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7fj€ HIJlory of Navtgaiion^ 389

going beyond what was known ; but in the mean time
king John the fccond, who fuccccded his father Alonfo,
caufcd a fort to be built at Mina, which he called
fort S. George, and fettled a trade there.

An. 1480. James Cam proceeded as far as the river
Congo in the kingdom of the fame name, called by the
natives Zayre, whence he continued his voyage as
far as 22 degrees of fouth-latitude, and thence home


An. 14S6. King John being informed by an embaf-
fador from the king of Benin on the coafi: of Afric,
that ther-e was a mighty prince two hundred and fifty
leagues from his country, from whom his mafter re-
ceived his confirmation in his throne ; and imagining
this to be the fo much talked of Prefter John, he fent
Peter de Coviilam and Alonfo de Payva by land to get
intelligence of this great potentate, and fome account
of India. They went together by the way of Grand
Cair to Tor on the coafl of Arabia, where they parted,
Coviilam for India, and Payva for Ethiopia, agreeing
to meet by a certain time at Grand Cair : the firil went
to Cananor, Calicut and Goa, pafTcd thence to Zofala
in Afric, then to Aden at the mouth of the Red-fea on
the fide of Arabia, and at lad to Grand Cair, where he
found his companion had died. Hence he fent an ac-
count to the king of his proceedings by a jew come
from Portugal, and with another embarked for Ormuz,
then went over into Ethiopia, where he was kindly
entertained, but never fuffcrcd to return home. At
the fame time thefe were fent away by land, Bartho*
lomew Diaz put to fca with three fliips, and out -going
all that had been before him a hundred and twenty
leagues, difcovered the mountains he called Sierra Parda,
and palTed on in light of the bay called Dc los Vaqueros,
or of the Herdfmcn, bccaufc of the great herds of cat-
tle they faw there ; beyond which he touched at the
fmall ifland Santa Cruz, entered the mouth of the
river called Del Infante, and at lad came to the now
famous, and till ther^ unknown cape, which he called
Tormentofo, becaufc he there met with dorms ; but
the king, in hopes of difcovering the Eafl-lndics^
C c 3 changed

390 The Hijlory of Navigation^

changed its name to that of Cabo de Buena Efpcranza,
or cape of Good Hope : this done he returned home,
having difcovercd more tiian any man before him-
The rtrange conceit \\hich poirefTed the heads of
the failors, that there was no pollibility of paOing
be)ond Cabo Tormentofo, as they called it, and the
great employment the kings of Portugal found in
their great dif* ovcries upon the coaft of Afric, very
much retarded the profccution of further defigns, fo
that nothing was advanced till

An. 1497. King Emanuel, who with the crown
of Portugal had inherited the ambition of enlarging
hii dominions, and the dcfire of finding a way
by fea to the Kaft-Indics, appointed Vafco de
Gama, a gentleman of an undnunted fpirit, admiral
of thofe fhips he def:gncd for this expedition, which
were only th.ree, and a tender; their names were
the S. Gabriel, the S. Raphael and Berrio ; the captains
Vafco de Gama admiral, Paul de Gam.a his brother,
and Nicholas Nunez, and Gonzalo Nunez of the tender,
which was Inden with provifions. Gama failed from
Lilbon on the eighth cf july, and the firrt land he
came to after almoft five months fail was the bay of
S. Helena, where he took fome blacks. The twentieth
of novcmber he failed tlience, and doubled the cape
of Good Hope, and on the twenty iifth touched at the
bay of S. Bias, fixty leagues beyond the aforefaid
cape, w here he exchanged fome merchandize w ith the na-
tives. Here he took all the provilions out of the tender,
and burnt it. On Chrillmas-day they faw the land ;
which for that reafon they called Terra do Natol, that
is Chriftmas-land ; then the river they named De los
Reyes, that is of the kings, becauie discovered on the
feafl: ot the epiphany ; and after that cape Corrientes,
pilhng fifty leagues beyond Zofala without feeing it,
wi.erc they went up a river in which were boats with
fails made of palm-tree leaves: the people were not fo
black as thofe they had fcen before, and underllood
the arabic chara(;ter, who faid that to the eaftward
laved people who failed in velTeLs like thofe of the
portugucfes. This river Gama called De Boas Sinays,


*1 he Hiftory of 'Navigation. 391

or of good tokens, becaufe it put him in hopes of finding
what he came in fearch of. Sailing hence, he again came
to an anchor among the iflands ot S. Cicorge oppofite to
Mozambique, and removing tiience anchored again above
the town of Mozambique, in 14 degrees and a half of
fouth latitude ; whence after a fliort flay, with the
afHilancc of a moorilli pilot, he touched at Quiloa and
Monbaza; and having at Melinde fettled a peace \\ith the
mooriih king of that place, and taking in a guzarat pilot,
he fet fail for India, and eroding that great gulph of fcven
hundred leagues in twenty days, anchored two leagues be-
low Calicut on the twentieth of may. To this place had
Gam.a difcovcred twelve hundred leagues beyond what
was known before, drawing a rtraight line from the river
Del Infante, difcovered by Bartholomew Diaz, to the
port of Calicut, for in failing about by the coall it is
much more. Returning home not far from the coalf,
he fell in with the iflands of Anchediva, fignifying in
the Indian language five iflands, becaufe they are fo
many ; and having had fight of Goa at a dillance,
failed over again to the coaft of x\fric, and anchored near
the town of Magadoxa. At Melinde he was friendly
received by the king, but being again under fail, the
fhip S. Raphael flruck afliore and was loft, giving her
name to thofe fands : all the men were faved aboard
the other two fliips, which parted in a florm near Cabo
Verde. Nicholas Coello arrived flrfl: at Lilbon, and
foon after him Vafco de Gama, having fpent in this
voyage two years and almoft two months. Of a hun^
dred and lixty men he carried out, only tifty fTvc returned
home, who \\ ere all well rewarded.

An. 1500. King Emanuel, encouraged by the fuccefs
of Vafco de Gama, fitted out a tieet of thirteen fail un-
der the command of Peter Alvarez Cabral, and in it
twelve hundred men, to gain footing in India. He
failed on the eighth of march, and meeting with violent
ilorms M as caft off from the coafl: of A.fric fo far, that
on eaflier eve the fleet came into a port, which lor the
lafety found in it was called Seguro, and the country
at that time Santa Cruz, being the fimie now known
by the name of Brazil, on the fouth continent of Ame-
nca. Hence the rvdmiral fent back a fliip 10 advcrtifc

C c 4 thcj

393 ^^'^ Hijlory of Navigatloft^

the king of the accidental new difcovery, leaving two
portuguefes alhorc to inquire into the ciilVoms and pro-
duel of the land. Sailing thence on the twelfth of may
for the cape of Good Hope, the fleet was for twenty
days in a mod dreadful l\orn^, infomuch, that the fca
fwallowed up tbpr Oiips, and the admiral arrived with
only fix at Zofala on the fixtcenth of July, and on the
twentieth at Mozambique ; where having refitted, he
profecuted his voyage to Quiloa, and thence to Me-
linde, whence the fleet flood over for India, and reached
Anchediva on the twenty fourth of augufl : then com-
ing to Calicut, peace and commerce was there agreed
on with Zamori, the king of Calicut, but as fooa
broken, and the portuguefcs entered into ftrict amity
with the kings of Cochin and Cananor, where they tool;
in their lading and returned to Portugal.

An. 1501. John dc Nova departed from I.ifbon with
four fliips and four hundred men, and in his way dif-
covered the ifland of Conception, in 8 degrees of fouth
latitude, and pn the call: fide of Afric that which from
him was called the ifland of John de Nova. At Ca-
nanor and Cochin he took in all his lading, delhoying
rnany vcffcls of Calicut, and in his return home found
the ifland nf St. Hcjena in 15 degreps of fouth latitude,
dilKint fit'tcen hundred forty nine leagues from Goa,
and eleven hundred from Lilbon, being then unpeopled,
but fincc of great advantage to all that ufe the trade ot

An. 1502. The king fct out a f^ect of twentv fail
commanded by the firll: difcoverer of India, Vafco dc
Gama, whofe fccond voyage this was. No new dif-
coveries were made by him, but only trade fccured at
Cochin and Cananor, fevcral (hips of Calicut taken and
dtftroycd, the king of Quiloa on the coaft of Afric
brought to fubmit himfclf to Portugal, paying tribute;
and fo Vafco de Gama returned home with nine fliips
richly laden, having Vincent Sodrc behind with five
(hips to fcour the coarts of India, and fecure the fac^
lories there.

An. r50^. Nine fliips were fent urder three feveral
commanders^ Alfonfo dc Albuqucrauc, Fiancis dc Al-


The Hiftory of Navigation. 393

buqucrque, and Antony de Saldanha, each of them
having three fhips. The Albuqucrqucs, with pcrmif^
fion of that king, built a port at Cochin, burnt fonic
towns, took many fliips of Calicut, and then returned
richly laden homewards, where Alfonfo arrived fafe with
his Ihips, but Francis and his were never more heard of*
Saldanha the third of thefc commanders, gave his name
to a bay fhort of the cape of Good Hope, where h<?
endeavoured to water ; but it coft the blood of fomc
of his men, and therefore the place w^s called Aguad^
de Saldanha, or Saldanha's watering-place. Thence
proceeding on his voyage, he obliged the king of
Monbaza on the other coaft of Afric to accept of
peace ; and then went 4way to cruize upon the moors at
the mouth of the Rc^-fea^ which was the poll: appointcdi

An. 1504, Finding no good was to b^ done in India
without a confiderable force, king Emanuel fitted out
thirteen fliips, the biggeft that had been yet built in
Portugal, and in them twelve hundred men, all under
the command of Lope Soarez, who made no further
difcoveries, only concluded a peace with Zamori, and
returned riqh home.

An. 1505. D. Francifco de Almeyda was fent to In-
dia, with the title of viceroy, carrying with him twenty
two lliips, and in them fifteen hundred men, with whom
he attacked and took the town of Quiloa on the call
coaft of Afric, and in about 9 degrees of fouth latitude,
where he built a fort ; then burnt Monbaza on the fame
coaft in four degrees, and failing over to India erecled
another fort in the iftand Anchcdiva, and a third at Ca-
iianor on the Malabar coaft,

An. 1506. James Fernandez Pereyra commander of
one of the ftiips left to cruize upon the mouth of the
Ked-fea, returned to Lilbon with the news of his hav-
ing difcovered the ifland Zocotora, not far diftant from
the laid mouth, and famous for producing the beft
aloes, from it called fuccotrina. In march this year
failed from Lilbon Alonfo de Albuquerque, and Trif-
ran da Cunha, with thirteen ftiips, and thirteen hundred
men, the former to conmiand the trading Ihips, the


394 ^^^ Wftory of Navigation.

latter to cruize on the coall: of Arabia : in their palTagc
they had a itght.of cape S. Auguflin in Bralil ; and
Handing over trom thciKC for the cape of Good Hope,
Trillan da Cunha ran far away to the fouth, and dif-
covered the iflands which ftill retain his name. Sailing
hence, forne difcovcry was made upon the ifland of
Madagafcar, that of Zocotora fubdued, and the fleet
failed part for the coad of Arabia, and part for India.
In the former Albuquerque took and plundered the
town of Calayate, the fame he did to Mafcate, Soar
fubmitted, and Orfuzam they found abandoned by the
inhabitants. This done, Albuquerque failed away to
Ormuz, then firft feen by europcans. This city is
feared in an illand called Gcrum, at the mouth of the
Perfian gulph, fo Barren that it produces nothing but
fait and fulphur, but it is one of the greateft marts in
thofe countries. Mence Albuquerque failed to India,
vhcre he lerved fome time under the command of the
viceroy Almeyda, till he was himfelf made governor
of the portugucfe conquefts in tHofe parts, which was
in the year 15 lO, during which time the whole bufi-
nefs was to fettle trade, build forts, and erecl fadlo-
rics along thofe coafts already known, that is all the
cart-fide of Afric, the Ihores of Arabia, Perfia, Gu-
7arat, Cambaya, Decan, Canara and Malabar ; and in-
deed they had employment enough, if well followed,
to have held them many more years. But avarice and
attnbition know no bounds; the portuguefes had not
yet paffed cape Comori, the utmoll extent of the Mala-
bar coall, and therefore

An. \^\o. James Lopes de Sequcira was fcnt from
I.ilbon u ith orders to pafs as far as Malaca : this is a
<fity fcat-ed on that pcnmfula, formerly called Aurea
Chtrfonefus, running out into the indian fca from the
main land, to which it is joined by a narrow neck of
land on the north, and on the fouth fc[iaratcd from the
ifland of Sumatra by a fmaP (bait or channel : Ma-
laca was at that time the grratefl" emporium of all
the farther India. Thither Sequeira was fent to fettle
l^clde, or rather to difcovcr what advantages might be
gained; but the moors who wattltcd to dcllroy him.


The Htftory of Navigation. 395

having failed of their defign to murder him at an en-
tertainment, contrived to get thirty of his men afhore
on pretence of loading fpice, and then falling on them
and the Ihips at the fame time killed eight portuguefcs,
took fixty, and the fhips with difficulty got av\ay.
However here we have Malaca difcovercd, and a way
open to all the further parts of India. In his way to
Malaca, Sequeira made peace with the kings of Achem,
Pedir and Pacem, all at that time fmall princes at the
northweft end of the ifland Sumatra. Whilfl: Sequeira was
thus employed, Albuquerque alfaults the famous city of
Goa, feated in a fmall ifland on the coafl: of. Decan,
and taking the inhabitants unprovided made himfclf
mafler of it, but enjoyed it not long ; for Hidalcan
the former owner returning with fixty thoufand men,
drove him out of it after a fiege of twenty days : yet
the next year he again took it by force, and it lias ever
fmce continued in the hands of the portuguefes, and
been the metropolis of all their dominions in tlie eaft,
being made an archbifliop's fee, and the relidence of
the viceroy who has the government of all the con-
quefls in thofe parts. Albuquerque flufhed with this
fuccefs, as foon as he had fettled all fafe at Goa, failed
for Malaca with fourteen hundred fighting men ia
nineteen fliips. By the way he took five fhips, and at
his arrival at the coafl: of Sumatra was complimented
by the kings of Pedir and Pacem. It is not unwor-
thy relating in this place, that in one of the fliips
taken at this time was found Nehoada Becguca, one of
the chief contrivers of the treachery againft Sequeira;
and though he had received feveral mortal wounds, yet
not one drop of blood came from him ; but as foon
as a bracelet of bone was taken off his arm, the blood
gufhed out at all parts. The Indians faid this was the
bone of a beaft called cabis, which fome will have to
be found in Siam, and others in the illand of Java,
which has this flrange virtue, but none has ever been
found fince. This being looked upon as a great trca-
fure, was fent by Albuquerque to the king of Portugal,
but the fhip it went in was call away, fo that we have
lofl that rarity, if it be true there ever was any fuch,


39^ ^^^ I^ijlory of Navigaiton,

Albuquerque failing over to Malaca had the portu-
gucfes that had been taken iVoin Scqucira delivered ;
but that not beinp; all he came for, he landed his men,
and at the fecond allault made himfelf mafter of the
city, killing or driving out all the moors, and peopling
it again \vith 11 rangers and malays.

An. 1513. Albuquenjuc made an attempt upon the
city of Aden, but failed, being rcpulfcd with lofs.
This place is featcd on the coafl: of Arabia Foelix, near
the mouth of the Red-fea, under the mountain Arzira,
uhich is all a barren rock ; it is rich, becaufe reforted
to by many merchants of fcveral nations; but the foil
cxccfTive dry, {o that it fcarce produces ?^x\Y thing.
Being difappointed here, Albuquerque Heercd his courl'e
towards the Red-fea, being the firit curopean that ever
entered it with curopean fliips.

An. 15 17. Lope Soarez de Albcrgoria governor of
India failed over to the ifl^nd of Ceylon with fevcn gaU
leys, two fhips, and eight fmaller veflels, carrying ia
them all fevcn hundred portuguefe foldiers. This ijland
kad been before feeu by the portuguefes palling to
Malaca, but not much known. Here Lope Soared
built a fort, and in procefs of time the portuguefes
made thenifclves m^fters of all the fea-coalb of this
wealthy iiland.

About the fame time John de Silvcyra, who had the
comniand of four fail, made a farther progrefs than had
been done before in the difcovery of the Maid ivy
iflands, which are fo many that the number of them is
not yet known, lying in cIuDers, and thefe in a line,
N. W. and S. E. and twelve of thefe clullers in the
line, bclidcs two other little parcels i\ ing together ealt
and wcfl from one another at the iouih-cad of the
aforefaid twelve. Thefe, though (o numerous, are {o
very fiiiall, that no great account is made of them.
From them he failed lo the kingdom of Bcngula, lying
in the upper part of the gulph of the fame name in
ubo\it 2j degreis of north latitude, being all the
country about the niouth of the river Ganges. 'Jo.
this joins the kingdom of Arracam defcending fouth-
'Ward, thei\ thiit of Pegu, and next to it that of Siam^

7 >\hicti

nc HiHory of Navigation. 397

-U'hich joins to the Aurea Chcrfoncfus, or pcninfula of
Malaca. All thcfc counrrics abound in wealth, pro-
ducing infinite plenty of lilk and cotton, of which lall
they make the fincft callicocs and muflins, with much
rcalbn admired by all the nations of Europe. They
have numerous droves of elephants, and confequentlv
great plenty of ivory, befides plenty of black cattle ani

An. 1517. Fernan Perez dc Andrade, fent by the
king of Portugal to make new difcovcries, leaving ail
behind that had been before known, and paffing" the
Urait betwixt Malaca and the illand Sumatra, came
upon the coaft of the kingdom of Camboia, whence
he proceeded to that of Chiampa, where taking of
frefh water had like to have coft him his life. He
went on to Patane, and eftablifhed peace and conmiercc
with the governor there : which done, the feafon bein<^
unfit to proceed further, he returned to Malaca to refit.
As foon as the weather was feafonable he fet out again,
and continued his difcoveries till he arrived at Canton,
or Quantung, the mofl remarkable fea-port town on
the fouthern coaft of the vafl empire of China. He
treated with the governor of Canton, and fent an em-
baffador to the emperor of China, and fettled trade and
commerce in that city for the prefent. Though this was
not lading, (for the very next portuguefes that arrived
behaved themfelves fo infolently, that the fleet of China
attacked them, and they had much dilhculty to ge:
off; and their embafiador being fent back from Peking
by the emperor of Canton unheard, was there put to
death) ncverthelefs fome years after the portuguefes ob-
tained leave to fettle in a little ifland oppofitc to the
port of Canton, where they built the city Macao,
which they hold to this day, though lubjcct to the em-
peror of China.

An. 1520. James Lopez dc Scqueira, then governor
of India, failed for the Red-fca with a tleet of twenty
four fliips, and in it eighteen hundred portuguefes, and
as many malabars and canarins. Coming to the iiland
Mazua in the Red-fca, he found it forfakcn by the in-
lubitants, who were lied over to Arquico, a port be-

39^ ^'^'^c ^Tijlory of Navigation.

longing to PrcHcr John, or the emperor of Ethiopia,
which was now iirlt difcovcrcd by fca. At this tinx:
it was a valt monarchy, and extended along the fhores
of the Red-fca above a hundred and twciUy leagues,
which was counted the kail of its fides ; but fmce then
all the fea-coall has been taken from them by the turks.
Here the portuguefcs in following years made fomc
progrefs into the country, five hundred of them being
lent under the command of D. Chriilopher de Gama
to affift the emperor againft his rebellious fubjects,
and his enemies the turks. The actioi)s performed by
this handful of men being all by land, do not belong
to us ; but they travelled a great part of the country,
and opened a way for the jefuits, who for feveral years
after continued there.

An. 1 521. Antony de Brito was font to the Molucco
iflands from Malaca. I'hcfe had been before difco-
vered by Antony dc Abrcu. The Molucco iflands are
five in number, their names, 'i'ernate, Tidore, Moufel,
Machien, Bacham. Thcfc illands were afterwards long
ftruggled for by the portuguefes and dutch, till at lalt
the dutch prevailed, and continue in polfeflion of that
trade till this day. A few years now pafi: without any
conliderable difcoveries by fca, though ft ill they found
feveral little iflands, and advanced tar by land, too
long for this difcourfe, defigncd only to Ihow the pro-
grefs of navigation. Let us then proceed to the next
confidcrable voyage, which was

An. 1540. Which furnilhes as remarkable a piece of
fea-fervice as any we (hall read undertaken by a private
man. Peter do Faria governor of Malaca fent his
kinfman Antony de Faria y Soufii, to fccurc a peace
with the kine^ of Patanc. He carried w ith him <ioods
to the value of twelve thoufand ducats; and finding
no fale for them there, lent them to Lugor in the
kingdom of Siam, by one Chriftopher Borallo, who
coming to an anchor in the mouth of that river was
furprifed by a moor of Guzarat called Coje Hazcm, a
fworn enemy to the portuguefes. l^orallo having loll
his Hiip fwam himfclf alhore, and carried the news of
what had happened to Faria at Patanc, who vowed never


ne Hijlory cf Navigation. j^g^

to defift till he had deflroycd that moor, and in prder to,
it fitted out a fmall velFel with fifty men, ii) which he
failed from Patane towards the kingdom of Champa,,
to feck the pirate there. In the latiuide of 3 degrees
20 minutes, he found the ifland of Pulo Condor,
whence he failed into the port of Bralapifam m the
kingdom of Camboia, and fo coadcd long to the river
Pulo Cambier, which divides the kingdoms of Camboia
and Tliompa. Coafting Rill along, he came to an an-
chor at the mouth of the river of Toobafoy, where he
rook two Ihips belonging to the pirate Similau, and
burnt fome others. The booty was very rich, befides
the addition of ftrength, the ihips being of confider-
able force. Thus incrcafed, he goes on to the river
Tinacoreu, or Varela, where the Siam and Malaca
Ihips trading to China, barter their goods for gold,
calamba wood and ivory. Hence he diredled his courfe
to the iiland Aynan on the coall of China, and palfed
in fight of Champiloo in the latitude of 13 degrees,
and at the entrance of the bay of Cochinchina; thea
difcovcred the promontory Pulocampas, weftward
whereof is a river, near which fpying a large vefTel
at anchor, and imagining it might be Coje Hazem,
he fell upon and took it, but found it belonged to Quiay
Tayjam a pirate. In this veflel were found feventy
thoufand quintals, or hundred weight of pepper, be-
fides other fpice, ivory, tin, wax and powder, the whole
valued at lixty thoufand crowns, befides fevcral good
pieces of cannon, and fome plate. Then coafting along
the idand Aynan, he came to the river Tananquir,
where two great vefTels attacked him, both which he
took, and burnt the one for want of men to fail her.
Further on at C. Tilaure he furprifcd four fmall vef-
fels, and then made to Mutipinam, where he Ibid his
prizes for the value of two hundred thoufand crowns
of uncoined filver. Thence he failed to the port of
Madei in the ifland Aynan, where meeting Himilan a
bold pirate, who exercifed great cruelties towards chrif-
tians, he took and prat^tifcd the fame on him. This
done he run along that coafl, difcovering many large
towns and a fruitful country. And now the men weary


460 The Hijlory of Njiigaiion.

of fceking Co)e Hazem in vain, demanded tluir fliarc
of the prizes to be gone, uhich was granted : but as
they fhapcd their courfe for the kingdom of Siam,
where the dividend Nvas to be made, by a furious ftorm
they were cad away on the ifland called de los La-
droncs, which lies fouth of China, where of five hun-
dred men only eighty fix got afliore naked, whereof
twenty eight were portiiguefes : here they continued fif-

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