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and returned home fafe. Purchas, vol. 1. p. 23 S.

An. 1 6 10. Sir Henry Middleton failed with three
fliips under his command ; and being informed by the
natives of the ifland Zocotora, that he would be
friendly received at Mocha in the Red-fca, and find
good vent for his goods, he ventured up thither, and
after much deceitful kindnefs Ihown him by the turks,
was himfelf with niany of his men fecured, and fcnt
up the country feveral miles to another balla. Some
men were alfo killed by the infidels, who attempted
to furprize one of the fiiips, and were pofielTcd of the
upper decks, till the feamen blew up forne, i"hot others,
and drove the refi: into the fea, fo that only one of
them that hid himfelf efcaped, and was afterwards re-
ceived to mercy. After much folicitatibn fir Henry
Middleton and his men were fent back to Mocha,
where moft of them made their efcape aboard their
fliips. Many fruitlefs contefts having afterwards palled
with the baffas about the refiitution of the goods
taken ; at laft he failed to Surat, where he arrived in
feptember 161 r, and having, notwithftanding the op-
pofition made by the portuguefes, fold fome of his
goods, and departing thence to Dabul, had fome more
trade in that place, yet not fo much as to difpofe of

all



4T2 The Hijlory of Navigation.

all he had. Whereupon he refolved to return to the
Rcd-fea, there to traffic with the fliips of India, which
ufually refort to thofc parts j he detained many of thcni
by force, and bartered with them as he thought fit, the
Indians being under rellraint, and in no condition to
oppofc whatever \\as offered them. Being thus fur-
nifhed, he failed for Sumatra, where he got loading of
fpice, and fent one fhip home with her burden, his
own having been on a rock, and therefore unfit for the
voyage till repaired, which could not be done fo foon.
'J'his fhip arrived fafe in England, but fir Henry Mid-
dleton and his were call away in India. Purchas, vol.
J. p. 247. Other fhips failed the latter end of the year
1610, and beginning of 161 1, which ftill ran much
the fame courfe with the former, and have nothing lin-
gular to relate. But,

An. 161 1. In april failed captain John Saris with
three fhips, who having run the fame courfe all the
reft had done feverally before, entering the Red-fea,
and touching at Java, he received a letter from one
Adams an englilliman, who failed aboard fome dutch
fhips to Japan, and was there detained, in which he
gave an account of that country. Captain Saris dif-
miiling his other two fhips, direded his courfe for that
ifland ; and pafling by thofe of Bouro, Xula, Bachian,
Celebes, Silolo, the Moluccos, and others, came to an
anchor on the eleventh of june 1613, at the fmall illand
and port of Firando, lying fouthweft of the fouthweft
point of the great iiland of Japan. This and feveral
other fmall iflands about it are fubjed to petty kings,
uho all acknowledge the emperor of Japan lor their
fovereign. Thefc little princes Ihowed all imaginable
kindneis to the engliih, being the firft that ever ap-
peared in thofe parts. Captain Saris, with the alFiil-
ancc of the king of Firando, was conducted to the em-
peror's court at Meaco, where he had audience of him,
and fettled peace and commerce in as authentic man-
ner as if he had been fent from England only upon
that errand ; the emperor granting to the englifh free
liberty of trade, and feveral privileges and immunities
for their encouragement. All things being fettled

there.



Ibe Hijlory of Navi^atiotj. 413

there, captain Saris returned to Firando well plcafcd
with his fuccefs; and there the goods he brought being
not yet all difpofed of, he creded a fadory, leaving
in it eight englilh, three Japanefes for interpreters,
and two fervants. Thefe were to difpofe of the goods
left behind, and provide loading for fuch fliips as were
to continue the trade now begun. This done, he left
Firando on the fifth of december, and flood for the
coafl of China, along which he kept to that of Co-
chinchina and Camboya, whence he fl-ruck over to the
fouthward, and came into Bantam road, where he con-
tinued fome time, and laftly put into Plymouth in fep-
tember 16 14. Purchas, vol. I. p. 334. Thus have we
brought the englifh to Japan, the furtheft extent of
what vulgarly is comprehended under the name of the
Eaft-Indies, and therefore think it needlefs to profecute
their voyages this way any longer, fmce they can afford
nothing new ; nor indeed have thefe hitherto added
any thing to what was difcovered by the portuguefes,
to whom all thefe countries were well known long be-
fore, as has been made appear. Of the dutch naviga-
tions this way fomewhat has been faid, and it feems
needlefs to add any thing concerning the french, who
are not fo confiderable there as any of thofe nations
already mentioned, befides that they came thither the
lateft, and therefore not as difcoverers, but tracing the
beaten road ; fo that all that can be faid of them will
be only a repetition of things already fpoken of. Hav-
ing thus given an account of the fird difcoverers, and
the fuccefs of all the firft voyages to Afric and Alia, it
now remains to fliow what a vafl extent of land is by
thefe means made known, which before Europe was
wholly a ftranger to, and the commodities it fupplies
us with ; which is one great point of this difcourfe,
viz. to fliow what benefit is reaped by navigation, and
the vafl: improvement it has received lince the difcovery
of the magnetical needle, or fea compafs. Then hav-
ing performed this with all polfible brevity, it will be
fit to proceed to give the like relation of the difcovery
ftnd other affairs of America, or the new world, which

will



414 ^^'^ Hijlory of Navigation.

will lead us to the voyages round the globe, where thts
cUfcourie will end.

To begin then where the difcoveries commenced, that
is, at cape Nam, or Nao, which is on the coaft of the
Icingdom of Morocco, and in the twenty eighth degree
t)f latitude ; we find the extent made known from
thence, taking it only from north to fouth, from i8
degrees of north latitude to 35 degrees of fouth latitude,
in all 53 degrees in length, at twenty leagues to a de-
gree, to be one thoufand lixty leagues, but very much
more if we run along the coaft, efpecialiy upon that
of Guinea, which lies eafl and weft for above 25 de-
grees, which at the fame rate as before amounts to five
hundred leagues. So that we have here a coall, only
reckoning to the cape of Good Hope, of above fifteen
hundred leagues in length made know n to us, and in
it the further Lybia, the country of the Blacks, Guinea,
the kingdoms of Benin, Corvga, Angola, and the weft-
ern coaft of the Cafres. Thefe are the general names
by which thefe vaft regions are known. The natives
are for the moft part black, or elfe inclining to it. All
the commodities brought from thence, are gold-duft,
ivory, and flaves ; thofe black people felling one ano-
ther, .which is a very conliderable trade, and has been a
great fupport to all the American plantations. This is
all that mighty continent alibrds for exportation, the
greateft part of it being fcorched under the torrid
zone, and the natives almoft naked, no where induf-
trious, and for the n^oft part fcarce civilized. In the
fouthermoft parts among the wild cafres, there is
plenty of good cattle, which the firft tradeis to India
iifed to buy for knives and other toys at the bay of
Saldanha, and other places thereabouts. The portu-
guefes here have the largcft dominions on this coaft of
any nation, which are in the kingdoms of Congo and
Angola. The cngUlh and dutch have fome frnjill forts
en the coaft of Guinea, and the dutch., a Urge ftrong
town, with all manner of improvements about it, at
the cape of Good Hope. From this cape of Good
Hope to cape Gjuar.diila at the entrance iutp Ac Red-

fea.



The Hifiory of Navigatmi. 415

fca, the coafl: running north eafh and fouth weft, extends
above twelve hundred leagues in a ftraight line, con-
taining the eaflern Cafres and Zanguebar, which are
the two great divilions of this fide ; the latter of thefe
fubdividcd into the kingdoms of Mozambique, Pemba,
Quiloa, Monbaca, Melinde, Magadoxa and Adcl. Of
thefe the portuguefes polfefs the town and fort of Mo-
zambique^ having loft Monbaca within thefe few years,
taken from them by the moors. No other european
nation has any dominions on this coaft, which is all in
the pofleilion of the natives or moors. The commodi-
ties here are the fame as on the weft fide of Afric,
gold, ivory and llaves. All this vaft continent pro-
duces many forts of fruit and grain unknown to us, as
alio beafts and fowl, which being no part of trade, are
not mentioned here. Yet before we leave this coaft we
muft not omit to mention the illand Zocotora, famous
for producing the beft aloes, and fituate not far
diftant from cape Guardafu. Next in courfe follows
the Red-fea, the mouth whereof is about a hundred
and twenty leagues from cape Guardafu, and its length
from the mouth to Suez at the bottom of it above
four hundred leagues, lying north weft and fouth weft :
on one fide of it is the coaft of Aben and Egypt, on
the other that of Arabia Petrea, and Arabia Felix, all
in the pofTeflion of the turks, and not at all rcforted
to by any european nation, but fomewhat known to
them by the way of Egypt, before the difcovcry of In-
dia. From the mouth of the Red-fea to the gulph of
Perfia lies the coaft of Arabia, extending about four
hundred leagues north eaft and fouth weft to cape Ro~
falgate at the entrance into the bay of Ormuz. This
coaft is partly fubjed: to the turk, and partly to arabian
princes ; and its principal commodities are rich gums,
and coftce. Turning cape Rofalgate to the north weft
is the great bay of Ormuz, along which runs ftill the
coaft of Arabia, where ftands Mafcate, once pofFefted
by the portuguefes, now by the arabs. Next we come
into the gulph of Bazora, or of Perfia, almoft two
hundred leagues in length, and enclofed by Arabia on
the one fide, and Perfia oa the other. At the mouth

of



41 6 The Hijlory of Navigation.

of this bay in a fmall ifland is the famous city Ormuz,
conquered and kept many years by the portuguefcs,
but at hift taken from them by the Perfians, with the
alTillance of the englUli. Within the bay on the ara-
bian fide is the illand J^aharem, famous for a great
filhery of pearls. From the mouth of the perfian
gulph to that of Indus are about three hundred and
forty leagues, being the coall of Perfia, where no
prince poflelfes any thing but that great monarch.
The chiefeft commodities here are raw filk, rhubarb,
Avormfeed, carpets of all forts, wrought and plain
filks, filks wrought with gold or filvcr, half filks and
half cottons. From the mouth of Indus to cape Co-
mori, taking in the bend of the coall from Indus to
Cambaya, lying north well and fouth call, and from
that bay to the cape almofl north and fouth, are near
four hundred leagues, including the Iliores of Guzarat,
Cambaya, Decan, Canara and Malabar : of thefe Gu-
zarat and Cambaya, with part of Decan, are fubjecc
to the great Mogul, the other parts to feveral indian
princes. Yet the portuguefes have the fort of Diu in
Guzarat, Damam in Cambaya, and the great city of
Goa in Decan, befides other forts of lelfer confe-
quence: the englifh the ifland of Bombaim, and the dutch
fome forts. Doubling cape Comori, and running in
a ftraight line north eaft, there are about four hundred
and forty leagues to the bottom of the bay of Bengala ;
and turning "thence fouth eaff, fomcwhat more than
the fame number of leagues to the fouthern^oil point
of the Aurca Cherfonefus, or the coall of Malaca ; and
in this fpace the fliores^ of Coromandel, Bifnagar,
C^olconda, Orixa, Bengala, Arracan, Pegu, Martaban,
and the Aurea Cherfonefus, or Peninfula of Malaca.
Hence we will make but one line more for brevity fiike
up to Japan on the northern coall of China, which
in a ftraight line, without allowing any thing for the
bays of Siam and Cochinchina, is at leall eight hundred
leagues, and in it the call fide of the Peninllila of Ma-
laca, the kingdoms of Siam, Camboia, Chiampa, and
Cochinchina, and the vaft empire of China. All thefe
inuncnfe regions from Pcriia call-ward are vulgarly,

though



ne Hiflory of Navigation, 41 7

though improperly, comprehended under the name of
the Eafl-Indies. The prcdud: of thefe countries is no
Jcfs to be admired, being all forts of metals, all beafls
and birds, and the moft delicious of fruits. But to
fpeak by way of trade, the commodities here are dia-
monds, filk raw and wrought in prodigious quantities,
cotton unwrought, and infinite plenty of it in callicocs
and muflins, all forts of fweet and rich woods, all the
gums, drugs and dyes, all the precious plants, and rich
perfumes, not to mention the fpices, which I leave to
the iflands ; in fine, all that is precious, delightful, or
ufeful : infomuch, that though here be mines of filver
and gold, yet none is fent abroad, but hither it ^o\\^
from all other parts and is here fwallowed up. But
fomething muft be faid of the iflands belonging to this
great continent, for the value of them is immenfe, as
well as their number, and the extent of fome of them.
The firft in order that are any thing confiderable, arc
the Maldivy iflands, rather remarkable for their niul-
titude than any other thing, being fo many that the
number is not known, yet fo final I, that no great
account is made of them : they lie fouth eafl: of cape
Comori, betwixt three and 8 degrees of north latitude;
for fo far they run, being difpofcd in twelve feveral
cluftcrs or parcels that lie north wefl: and fouth eafl, at
the fouth end whereof lie two other It^^s clufters or
parcels eafl and weft from one another. As for trade,
or commerce, though thefe iflands are very fruitful,
they have not any thing confiderable to promote it,
cfpecially to fupply Europe, which is the thing here to
be confidcred. Next to thefe is the great and rich
illand of Ceylon beyond cape Comori, formerly divided
into feveral petty kingdoms, till the porcuguefes firft
reduced all the fca coafts under their dominion, and
were afterwards difpoHclfed by the dutch, wlio flill
remain mafters of them, but could never yet conquer
the inland. This is a place of mighty traOlck, for it
produces the befb cinnamon in the woild, and fuj)plics
all Europe : here are alfo found the fincft rubies, and
feveral other forts of precious Rones. The elephants
of this ifland arc counted ihe bcil in all India, and as
Vol. IX. E e fuch



41 S The H.'JIorj of Navigation.

fuch coveted by all the caftcrn princes, who, though
they hnvc herds of them in ihcir own dominions, do
not fpare to give coniiiicrable prices for thefe, uhich is
a great enriching of the country. The iflands of Sunda,
or the Sound, arc that great parcel lying fouth and
fouth call of Malaca, the principal whereof are Suma-
tra, Borneo and Java; the two lird diredtly under the
line, Sumatra above three hundred leagues in ^Migrh,
lying north weft and fouth eaft, and about fixty in
breadth in the wideft place -, Borneo is almoft round,
and about fix hundred in circumference; Java the lall
of them lies betwixt 7 and 10 degrees of fouth latitude,
is about two hundred leagues in length from eaft to
well, and not above forty in breadth in the wideft
place from north to fouth. There are many more, but
all fmall in comparifon of thefe, unlcfs we reckon Ce-
lebes, lying under the line, near an hundred and eighty
leagues in length, the longeft way north eaft and fouth
weft, and about eighty in breadth in the broadeft place
from eaft to weft: as alfo Gilolo, under the equator as
uell as the laft, of an irreguhir flnape, and not above
one fourth part of the bignefs of Celebes. All thefe
iilands have a prodigious trade, being reforted to from
all parts, not only of India, but even from Europe.
Their wealth is incredible, for they produce whatfoever
nian can wilh ; but the principal commodities exported
are ginger, pepper, camphor, agaric, cailia, wax,
honey, (ilk, cotton ; they jiave alfo mines of gold, tin,
iron and I'ulphur, all forts of cattle and fowl, but no
vines nor olive-trees. In Sumatra the dutch have fomc
forts, and arc very powerful, but much more in Java,
where Batavia, a populous city, is the nietropolis of
rheir eaftern dominir)ns. The en<rlifti hail a i^^reat trade
and faCtorv at Bai.tam in the fame illand, but were
expelled by the dutch in the year 16S2. Atter thefe
follow the Molucco iilands, which are live in number
properly fo called, vi/.. Ternate, Tidore, Machian,
Moutil or Moulil, and Bachian : they lie along the weft
fide of Gilolo, fo near the equinoctial, that the laft of
them lies 24. or 25 minutes fouth, and the ftrft of them
about 50 minutes north of it. They are fo fmall^ that all

of



ne Uifto'ry of Navigation, 4f9

pf chem do not take up above i degree, and lo or 1 5 mi-
nutes of latitude. Tcrnate is the northermofi:, and in
order from it lie to the fouth Tidore, Moutil, Machian
and Bachian. The whole product of thefe iilands is
cloves, which are fcarce found elfewhere, and here lit-
tle betides them ; which is the reafon why the dutch
have polfefTed themfelves of them, expelling the por-
tuguefes, who after long coiitefts had bought out the
fpaniards claim to them.; With the Moluccos may be
reckoned the iflands of Amboina and Banda : the firft of
thefe produces cloves like the other, and was once much
reforted to by the chglifh, till the dutch deftroyed their
fadlory, of which action there are particular printed ac-
counts. Banda is a larger ifland than any of the others,
and in five degrees of fouth latitude, poffeired alfo by
the dutch, who have here all the trade of nutmegs and
mace, which fcarce grow any where but in this and
two or three neighbouring iilands. A vafl: multitude of
other little iilands are fcattcred about this fea, but thofe
already mentioned are the mod confiderable ; for though
thofe of Chiram and Papous be large, there is very
little of them known, by which it is natural to gucfs
they are not of much value ; for if they were, the
fame avarice that has carried fo many curopcan nations
into their neighbourhood to deflroy not only the na-
tives, but one another, would have n^.ade them long
fmce as familiar to us as the reft. Of Japan enough
was faid when firfl: difcovercd by the portuguefcs, and
in captain Saris's voyage thither, where the reader may
fatisfy his curiofity. All that needs be added is, that
it produces fome gold, and great plenty of filver. For
other commodities, here is abundance of hemp, excel-
lent dyes, red, blue and green, rice, brimdone, falt-
petre, cotton, and the moft excellent varnilh in the
world, commonly called Japan, whereof abundance of
cabinets, tables, and many other things are brought
into Europe. Thus are we come to Japan the urmolt of
thefe eaftern difcoveries, omitting to lay any thing of
the Philippine iilands, and thofe called De las Ladroncs,
though within this compafs, becaufe they were difoo-
Vered from the Weft-Indies ; and therefore they are

E e 2 ' Idc



41 2 Of ILjlory of ^\ii\;igu'non.

left to be treated of iimong the american alTairs, as arc
the illcs of Solomon, whereof hitherto the world has
had but a very in^pcrfecl account. This fummp.ry
fhows the improvcnK'nt of navigation on this fide the
world fincc the difcovcry of the magnetical needle, or
fea-compafs, it having inadc known to us as much of
the coafl of Afric and Aiia, as running along only the
grealcli: turnings and windings, amounts to about five
thoufand leagues ; an incredible extent of land, were
it not fo univerfally known to be true, and fo very
demonftrable. The benefit v,e reap is fo vifible, it
fecms not to require any thing fhould be faid of it.
For now all Europe abounds in all fiich things as thofe
vail, wealthy, exuberant eallcrn regions can afford ;
whereas before thefe difcoveries it had nothing " but
what it received by retail, and at exccflive rates from
the Venetians, who took in the precious drugs, rich
fpices, and other valuable commodities of the eall in
t>ypt, or the coail of Turky, whither it was brought
from India » either by caravans or uyt the Red-fea ; and
they fupplied all other (!:ountrics with them at their own
prices. But now th^ fea is open, every nation has the
liberty of fupplying itfclf from the fountain-head ; and
i^ feme have encroached upon other., and confined
them to a narrower trade in thofc parts, yet the re-
turns from tlience are yearly fo great, that all thofe
o-oods ma\ be purchafcd liere at the fecond-hand infi-
nitely cheaper than they couKl when one nation had
the fuppiying of all the rtll, and that by {o expenfive
a way, as being themfelve^ ferved by cariiVans, and a
few fmall fnips on the Red-fea. To conclude ; thefe
parts, the difcovery whereof has been the fubjed of 1
this difcourfe, fupply the chriOiart" world with all gums,
drugs, fpices, filkii and cottons, precious flones, ful-
piiur, gold, falt-pctre, rice, tea, china-ware, coffee,
lapan varniflied works, all f<jrts of dyes, of cordials,
and perfumes, pearly ivory, ollrich-feathers, parrots,
monkeys, and an endlefs number of neccllaries, con-
veniences, curiolities, and other comforts and fupports
of human life, whereof enough has been faid for the
intended brevity of this difcourfe. \i is now time to pro-
ceed



The Hijlory of. Navigation, 421

cccd to a flill greater part, greater in extent of land,
as reaching from north to ibuth, and its bounds not
vet known, and greater in wealth, as containing the inex-
hauflible trcafures of the filver mines of Peru and
Mexico, and of the gold mines of Chile, and very
many other parts. A fourth part of the world,
not much inferioiir to the other three in extent, and
no way yielding to them for all the blefTings nature
could beflow upon the earth. A world concealed
from the refl: for above five thoufand years> and
refcrved by providence to be made known three hun-
dred years ago. A region yet not wholly known> the
extent being fo immcnfe, that three hundred years have
not been a fufficient time to lay it all open. A por-
tion of the univerfe Wonderful in all refpedrs: i. For
that being fo large it could lie fo long hid. 2. For
that being well inhabited, the wit of man cannot con-
clude which way thofe people could come thither, and
that none others could find the way iince. 3. For its
cndlefs fources of gold and filver, which fuppiying all
parts, fince their firfVdifcovcry, are fo far from being
impoverifhed, that they only want more hands to draw
out more. 4. For its mighty rivers, fo far exceeding
all others, that they look like little fcas, compared with
the greatcft in other parts. 5. For its prodigious moun-
tains, running many hundred leagues, and whofe tops
arc almofl: inaccelTible. 6. For the firange variety of
feafons, and temperature of air to be iound at very few
leagues diilance. And ladly. For its flupcndous ferti-
lity of foil, producing all forts of fruits and plants
which the other parts of the world airord> in greater
perfection than in their native land, befides an infinity
of others which v. ill not come to perfection elfewhere.

To come to the difcovery of this fourth and greatefl
part of the earth, it was undertaken and performed by
Chriflopher Columbus, a genoefe, excellently Ikilled in
fca-aPfairs, an able cofn^.ographer, and well verfed in all
thofe parts of the mathematics, which might. capacitate
him for fuch an enterprife. This pcrfon being con-
vinced by natural reafon, that ^o great a part of the
world as till then was unknown could not be all fea,
or created to no purpofe'; and believing that the earth

E e 3 being



412 ^he H/Jlory of Navigatiofu

being round, a ihortcr way might be found to India by
the wen, than by coinpairing all Afric to the fouth-
ward, as the portuguefes were then attempting to
do; he rcfolved t(» apply himfelf wholly to the difco-
very of thofe rich countries, which he pofitively con-
cluded mult extend, from what was known of the Eafl-
Indics, ftill to the eafl-ward one way, and to be the
caficr met with by failing rouiid to the >veflward.
Having been long fully poflcfTed with this notion, and
provided to anfwer all objcdions that might be flarted
againll: it, he thought the undertaking too great for
any lefs than a fovereign prince, or (late; and therefore,
not to be unjufl: to his country, he firft propofcd it to
the ll:ate of Genoa, where it was rather ridiculed than
any way encouraged. This repulfe made him have re-



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