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teen days with fcarce any thing to eat, the ifland not
being inhabited. Being in deipair of relief, they dif-
covered a fmall veffel which made to the fhore, and
anchoring, fent thirty men for wood and water. Thefe
vere chinefes, whom the portuguefes, upon a lign
given as had been agreed, furprifed, running on a
fudden and poflefling themfelves of their boat and vef-
fel ; and leaving them afliore, directed their courfe
towards Liampo, a lea-port town in the province of
Chequiang in China, joining by the way a chinefe pi-
rate, who was a great friend to the portuguefes, and
had thirty of them aboard. At the river Anay they
refitted and came to Chinchco, where Faria hired thirty
five portuguefes he found, and putting to fea met with
eight more naked in a iiilier-boat, who had their fliip
taken from them by the pirate Coje Hazem ; which
news of him rejoiced Faria, and he provided to fight
him, having now four vclfels with five hundred men,
whereof ninety five were portuguefes. He found his
enemy in the river Tinlau, where he killed him and
four hundred of his men, and took all his fliips but
one that funk, with abundance of wealth: but it prof-
pered very little, for the next night J^'aria's iliip and
another were call away, and moll of the goods aboard
the others thrown over board, and one hundred and
eleven men loll ; Faria efcaped, and taking another
rich fhip of pirates by the way, came at lail to winter
at Liampo, as was faid before, a fea-port town in the
province of Chequiang in China, but built by the por-
tuguefes, who governed there. Having fpent five
months here, he directed his courfe for the illand Ca-
lempluy on the coafl of Cliina, where he was informed
were the monuments of the ancient kings of China,


The Hijlory of Navigation. 401

which he dcfij^ncd to rob, being reported to be full
of treafure. After many days fail through fcas never
before known to the portuguefes, he came into the
bay of Nanking, but durfl: not make any flay there,
perceiving about three thoufand fail lie at anchor about
.it. Here the chinefes he had with him being ill ufed
fled, but fomc natives informed him he was but ten
leaguci^ from the illand Calcmpluy : he arrived there the
next day, and intending to rob all the tombs, the old
keepers of them gave the alarm, which prevented his
defign, and he was obliged to put to fea again, where
having wandered a month he perifhcd in a ftorm, both
his fliips being call away, and only fourteen men faved.
Thus ended this voyage, famous for feveral particulars,
and efpecially for having difcovered more of the north
of China than was known before, though the defign of
the undertaker was only piracy. The city Liampo
before mentioned was foon after utterly detlroyed by
the governor of the province of Chequiang, for the
robberies and infolences committed in the country by
the portuguefes.

An. 1542. Antony de Mota, Francis Zeimoto, and
Antony Peixoto failing for China, were by fborms drove
upon the iflands of Nipongi, or Nifon, by the chinefes
called Gipon, and by us Japan. Here they were well
received, and had the honour, though accidentally, of
beino- the firft difcoverers of thefe illands. Their fitu-
ation is eafi: of China, betwixt 30 and 40 degrees of
jnorth-latitudc : there are many of them, but the prin-
cipal is Nipongi, or Japan, in which the emperor keeps
his court at the city of jMeaco. The chief iflands
about it are Cikoko, Tokocli, Sando, Sifimc, Bacafa,
Vuoqui, Saycock or Ximo, Goto, Ceuxima, Toy,
Giiima, Jalima, Tanaxuma and Firando. Hitherto
we have mentioned none but the portuguefes, they
being the only difcoverers of all thofe parts, and
all other nations having followed their track, yet not
till fome years after this time, as we fnall foon fee. I
do not here mention the difcovery of the Philippine
iflands, though properly belonging to the call, as not
very remote from China, becaufc thev wore difcovered

Vol, IX, D d ' and

402 The Hijiory of 'Navigation,

and conquered the other way, that is from America t
and therefore we Ihall fpeak of them in their place
among the %vefl:crn dilcovcries. What have been hi-
therto faid concerning thcfe portuguefe voyages is col-
iecled out of John do Barros's dccads of India, Oforius's
hiftory of India, Alvarez of Abaflia, and Faria's por-
tuguefe Afia. Having fecn what has been done by thcfe
difcovercrs, let us next lightly touch upon the voyages
of thofe who followed their footftcps.

An. 1 55 1. We meet with the hrll cnglifli voyage on
the coaft of Afric, performed by Mr. I'homas Wind-
ham, but na particulars of it.

An. 1552. The fame Windham returned with three
fail, and traded at the ports of Zafim and Santa Cruz ;
the commo<Jiries he brought from thence being fugar,
dates, almonds and mololTes.

An. 1553. This Windham, with Antony Ancs Pin-
teado, a portuguefe and promoter of this voyage, failed
^ith three ihips from Portfmouth : they traded for gold
"along the coalf of Guinea, and from thence proceeded
to the kingdom of Benin, where they were promifcd
loading of pepper : but both the commanders and mod:
of the men dying through the unfeafonablcnefs of the
weather, the rell, being fcarce forty, returned to Ply-
mouth with but one fliip and little wealth.

An. 1554- Mr. John Lock undertook a voyage for
Guinea with three ihips, and trading along that coaft
brought away a confidcrable quantity of gold and ivory,
•but proceeded no further. The following years Mr.
AV^illiam Towerfon and others performed feveral voy-
ages to the coaft of Guinea, which having nothing
.peculiar but a continuation of trade in the fan->e parts,
there is no occafion forgiving any p;irticu!ars of them.
Nor do we find any account of a further progrefs made
"along this coaft by the ej>glifh, till we come to, their
voyages to the Eall-Indies, and thofe begun but late;
for the firfl engliihman we find in thofe parts was one
tfiiomas Stephens, who

An. 1579. wrote an account of his voyage thither to
tiis father in London; but he having failed aboard a
portuguefe Ihip, this voyage makes nothing to the en-


w -

The Hiftory ef Navigathn. 403

glidi nation, whofc firft undertaking to India in fliip;j
of their own was.

An. 1591. Three ftately fliips called the Penelope,
the Merchant Royal, and the Edward Bona venture,
were fitted out at Plymouth, and failed thence under
the command oi Mr. George Raymond : they departed
on the tenth of april, and on the firll of auguft came
to an anchor m the bay called Aguada de Saldanha,
fifteen leagues north of the cape of Good Hope. Here
they continued feveral days, and traded with the blacks
for cattle, when finding many of their men had died,
they thought fit to fend back Mr. Abraham Kendal ia
the Royal Merchant with fifty men, there being too
few to manage the three fliips if they proceeded on their
voyage : Kendal accordingly returned, and Raymond
and Lancafler in the Penelope and Edward Bonaventure
proceeded, and doubled the cape of Good Hope ; but;
coming to cape Gorrientes on the fourteenth of fep-
tember, a violent fl:orm parted them, and they never
met again ; for Raymond was never heard of, but Lan-
caRer held on his voyage. Paffing by Mozambique
he came to the ifland Comera, where after much fliow
of friendfliip, the moorilli inhabitants killed thirty two
of his men, and took his boat, which obliged him to
boift fail and be gone \ and after much delay by con-
trary winds he doubled cape Comori, oppofite to the
idand of Ceylon in India, in the month of may 159^^
Thence in fix days, with a large wind which blew hard,
he came upon the ifland of Gomes Polo, which lies
near the northermofl" point of the ifland Sumatra ; and
the winter fcafon coming on, ftood over to the ifland
of Pulo Pinao, lying near the coafl of MaUca, and be-r
twixt it and the ifland Sumatra, in 7 degrees of north
latitude, where he continued till the end of augufl r^j-
frefliing his men the befl: the place would allow, whi.qb
aflbrded little but flfli, yet twenty flx of them died
there. Then the captain running along the coafl: pf
Malaca, and adjacent iflands, more like a pirate tha^
merchant or difcovcrer, took fome pri^e?, and Ip
thought to have returned home : but his proviflons be*
ing fpent wh^n they came to crpfs th? -.^uinoctti^l,
' D d ^ wh^re:

'404 ^he Hijlory of Navigation,

^here he was llaid by calms and contrary winds fix
weeks, he ran away to the Well-Indies to get fomc
fupply, where after touching at fevcral places, the
captain and eighteen men went afhore in the little
illand Mona, lying betwixt thofe of Portorico and
Hifpaniola, but five men and a boy left in the fliip
cut the cable and failed away. Lancafler and eleven
of his men fome days after fpying a fail, made a fire ;
upon which fignal the frcnchmin, for fuch a one it
proved to be, took in his topfails, and drawing near the
ifland received them aboard, treating them with ex-
traordinary civility, and fo brought them to Dicpe in
Normandy, whence they pafTed over to Rye in SuiTex,
and landed there in may 1594, having fpcnt three years,
fix weeks, and two days in this voyage. Hitherto Hak-
luit, vol. II.

An. 1595. The dutch rcfolving to try their fortune
in the Eafl-Indies, fitted out four fliips at Amllerdam
under the command of Cornelius Hootman^ which
failed on the fecond of april, and on the fourth of au-
gufl: anchored in the bay of S. Blafe, about forty five
leagues beyond the cape of Good Hope, where they
continued fome days trading with the natives for cattle
in exchange for iron. Augull the eleventh they departed
that place, and coafiing along part of the illand of Ma-
dagafcar, came at lafl into the bay of S. Auguftin,
where they exchanged pewter fpoons and other trifles
with the natives for cattle, till they fell at variance;
and the natives keeping away, no more provifions were
to be had : and therefore on the tenth of december they
weighed, direding their courfe for Java, but meeting
with bad weather and firong currents were kept baclv
till the tenth of January, when they were forced for
want of rcfrcfliments to put into the illand of S. Mary,
lying on the eaUern coall of Madagafcar in 17 degrees
pf Ibuth latitude, whence they removed to the great
bay of Antongil, and continued there till the twelfth
of februarv : then putting to fea again, they arrived
on the Qoall of the great illand Sumatra on the eleventh
of June, and fpending fomc days along that coall:, came
at lad: to Bantam in the iflaud of Java. They lay


^he Hiftory of Navigation, 405

here, very flivourably entertained by the emperor of
Java, till falling at variance many hollilities palled be-
twixc them ; and ix\ november the dutch removed from
before Bantam to Jacatra, which is no great diftance.
In January finding themfelvcs much weakened by lofs
of men, and the Amilerdam one of the biggeft fhips
leaky, they unladed and burnt her. Having thoughts
of failing for the Molucco i Hands, they ran along as far
as the ftrait of Baiambuon at the eafl end of Java ; but
the leamen refufing to pafs any further, they made
through the ftrait, and on the twenty fcvcnth of febru-
ary failed along the coaft of Java towards the cape of
Good Hope ; and three of their four (hips, befides the
pinnace that was a tender, and eighty nine feamen,
being all that w^re left of four hundred and forty nine,
returned to Holland in augufl following, having been
abroad twenty nine months. This and the voyage foon
after following in 159S, may feem to be miftaken, be-
caufc it is faid in both, that the coiTimandcr in chief
"vvas Cornelius Hootman ; but it mult be obferved, they
differ not only in time, but in all other circum fiances,
and this is certainly the firft voyage the dutch made to
India, whereas in the other there is mention of thofe
people having been there before. This is to be feen at
large ih the coHeciiion of voyages undertaken by the
dutch Eall-India company, printed this prcfcnt year


An. 1596. Sir Robert Dudley, as principal adven-
turer, fet out three fliips under the command of Ben-
jamin Wood, defigning to trade in China ; for which
purpofe he carried letters from queen Elizabeth to the
emperor of China : but thcfe Ihips and the men all
periflied, fo we have no account ot their voyage. Pur-
chas, vol. i. p. 1 10.

An. 1598, Three merchants of Middleburgh fitted
out two fliips under the command of Cornelius How-
teman for the Eaft-Indies, which failed on the fifteenth
of march. In november they put into the bay ot SaU
danha on the coaft of Afric, in 34 degrees o\. louth
latitude, and ten leagues from the cape of Good
Hope. Here pretending to trade with the natives, they

' D d 3 oPilTcd

4^6 'The Hift'jry cf NafUtga^tojf.

offered tfiem fome violence; to revenge which, three
days after they came down in great numbers, and fur-
prizing the dutch Hew thirteen of them, and drove the
red to their ftiip. January the third they again an^
chored in the bay of S. Auguflin in the foiith-wcn: part
of the iiland Madagafcar, and 23 degrees of fouth la-
titude, where the natives would not trade with them ;
and l?cing in great want of proviiions, they failed to
the idand Magotta, or S. Chriltopher, on the north of
Madagafcar, and having got fome relief went on to
Anfvvame, or Angovan, another fmall iHand, where
they took in more provifions. Then proceeding on
their voyage, they paffed by the Maldivy iflands, thence
by Cochin, and in June arrived in Sumatra at the port
of Achen, where after being kindly received by the
Jcing, he fent many men aboard on pretence of friend-
fhip, but with a defign to firrprize the lliips, which
they had near accomplifhed, but were with difficulty
beaten oif, yet fa that the dutch laft fixty eight of their
men, two pinnaces of twenty tun each, and one of
their boats. Sailing hence they watered and rcfreflied
at Pulo Batun off Queda, which is on the coall of Ma-
laca ; and having fpent much time about thofe parts,
in november anchored at the iflands of Nicobar in 8
degrees of latitude, where they had fome refrelhment,
but little; to remedy which, in their way towards
Ceylon, they took a ihip of Negapatan arid plundered
it. Then directing their coiirfe home in march 1600,
they doubled the cape of Good Hope, and in juiy re-
turned to Middleburg. Purchas, vol. I. p. 116.

This fame year 1598, the Holland Eali-lndia com-
pany fct out fix great fliips and two \atchs for India
under the command of Cornelius Hemlkirkc, which
failed out of the Texel on the lirlt of may, and coming
together to the cape of Good Hope in auguft, were
there feparated by a terrible ftorm : four of them and
a yatch put into the iiland Maurice eait of Madagaf-
car ; the other two (hips and yatch put into the ifland
S. Mary on the call alfo of Madagafcar, where they
made no flay, but failing thence arrived on the twenty
lixth of november 1598, before Bantam i and a month


Ibc Hi ft or y of Navigation^ 4Q7

after them came the other four fl^ips aivd a yatch from
the illanei Maurice. The firft comers liaving got their
lading, departed from before Bantam on the eleventh
of January 1599, and aiTivcd happily in the Texel on
the ninth of June 1599, richly hiden with pepper,
cloves, mace, nutmegs and cinnamon, having fpent
but fifteen months in the whole voyage. The other
four lliips and yatch left in India under the command
of W'ybrant, failed from Bantam along the north fide of
Javan to the eafl: -end oi it, where the town of Arofoya
is feated. Here the natives, in revenge for feme of
their people killed by the dutch in their firft voyage,
feized feventcen of them that were fent afliore for pro-
visions ; and fifty more being fent to their relief in
Hoops and boats, were all of them killed, drowned, or
taken. The prifoners were ranfomed for two thoufand
pieces of eight, and then the fhips put to fea^ and on
the third of marcli 1599, came into the jftrait of Am-
boina, where they anchored before a fmall town in
that ifland, called Itan. This is near the Moluccos,
and produces plenty of cloves. There being lading
but for two fliips here, the other two Vvcre fent to
Bands, where they took their lading of cloves, nut-
iiiegs and nuce, and returned home in april i6oo.
The other two fhips left behind at Amboina having
taken in what lading of cloves they couid get, failed
away to get what they wanted at the Mokiccos, and
anchored at Ternate, where having got the reft of their
lading, they departed thence on the nineteenth of au-
guft 1599, and came to Jacatra in the ifiand Java on
the thirteenth of november, being then reduced to ex-
tremity for want of provifions : whence after a few
days ftay they proceeded to Bantam, and thence on the
twenty tiril: of January for Holland, where after a tedi-
ous voyage they arrived in fafcty, having \q{\ niany
-men through licknefs and waqt of provifions. livery
year after the dutch failed not to let out new fleets,
being allured by the vaft returns they made ; yet there
was nothing in thefe voyages but trade, and fomc en-
counters with the fpaniards, and therefore it w^ll be
xiecdlefs to mention them all in particular, till in the

D d 4 year

4oS The Hijlory of Navigation,

year 1606, the dutch poflcfTcd themfelvcs of Tidorc,
one of the Mokicco illands, and Aniboina, cxpcUini:^
the portuguefcs firll, and afterwards the engliih. In
1608 the dutch admiral Matclief laid fiegc to Malaca,
but without fucccfs. Soon after they grew formidable
at Jacatra, or Batavia, on the ifland Java, where they
continue to this day, that being the chief feat of all
their dominions in the ealh Not fo fatisficd, they at
length made themfelves maders of Malaca, and expelled
the portuguefcs the illand of Ceylon, by which means
they are poireffed of the molt confiderable trade of the
eaft:, all the cinnamon, nutmegs and cloves being en-
tirely in their own hands. Nor is this all, for they
have conquered the iOand Formofa on the coaft of
China, whence they trade to Japan, with the exclufioii
of all chriflian nations from that iiland. And here wc
will leave the dutch, to give fome further relation of
the englifh proceedings, and fo conclude with the Eaft-

An. 1600. A company of merchant adventurers was
by patent from queen Elizabeth authorized to trade in
the Eaft-Indies, and accordingly in January 16-^^^ they
fitted out four great fhips and a viclualler, all under
the command of captain James Lancatler, who failed
out of the river of Thames on the thirteenth of febru-
ary, having four hundred and eighty men aboard his
fhips, yet got not beyond Torbay till the fecond' of
april, and on the firft of novembcr doubled the cape
of Good Hope. In april following they anchored at
the iflands of Nicobar, north call of the great ifland of
Sumatra, and in June came before Achem, where they
had a good reception, and fettled peace and conmiercc
with that king; but having little to trade with, put to
fca, and took a great portuguefe Ihip richl\' laden, and
returned to Achem, whence they failed to Bantam in
the illand of Java : here they had alfo good entertain-
ment, and liberty of trade Vvas agreed on ; and having
taken in what more lading was wanting, which con-
filled in pepper and cloves, on the twentieth of febru-
ary they fet fail in order to return for England, but
meeting with violent ftorms were carried into 40 de-


^he HJjlory of Navigation, 409

grccs of fouth latitude, where Lancaftcr lofl his rud-
der, which was rcftorcd with much labour, and fo they
arrived at the ifland of St. Helena in June, and having
refrelhed themfelves there put to fca again, and re-
turned fafe to England in augult. Purchas, vol. I. p.

An. 1604. The aforefaid company fent four fliips
more to the Eafl-Indics under the command of fir
Henry Middleton, who failed on the fecond of april,
and arrived at Bantam on the twenty third of december.
Two of the fliips loaded pepper at Bantam ; fir Henry
wfth the others failed to the ifles of Banda, where he
continued twenty one weeks, and then returned to
Bantam, and arrived in the Downs on the fixth of may
1606. The fame year captain John Davis and fir Ed-
ward Michelburn with one fliip and a pinnace failed
into the Eaft-Indies, trading at Bantam, and taking
fome prizes, but performed nothing elfe remarkable.
Purchas, vol. I. p. 185.

An. 1607. The company fitted out their third voy-
age, being three fiiips under the command of William
Keeling, but only two of them kept company ; and
fetting out in april, arrived not at Priaman in the ifiand
Sumatra till July the following year; having fpent all
this time along the coafi:s of Afric, and beating at fea
againft contrary winds. Here they took in fome pep-
per, and then failed to Bantam, where a Siam embaf-
fador invited them to fettle commerce in , his mafter's
ciominions ; and fo they proceeded to Banda, where
they were hindered taking in their lading of fpice by
the dutch, who had built a fort on that ifland. So
being difappointed they returned to Bantam, loaded
pepper, and fettled a factory there, which continued
in profperitv till overthrown by the dutch. Purchas,
vol.1, p. 188.

The third fhip mentioned above, which did not keep
company with the other two, but fet out at the fame
time, after touching at the bay of Saldanha on the
court of Afric, and at Bantam in the illand of Java,
proceeded to the Molucco iflands, where with the per-
milfion of the Spaniards then pollrircd of thofc illands,


4 1 ne Hijlory of Karvigation.

they had a trade for fomc days, but were after\vard3
commanded away. Then failing towards the iiland
Celebes at the ifland Button, or Buton, they were friendly
entertained by the king, and brought their full loading
of cloves ; which done, they returned to Bantam, and
thence to England. Purchas, vol. I. p. 226.

An. 1608. The Eafl-India company for its fourth
voyage fet out two fhips, the Union and Afcenlion,
commanded by Alexander Sharpey and Richard Rowles,
who failed on the fourteenth of march ; and having
fpcnt above a year by the way, and loft the Union in
a ftorm, the Afcenfion came on the eighth of april
1609 to an anchor before the city Aden on the coall of
Arabia Felix, whence they failed into the Rcd-fea,
being the firft cnglifli fliip that ever entered it, and on
the eleventh of junc anchored in the road of the city
of Mocha; and having made a fliort Hay to refit»
failed away for the coall of Cambaya, where refufmg
to take in a pilot the iliip was loft on the fhoals, but
all tlic men faved in two boats, who got afhore at the
fmall town of Gandevel, about forty miles from Surat,
whither they travelled by land, and were relieved by
the engliili fa<ftor there. Ihe captain and moft of the
company went from thence to Agra the court of the
mogul, refolving to take their journey through Perfia
to return into Europe. But Thomas Jones, the author
of this account, with three others, committed them-
felves to a portuguefe religious man, who prom i fed to
fend them home, and accordingly carried them through
Damam and Chaul to Goa, where in January they were
fhipped aboard the admiral of four portuguefe fliips
homeward bound, and arrived at Lilbon in augull,
where embarking in an englilh fliip they came fafe into
England in fcptcmbcr 1610. The reft of the company
that went with the captain difperfed, and few of them
came home.

The Union, mentioned before to be fcparated from
the Afcenlion in a ftorm, touched at the bay of St.
Augullin in the iiland Madagafcar, where the captain
and live more going alliore upon friendly invitation
were killed by the natives, who thought to have fur-

Z prized

Th^ Hifiofy of Navigation. 41 1

prized the flaip with their boats, but were beaten off
with great lofs. So failing hence, they direcled their
Gourfe to Achem on the ifland Sumatra, where and at
Priaman they took in their lading of bafts and pepper,
and direcled their courfe to return .home. But their
voyage proved fo unfortunate, that all her men died
by the way, except three engliiTi and an indian, who
were fcarce alive > and not being able to hand the fails,
the fliip was carried upon the coaft of Britany in
France, where the french conveyed her into harbour,
and moft of the lading was faved for the company.

An. 1609. The Englifh Eaft-India company for its
iifth voyage fet out but one fliip, commanded by-
David JViiddleton, who arriving at Banda was by the
dutch there hindered loading any fpice, and therefore
failed to Puloway a fmall ifland not far diltant, where
with much difficulty and hazard he got loading of fpice,

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