of theromangreatnefs.
However, no doubt is to be made but that they fliilcd very
far both ways, and might perhaps add fomcthing of
their own invention, to gain the more reputation to
their undertaking. Nor were they confined to the
,Meditcrrancan and weftward ocean, it was they that
conducfled Solomon's fleets toOphir; and we read in
I Kings ix. 27. that Hiram (who was king of Tyre>
and confequently his men phoenicians) fent m the navy
his fervants, ffiipmcn that had knowledge of the fca.
And again, chap. x. vcr. 11. And the navy alfo of Hiram
that brought L;old from Ophir. Thus we fee the Phoe-
nicians traded to Ophir before king Solomon, and for
him. To enter into the controverfy where this Ophir
was, is not proper for this place, but the mod probable
opinions conclude it to be fome part of the Ka(l-lndies>
and indeed there is not the leaft ihow of reafon to place
it elfewhere. How they performed thefe long voyages
v/ithout the help of the compafs^ or magncticul needle,


^64 ^^^ Hijiory nf Navigation,

T'ould be another no Icfs difficult inquiry, confidering
they could not always fail by day, and lie by at night,
or continually keep within light of land, whence tem-
pers at leall would often drive then^ into the open
fea ; but this is ealily Iblved by all authors, who with
one confent inform us, that they were direded by the
courfc of the fun in the day, and by the ftars at night.
And in this knowledge of the heavens the Phoenicians
exceeded all other nations, as may be gathered from
Pliny, lib. 5. c. 12, and 19. where he fliovvs that-man-
kind is obliged to the phccnicians for five things of
the grcatcll ufe, viz. letters, the knowledge of the liars,
the art of navigation, military difcipline, and the
building of many towns. By this their knowledge of
the ftars, they recovered themfelves when loft in foul
weather, and knew how to ftiape their courfe acrofs
fpacious gulphs, and bays which would have fpent
them much time in coaftmg round. However it muft
not hence be inferred that they were capable of traverf-
ing the vaft ocean betwixt Europe and America, as
fome would endeavour to make out; becaufe it is
well known that voyage even with the help of the com-
pafs was at firft thought impradicable, and when dif-
covercd, for fome time proved very dilTicult and danger-
ous, till tim.eand experience had made it more familiar.
The very reafon alleged for the polTibility of their
failing to the Weft-Indies, which is the certainty of
the trade-winds blowing always at eaft within the
tropics, makes againft them, becaufe had thofe winds
carried them thither, the vaft dithcuky in nturning
the fame way would deter them from that enterprife^
they being altogether ignorant, and we n^.ay fay inca-
pable of coming away north, which was accidentally
found out many years after the difcovery of the Weft-

The greeks, though occaftonally mentioned before
them, were the next in order to the pha*nicians in mari-
time affairs, and learned the art of them. They not
only equalled their mafters in this art, but foon ex-
celled them, and gave them fcveral notable overthrows
on their own clement; for we often find them, though
8 mucb

The Hiflory of Navigation, 3.65

much inferloiir in numbers, gaining glorious vidorics
over the perfians, whofc fleets were all managed by
Phoenicians. One inftance or two may ferve for all ;
the firft is the famous battle of Salamis, where the
confederate greeks, whofe whole force confided but of
three hundred and eighty fhips, defeated thirteen hun-
dred of the perfians, with inconliderable lofs to them-
felves, and incredible to their enemies ; as may be
feen in Plutarch's lives of Themiftocles and Ariftidcs,
in Diod. Sic. lib. XL Herod, lib. VII, and VIIL and
others. Again the athenian fleet commanded by
Cimon lorded it along the coafl:s of Afia, where clofely
purfuing the periian admiral Titraufles, he obliged him
to run his fliips aground, of which he took two
hundred, befides all that perilhed on the fhore. And
not fo fatisfied, Cimon proceeded to Hydrope, where
he defl:royed feventy fail, which were the peculiar
fquadron of the phoenicians ; for which particulars fee
Thucydid. lib. L cap. 11, and 12. Plutarch in vit. Ci-
mon. and Diod. Sic. lib. XII. Thefe victories were
the bane of Greece, which growing rich with the
fpoils of the perfians fell into thofe vices it had before
been a flranger to, and which broke that union which
had preferved it againfl: the common enemy. Hence
followed the war betwixt the athcnians and lacede-
monians, and feveral others, where thofe little Itates
confederating one againfl: another fet out many nu-
merous fleets, and ftrove for the fovereignty of the fca,
till having fufficiently weakened themfelves they at
length became a prey to others. Yet during their
flourifhing times, and even in adverflty, when driven
from home by difaflcrs, they never ceafed fending
out colonies upon all the coafls of the Mediterranean,
and particularly of Afla, Spain, France, Italy, and
Sicily. In all which countries they fo far extended
their empire, that it would fill a volume to give but
an indiftcrent account of them. Yet under Alexander
the great, the founder of the grecian empire, there are
fome things fo Angular that they well dcfcrvc a place
here. That thefe latter ages may not boall of the in-
vention of fixcfhips^ we And in Curiius^ lib. IV. that


3^6 ^Je Hiftory of Navigation,

at the ficgc of Tyre, when a mole was carrying on to ]o!rl
that city to the continent, the inhabitants having loaded
a large (hip heavily a-flcrn with fand and ftoncs, to
the end the head might rife above the water, and pre-
pared it for their purpofe with combuftiblc matter,
they drove it violently with fails and oars againfl: the
mole, where they fet lire to it, the feamen in it efcaping
in their boats. The mole being in a great meafurc
made of wood, with wooden towers on it, was by this
device utterly defiroyed. Thus we fee the tyr'ans
fucr'efsfully invented the firfl: firelhip we read of in hif-
torv. TV- next thing remarkable in this mi^;!uy con-
queror's reign in relation to navigation, was his failing
down the iiver Indus into the indian ocean, where wc
may by the b) obfervethe wonderful ignorance, not only
of his landmen, but even of the failors, who, as Curtius,
lib. IX. tellifics, were all aftonifhed and befide them-
felves at the ebbing and flowing of the river. From
hence the fame author tells us, Alexander fcnt his ad-
miral Nearchus to coaft along the ocean as far as he
could, and return to him with an account of what he
fhould difcovcr. Nearchus accordingly keeping-along
tlie indian and perlian lliores, and entering the Perfian
Gulph, returned to him up the river Euphrates, which
vas then looked upon as a wonderful difcovery, and
a great malTerpiece of that admiral, for which he
received a crown of gold from Alexander. Thus much
we have concerning this expedition in Curtius quoted
above, and in Plutarch in vit. Alex. Purchas in his
jfirft vol. p. 86, 87, 88. gives a very particular account
day by day of this voyage of Nearchus, taken out of

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