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T\eceflary to begin fevcral years after it, before which
nothing appears to be done. This fliall be performed
with all poflible brevity, and by way of annals, con-
taining a fummary account of all difcoveries from year
to year; yet left the diftancc and variety of places
fliould too much dilbact the reader, if all lay inter-
mixed, the europcan northern difcoveries fhall be firft
run through in their order of years ; next to them, as
riext in order of time, ftiall follow the african, and fo
the eaft-indian, or afiatic, the one being the confe-
quence of the other ; and in the laft place fiiall appear
the weft-indian, or american. The firft part of the
TiOrthern europcan difcoveries is all taken out of Hak-
Juyt^ begianiD^ w ith the ncarcft after the difcovery of


3 7 J? ^<^^^ Hifiory of Navigation,

the needle, quoting the authors out of Iiiin, and the
page where they are to be found.

An. 1360. Nicholas de L.inna, or of Linn, a friar of
Oxford, who was an al)lc aftronomer, took a voyage with
others into the moll northern iiiancis of the world;
where leaving his company he travelled alone, and made
draughts of all thofe northern parrs, which at his return
he prcfentcd to king Edward III. This friar made
five voyages into thofe parts ; for this .he quotes Gerar-
diis Mcrcator, and Mr. Jolwi Dee, Hak. p. 122. And
this, though it is not there mentioned, being lixty years
after the difcovery of the compafs, we may look upon
2s one of the firil trials of this nature made upon the
jecurity of the magnetical direction in thefc northern
feas. Yet after this for many years we find no other
difcoverv attempted this way, but rather all fuch enter-
prifes feemed to be wholly laid afide, till

An. 1553. and in the reign of king Edward VI. fir
Hugh Willoughby was fent out with three fliips to dif-
cover Cathay and other northern parts. He failed in
may, and having fpcnt much time about the northern
iflands fubjed to Denmark, where he found no com-
modity but dried fiih and train oil, he was forced about
the middle of feptember, after lofing the company of
his other two fhips, to put into a harbour in Lapland
called Arzina, where they could find no mhabitants,
but thinking to have w intercd there were all frozen to
death. However the Edward, which was the fccond
fi^ip in this exjx^dition, and commanded by Richard
Chancellor, who was chief pilot for the voyage, having
loft iir Hugh Willoughby, mailc its way for the port
of Vv^irdhoufe in "Norwav, where they had appointed
to meet if parted by llorm^;. Chancellor (laid there
feven davs, and jxrceiving none of his company came
to join hinl^ pro< ceded on his voyage fo fortunately,
that within a few days he arrived in the bay of St. Ni-
cholas on the coaft of Mufcovy, where he was friendly
received by the native?, being the lirfl fliip that ever
came wyon that c(\a(L Chancellor himfelf went to the
court of Mofco, where he fettled a trade betwixt En-
gland and Mukovy. with John Baliiowitz the great


^be Hijlory of Navigation, ^*j^

duke, or czar, then reigning. This done, Chancellor
returned home with the honour of the lirfl difcovercr of

An. 1556. Stephen Burrouo-h was fent out in a fmall
vcfTel to dif' over the river Ob : he failed in april, and
in may came upon the coafl of Norway ; whence con*
tinuing his voyage, in July he arrived at Nova Zembla,
that is, the new land, where he received directions
how to ihape his courfe for the river Ob. He fpent
fonie time in fcarch of it, but coming to the flraits of
Weygats found no paliage, and the fummer-feafon
being alm.oft fpent, returned to Colmogro in Mufcovy,
where he wintered, deligning to proft' ute his voyage
the ne?:L fummer, but v\as countermanded, and fo this
was all the event of the expedition

An. 1558. Anthony Jenkinfon failed for Mufcovy
with four fhips under his com.mand : he left his fhips,
and travelled by land to Mofco, where having been
nobly entertained by the czar, he obtained his pafs,
and continued his journey through Mufcovy acrofs the
kingdoms of Cafan and Aflracan, where fliipping him-
felf on the river Volga he fiiiled down into the Cafpian
fea, having travelled by land about fix hundred leagues
in the czar's dominions from Mofco. On the Cafpian
fea he fpent tvv'enty feven days, after which landing,
he proceeded five days journey by land among a fort
pf wild tartars with a caravan of one thoufand caiviols ;
then twenty days m.ore through a defcrt, fuffering much
through hunger and thirfb. This brought him again
to another part of the Cafpian fea, where formerly
the river Oxus fell into it, which now he fays runs
into another river not flir from hence called Ardock,
which runs toward the north and under ground above
five hundred miles, after which it rifes again, and un-
burdens itfelf in the lake of Kitay. Hence he con-
tinued his difcovery amidft: thofe countries of tartars to
Boghar in Baolria, w hence he returned to Mofco.

An. 1561. He returned to Mufcovy with letters from
queen Elizabeth to the czar; and taking the fame way
as before down to the Cafpian fea, crolfed over it into
Hircania, where being nobly entertained, and conducted


2^o ^re Hijlory of Navigation^

by the princes of that country, he paffcd through lo
the court of the king of Pcrfta at Calbin, where he
obtained fcveral privileges for the englifli nation, and
returned home in fafcty the fame way he ^ant.

An. 1580. Mr. Arthur Pet, and Mr. Charles Jack-
jnan failed in may from Harwich in two barks to make
difcoverics in the north-call beyond Wcygats. In June
they doubled the north cape of Norway, and having
fpent fome days in that part of Norway, continued
their voyage into the bay of Petzora ; where Jackman's
velFcl being in no good failing condition he left Pet,
who proceeded on to the coait of Nova Zembla, where
in July he met with much ice, yet making his way
through part of it, though with great difficulty, he at
lad came to the flraits of Wcygats : there he drew as
clofc as the fhoal water would permit, coming into
two fathom and a half water, and fending his boat to
found till he found there was not water enough even
for the boat in the ftrait, and therefore returned the
fame way he came. A few days after Pet met with Jack-
man again in fome diflrefs, as not being able to Iteer,
his fliip's fi:ern-poft being broken, and the rudder
hanging from the ftern. Having remedied this the
bell they could for the prefent, they both flood
northward to endeavour to fmd fome palfage that way ;
but meeting with much ice, they defpaired of fucccfs,
and refolved to turn again to Weygats, there to con-
fult what was farther to be done. All the way thither
they met with fuch quantities of ice, that fome days
they were not able to make any way. Being come
again upon the Weygats, they made another attempt that
vay, but to as little purpofe as before, the ice ob-
flrudling their progrcfs. Wherefore winter now coming-
on, they found it nccciTary to quit their dcfign for the
prefent. Accortiingly Pet being parted from Jackman,
arrived fafe in the river of Thames about the end of
december this fame year: Jackman put into a port in
Norway betwixt Tronden and Roilock in odober,
-where he wintered. In februan^ following, he departed
thence in company of a fliip of the king of Denmark's
towards Iceland^ and was never more heard of. The


^he Hijlory q/ Navigation^ jiff

cnglifh having made thefe unfucccfsful attempts, gave
them over for many years ; and the dutch growing
powerful at fea, refolved to try their fortune, hoping
the failures of the engliih might help to point out to
them what courfe they were to avoid, and what to fol-
low ; and accordingly.

An. 1594. The ftates fitted out three fliips, com-
manded by William Barentz, Cornelius Corneliflen and
John Hugens : they all failed together, but Barents
ran further up to the northward than the others, till
he came into feventy eight degrees of latitude, and in
auguft met with much ice and abundance of fea-mon-
fters, at which the feamen being difcouraged they re-
folved to return home. The other two fliips difeovered
fome illands, and at laft a ftrait or paflage capable
of the greatefi: fhips, and above five or fix leagues in
length : being pafled it, they came into an open and
warmer fea, and upon the coaft of Tartary near the
river Ob or Oby, a very fruitful country. This they
called the ftrait of Nail'au, and might have gone fur-
ther but for want of provilions. This done, they came
back the fame way very joyful to Holland. Meteren
hift. of the Low-countries, lib. XVIII. This we fee
pofitively delivered, but with how much of truth I
dare not decide; only mud think it ftrange, that if
fuch a ftrait had been once found it ftiould never be
met with ftnce, though often fearched for, and once by
the fame perfons that pretended to have been the ftrlt
difcoverers, as may be fcen in the year 1596, yet wc
fee this aftertion repeated by the fame author,^ who
takes it from the relations of the failors, and in the
fame place before quoted fays, that

An. 1595. The ftates being much encouraged by the
relation of thefe difcoverers, fitted out {c\c\\ Ihips, fix
of them to proceed on their voyage to China, Japan,
i^c. this way, and the feventh to bring back the news
of their being palFcd the ftrait; but they met with too
much ice at ftrait Naflau, coming to it too late by rea-
fon of the contrary winds they had in their palfagc thi-
ther : yet the inhabitants of the place told them many
- parti-

3S2 ^/<f Jlijlory of Navigatiort.

particulars more than they knew before: but they re-
turned re infecta. Mctcren. iibi fup.

An. 1596. The dutch not difcouraged by the former
dira}')pointmcnt, fitted out two Ihips under the com-
mand of VV^illiam Barcntfen and John Cornel illen, who
failed on the eighteenth of may, and on the nineteenth
of )une found theinfclves in the latitude of 80 degrees,
and eleven minutes, where they found a country they
fuppofed to be Greenland, with grafs, and beads graz-
ing like deer, &c. and lefs cold and ice than in 76 de-
grees : they turned back to an ifland they had before
called the Ifland of Bears, becaufe of the many bears
thcv faw in it, and there parted company. CornclifTen
went up again into 80 degrees of latitude, thinking to
find a paifage call: of the land they had difcovered,
but returned home w ithout doing any thing confidcrable.
Barentfen made towards Nova Zembla, and coafled
along it till he met with an illand which he called Orange,
in 77 degrees of latitude ; thence he fleered fouth and
doubled a cape, but was Hopped by ice, and making
towards the land, on the lad of auguft, was {o inclofed
that there was no ftirring. They landed and built
a houfe with timber and planks, into which they put
all their provifions and goods, where they continued
furtcring much hardlhip all the winter. On the twenty
fecond of June they fet out from thence in two boats they
had repaired, leaving their Ihip among the ice, and an
account in writing of their being there. Thus with
much difliculty, they arrived at Cola in Lapland on
the fecond of od:ober 1597, where they found Corne-
liifen, who had made a voyage to I folland in the mean
while, and was returned thither. I^arcntfen died by
the way, but the furvivors arrived in j-foiland on the
twenty ninth of oc^tober. Mcteren. lib. XIX.

An. 1676. Captain John Woc^i in his majeily's fliip
the Speedwell, with the Profperous Pink to attend
him, fiiiied from the buoy of the Norc to difcover the
north call pall'age. June the fourth he anchored in the
ifland of Shetland, and the tenth failed out again, di-
recting his courfe north north eail, and north eafi: by


ne Hijlory of Navigation, 3^3

Cvifl:, till the twenty fecond, when at noon he faw ice
right a head about a league from him, and failed clofe
to it, as they did the next day, entering into many
openings which they perceived to be bays. Sometimes
the weather proved foggy, ^nd then they made little
way; but as faft as the fog ftll, it froze on their fails
•and rigging: they perceived the ice here joined to the
land of Nova Zembla, and run out five leagues to fea.
They continued coardng the ice to fmd a pafiage, till
on the twenty ninth of June at near midnight the Prof-
perous Pink fired a gun and bore down upon the man
of war, crying out, ice on the weather-bow ; where-
upon he clapped the helm hard -a weather to come
about, but before Ihe could be brought upon the other
tack llruck upon a ledge of rocks that lay funk, the pink
got clear, but the (hip lluck faft, and there being no
getting her off, the men got all afliore in their boats
with Vvliat provifion they could fave, fome arms and
other necelfaries ; only two men were loft with the pin-
nace. Here they {ct up a tent, and faw no other in-
habitants but v.hite bears. The following days the
ihip broke and much wreck drove afliore, which was
a great help to them, there being wood for firing,
fome meal, oil, brandy and beer. They killed a white
bear and eat her, which they faid was very good meat.
Thus they continued, contriving to build a deck to
their long boat to carry off foijic of the men, and
others to travel afoot tovvards the Weygats ; till on ti.c
eighth of July to their great joy they difcovered the
pink, and making a h re for a lignal, the fent her boat
to help bring them off, and by noon tiiey all got aboard.
They prefently flood ofl' to weflv\ard, and made the
bell of their way home, airiving on the twenty third of
auguft at the buoy of the Norc. Taken out of captain
\\^3od * s o w n j ou r n a 1 .

Thefe are the principal difoveries attempted and
performed at the north eafl, which have proved unfuc-
cefsful, as failing of the main delign of finding a palfage
that way to the Kaft-Indies.

Let us now leave the barren fro'/.en north, M'hcre ^o
many have miferably pcriihcd, and vet fo little beea

- 5 ' dif-

•jS^ *rhe Hijhry of Kavtgation.

difcovcrcd of what was intended ; ice, flioal^, rock.l^
darknefs, and many other obflaclcs having difappointed
the bold undertakings of fo many daring failors, and
for fo many lolfes made us no return but the bare trade
of RufTia, whill\ our intentions were levelled at that of
the mighty kingdom of Cathay, and a paflage to China,
Japan, and all the other ealtern regions. Let us, I fi\y, .
quit thefe unfortunate attempts, and come now to fpeak
of thofe fo fuccefsful, made towards the fouth and
fouth-eaft, along the coafl: of Afric firfl, and then to
thofe of the more frequented, as more profitable Afia.
The firft we find in this order, if the authority we
have for it be good, is of an englifhmau, by name Ma-
cham, who

An. 1344. having flolen a woman, with whom he
'W'as in love, and intending to fly with her into Spain,
was by a florm cafi: upon the iiland Madeira in 32 de-
jvrecs of north-latitude. Going afhore there with his
miflrefs to refrcfli her after the toils of the fea, the fhip
taking the opportunity of a favourable gale failed away,
leaving them behind. The lady foon died for grief of
being left in that defolate ifland ; and Macham with
>vhat companions he had, ercc^tcd a little chapel and
hermitage under the invocation of the name of Jefus,
to bury her. This done, they contrived a boat made
of one Ungle tree, in which they got over to the coaft
of Afric, where they were taken by the moors, and pre-
fcntcd to their king for the rarity of the accident. He
for the fame realbn fent them to the king of Caflilc,
where giving an account of what had befallen them,
it moved many to venture out in fearch of this ifland.
This (lory we fuid in Hakluyt, vol. II. part 2. p 1.
where he quotes Anthony Galvao a portugucfe author
for it ; and D. Antonio Manoel in his works among his
epanaforas, has one on this particular fubjeCl, which he
calls epanafora amorofa. Upon this information, as
was faid, feveral adventurers went out, but to no effed
that we can hear of, till

An. 1348. John Betancourt a frenchman, obtained a
grant of king John the fccond of Caftilc, and went to
conquer the Canary iilands long before difcovcred, and


'^*hc Uijiory of f^avigatioit. 3S5

made hlmfclf mailer of five of them, but could not
fubdue the two greatefl, as moft populous and belt
defended. Thefe were afterwards fubdued by king
Ferdinand, as may be feen in Mariana, lib. XVI. p.
29. Thefe were fmall beginnings, and out of regular
courfe ; next follow the gradual difcoverics made by the
portuguefes, which may be faid to have been the ground
Mork of all the enfuing navigations, which happened
in this manner. K^ing John of Portugal enjoying
peace at home after his wars with Caflile, was per-
fuaded by his fons to undertake the conqueH of Ceuta
on the african Ihore. Prince Henry his fifth fon ac-
companied him in this expedition, and at his return
home brought with him a llrong inclination to difcover
new feas and lands, and the more on account of the
information he had received from feveral moors con-
cerning the coarts of Afric to the fouthward, which
were as yet unknown to europeans, who never pre-
tended to venture beyond cape Nao, which had there-
fore this name given it, fignifying in portuguefc No,
to imply there was no failing further ; and the reafon
was, becaufe the cape running far out into fca, caufcd
it to break and appear dangerous ; and they as yet not
daring to venture too far from land, were ignorant
that by keeping off to fca they fliould avoid that dan-
ger. Prince Henry refolving to overcome all dilRcul-
tics, fitted out two fmall velfels,

An. 141 7. Commanding them to coafl along Afric,,
and doubling that cape to difcover further towards the
equinoctial. They ventured to run iixty leagues beyond
cape Nao, as far as cape Bojudor, fo called becaufe it
ilretches itfelf out almoft forty leagues to the w eftward,
which in fpanilli they call Bojar. Here finding the
difficulty of palling further, greater than at cape Nao,
for the fame reafon of the fea's breaking upon the cape,
they returned home fatislied with what they had (\oi\^.
The following year.

An. 141 8. The prince lent John Gonzalez Zarco
and Trillan Vaz, with orders to pais that cape ; but
before they could come upon the coafl of Afric they
were carried away bv a llorm, and not where.

Vol, IX, ' C c they

3 ''56 The Illjlory of Navigation.

they accidentally fell in with an ifland, which they cal-
led Porto Santo, or Holy Haven, bccaufe of their de-
liverance there after the florm. It is a fmall ifland a
little to the northward of the Madera : thither the
])rince, being informed of what had happened, fent
15artholomew Peredrello with feeds to fow, and cattle
to flock the place ; but one couple of rabbits put in
among the red, increafed fo prodigioufly, that all corn
and plants being deflroyed by them, it was found necef-
fary to unpeople the ifland.

An. 1419. John Gonzalez and Triftan Vaz making
another voyage by order of the prince, difcovercd the
ifland Madera, before mentioned to have been acci-
dentally found by Macham the cnglifliman, and loft
again till this time. The rcafon of calling it Mader,a
was, becaule they found it all over-grown with trees,
this word in portuguefe fignifying wood. They fet
fire to the woods to clear them, which are faid
to have burnt fevcn years continually, and lince the
grcateft want is of wood. The following years w ere
employed in peopling and furnifhing the i Hands dif-
covercd, till

An. 1434. Gilianez was fent by the prince to paf">
that dreadful cape Bojador, though at the fame time
manv blamed the attempt, imagining, that in cafe they
fhould happen to pafs much farther on thofe coafts,
all that did it would turn black ; others fiying there
was nothing there but deferts, like thofe of Lybia ;
and others alleging other abfurdities of this nature,
fu itable to the ignorance the world was then in of all
parts yet undifcovered. Gilianez was fatisficd with
lailing 30 leagues beyond the cape, giving name there
to the bay called Angra de Ruyvas, or Bay of Gurnets,
becaufe he there found many of that fort of fifli. The
next year.

An. 1435. '1 he fimc commanders pafTed twelvr
leagues further, where they alfo landed, but the peo-
ple fled from them : whereupon they proceeded twelve
leagues further, w here they fountl a valt multitude of
fca- wolves, of which they killed many, and returned
4 home

^he Hifiory of Navigation. 387

home with their fkins, which was the greatefl: rctura
made this voyage, they being valued for their rarity.

An. 1 440. Antony Gonzalez wrs ^cwz to the place
of the fea- wolves, to load his velFcl with their fkms.
He landed, took, fome of the natives, and killed others;
then coafted on as ftir as Cabo Blanco, or White Cape,
and returned to Portugal.

An. X442. Antony Gonzalez returned arid carrying
thcfe perfons he had taken in his former voyage, ex-
changed them for fome Guinea (laves and a quantity of
gold dull ; for which reafon the river that there runs into
the country was called Rio del Ora, or the River of

An. 1443. The gold above-mentioned fharpening mens
appetites, Nunho Triftan undertook the voyage, and
pafling further than the others, difcovered one of the
iflands of Arguim, called Adeget, and another De las
Garzas, or of the Herons, becaufe they faw many he-
rons in it.

An. 1444. A fmall company was creeled, paying an
acknowledgment to the prince, to trade to thofe parts
lately difcovered, whither they fent fix caravels ; which
coming to the ifles of Arguim took there about two
hundred flaves, which yielded them good profit in Por-i

An. 1445. Gonzalo de Cintra failed to the itland of
Arguim, and venturing up a creek in the night to fur-
prize the inhabitants, the tide left his boat afhore ; fo
that two hundred moors coming down upon hirh, he
was killed with feven of his men, and from him iti
place was called Angra de Gonzalo de Cintra, fourteen
leagues beyond Rio del Oro.

An. 1446. The caravels failed for the fame river to
fettle commerce, but elfecled nothing, and only brought
away one of the natives, and left a portugucfe there to
view the country. But Dinis Fernandez the fame year
paifed beyond the river Sanaga, which divides the Aza-
nagi from Jalof, and difcovered the famous cape called
Cabo Verde, or the Green Cape.

An. 1447. Three caravels performed the fame voy-
age without doing any thing remarkable, more than

C c 2 taking

38S 7he llijlory of Navigation.

taking up the portugucfc left there before, Mhom they
found in good health, and he gave them fomc account
of the country* This year likewifc Nunho Tridan
failed fixty leagues beyond Cabo Verde, and anchoring
at the mouth of Rio Grande, or the great river, ven-
tured up in his boat, where he and mod of his men
\\'ere killed by the blacks with their poifoned ar-
rows. Alvaro Fernandez the fame year went forty
leagues beyond Rio Grande. Prince Henry the great
cncourager, or rather undertaker in all thefe difcovcries,
dying, they were afterwards managed by his nephew
Alonfo the fifth king of Portugal. Under him.

An. 1449. Gonfalo Velio difcovered the illands called
Azores, or of Hawks, becaufe many of thofc birds
were feen about them. They arc eight in number,
viz. S. Michael, S. Mary, Jefus or Tercera, Graciofa,
Pico, Fayal, Flores and Corvo. They arc near about
the hititude of Lilbon. In the lafb of them was found
the flatue of a man on horfe-back with a cloak, bur no
hat, his left-hand on the horfe's mane, the right point-
ing to the weft, and feme charadlcrs carved on the rock
under it, but not underftood.

An. 1460. Antony Nole a genocfc in the portuguefc
fcrvice, difcovered the illands of Cabo Verde, the
names whereof are Fogo, Brava, Boavifta, Sal, S. Ni-
cholao, S. Lucia, S. Vincente, and S. Antonio. They
lie about a hundred leagues weft of Cabo Verde, and
therefore take name from that cape. He alfo found
the i (lands Maya, S. Philip, and S. Jacob. This fame
year Peter dit Cintra, and Suero de Cofta failed as far
as Scrra Leona.

An. 147 1- John de Santarcm and Peter dc Efcobar
advanced as far as the place they called Mina, or the
Mine, becaufe of the trade of gold there; and then
prwceeded to cape S. Catharine, thirty feven leagues
bc^'ond cape Lope Gonzalez in two degrees and a half
of fouth latitude. I'crdinand Po the fauie year found
the illand by him called I lermofa, or Beautiful, which
name it loft, and Hill keeps that of the difcovcrer. Ac
the fame time were found the iflands o'i S. Thomas,
Anno Bom, and Principe. Some years palFcd without

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