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courfe to king John the fecond of Portugal, Vv ho having
caufed the matter to be examined by thofe that had the
diredlion of the difcoveries along the coad of Afric, by
their advice he held him in hand till he had fent out a
caravel with private orders to attempt this difcovery.
This caravel having wandered long in the wide ocean,
and fuflered much by ftorms, returned without find-
ing any thing. Columbus underflanding what had
been done, refented'it fo highly, that in hatred to
Portugal he refolved to go over to Caflile and offer his
fervice there ; but for fear of any difappointment, a;
the fame time he fent his brother Bartholomew Co-
lumbus into England, to make the fame overture to
king Henry tlie feventh. His brotlier had the ill for-
tune to be taken at fea by pirates, which much retarded
his cominjx to the court of En<:land ; where when at
laft he came, being poor and defliruie of friends, it
was long before he could be heard, or at kafl be lookec^
upon ; fo that in fine, Columbus was gone before he
returned to Spain with his anfwer. Columbus in the
mean while (iole awa) out of Portugal, and coming to
the court of IVrdinand and Ifabel, king and queen of
Cart. le and Aragon, he there fpcnt eight years foliciting
with little hopes, and many diflkulties ; till at lalf,
when he had utterly defpaired of fuccefs, he met with
ir, through the affi nance of fome few friends he had
gained at court. At his earned fuit he liad all the


The Hfjlory of Navigalion, 423

conditions he required granted, ^vhich wcrCy that
he flioiild be admiral of all thofc feas he difcovered,
and viceroy and governor general of all the lands;
that he fliould have the tenth of all things whatib-
ever brought from thofe parts, and that he might at
aH times be an eighth part in all fleets fent thither, and
to receive the eighth of all the returns* This to hirn
and his heirs for ever. V\^ith thefe titles, and fufficient
power from the queen, who cfpoufed the undertaking,
he repaired to the port of Palos de Moguer, on the
coaft of Andaluzia, where there was furniihed for him a
flirp called the S. Mary, and two caravels, the owq called
Ja Pinta, commanded by Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and
the other la Nina, by Vincent Yanez Pinzon. In thefe
velTels he had ninety men, and provifions for a year ;
and thus equipped he failed from Palos de Moguer.

An. 1492. On the twenty third of auguft, direding
his courfe to the Canary iflands, where he made a
new rudder to the caravel Pinta, which had hers broke
off at fea, he took in freili provifions, wood, and
water with all poUible expedition ; and on the fi^th of
feptcmber put to fca again, firccring due welt, and on the
feventh loft fight of land. The eleventh, at a hundred
and ^ihy leagues difiancc from the ifland of Ferro, they
faw a great piece of a mafk drove by the current, which
fct firong towards the north ; and the fourteenth the
admiral obferved the variation of the needle to the
weft ward about two points. On funday the fixteenth
the men were furprifed to fee green and yellow weeds
fcattered about in fmall parcels on the fuperficies of the
water, as if it had been newly torn olf from fome
ifland or rock ,- and the next day they faw much more,
which made fome ronclude they were near land, and
others fuppofing it only to be rocks or fhoals, began
to n^utter. Every d:iy they faw fome birds flying to
the ftiips, and abundance of weeds in the water, which
ftill made them conceive hopes of land ; but w hen thefe
failed, then they began again to murmur, fo that the
admiral was forced to ufe all his art to keep them
quiet, fometimes with fair words, and fometimes with
threats and feverity, thev imagining, that fince for
the nioft part they failed before the wind^ it would

E e 4 be

424 ^^'^ Hijlcry of Navigation,

be impofTiblc for thLMii ever to return. Thus their mu-
tinous temper daily incrcafed, and began to appear
more open, fomc being To bold as to advifc throwing
the admiral over board. The firft of October the pilot
told the admiral, he found by his account they were
five hundred and eighty eight leagues weft of the ifland
of Ferro, which is the wedcrmofl: of the Canaries ;
who anfwered, his reckoning was live hundred and
eighty four, whereas in reality his computation was
fcven hundred and fcven ; and on the third the pilot
of the caravel Nina reckoned fix hundred and fifty, he
of the caravel Pinta fix hundred and thirty four: but
they were out, and Columbus made it lefs for fear of
difcouraging the men, who neverthelefs continued very
mutinous, but were fomewhat appeafed on the fourth,
feeing above forty fparrows fly about the fliips, belides
other birds. The eleventh of oiflober there appeared
manifefl tokens of their being near land ; for from the
adm/irar$ fliip they faw a green rulli in the water, from
the Nina they faw a cane and a flick, and took up
another that was artificially wrought, and a little board,
befidcs abundance of weeds frelh pulled up ; from the
Pinta they beheld fuch-like tokens, and a branch of a
thorn-tree with the berries on it : befides that, founding
they found bottom, and the wind grew variable. For
thefc reafons the admiral ordered, they lliould make
but little fail at night, for fear of being aground in
the dark, and about ten of the clock that night the ad-
miral himfeif fav/ a light, and fhowcd it to others.
About two in the morning the caravel Pinta, which
was furthefl: a-head, gave the fignal of land ; and when
day appeared, they perceived it was an ifland about fif-
teen leagues in length, plain, well wooded and watered,
and very populous ; the natives Handing on the fliore,
admiring what the fliips were. The admiral and cap-
tains went afliorc in their boats, and called that iiland S.
Salvador, the natives calling it Guanahani, and is one
of the Lucayos in about 26 degrees of north latitude,
nine hundred and fifty leagues wefi- of the Canaries, and
difcovcred the thirty third day after they failed from
them. Columbus took poffelFion for the king and queen

^he Hijlory of Navigation, 425

of Spain, and all the fpaniards joyfully took an oath to
him, as their admiral and viceroy. He gave the In-
dians, who Hood in admiration to fee him and his men,
fome red caps, glafs-beads, and other trifles, which
they valued at a high rate. The admiral returning
aboard, the natives followed, fome fwimming, others
in their canoes, carrying with them bottoms of ipun
cotton, parrots and javelins pointed with fifli-bones, to
exchange for glafs baubles and horfe-bells. Both men
and women were all naked, their hair fliort and tied
with a cotton ftring, and well enough featured, of a
middle ftature, well fliaped, and of an olive colour,
fome painted white, fome black, and fome red. They
knew nothing of iron, and did all their work with
iliarp flones. No bcalls, or fowl were feen here but
only parrots. Being afked by ligns, whence they had
the gold, whereof they wore little plates hanging at
their nofes, they pointed to the fouth. The admiral
underflanding there were other countries not far off,
refolved to feek them out ; and taking feven Indians
that they might learn fpanifh, failed on the fifteenth to
another ifland, which he called the Conception, itwtn
leagues from the other. The lixteenth he proceeded to
another ifland, and called it Fcrdinanda, and fo to a
fourth, to which he gave the name of Ifabella ; but
finding nothing more in thcfc than in the firft, he
proceeded on to the iOand of Cuba, which he called
Juana, and entered the port on the eaft end called
Baracoa, whence after fending two men to difcover
without finding what he fought for, he went on to
liifpaniola, ' and anchored on the north fide of it.
Here the admiral finding there were gold mines, and
plenty of cotton, the people fimple, and one of the
caciques, or princes, fiiowing all tokens of love and
affection ; and having loft his own fliip, which through
the carelefihefs of the failors in the night run upon a
fand, he refolved to build a fort, which with the af-
fifiance of the Indians was performed in ten days, and
called the Nativity : here he left thirty nine men, with
provifions for a year, feeds to fow, baubles to trade
with the natives, all the cannon and arms belonging


4^6 The Ilijlory of Nai'igation.

to his own fliip, and the boat. This donCy he depicted
the port of the Nativity on the fourth of January 149J,
ftcering caftward, and the lixth difcovercd the caravel
Pinta, uhich had left him fomc days before, the captain
doping to get much gold to himfelf. Colunibus having
failed fome days ah^ng the coaft of the iiland, difco-
TCFcd more of it, and trafficking with the natives, and
feeing fome other iflands at a diftance, at length
launched out to fea to return for Spain. In the way
they ftruggkd with the drcaxlfiillelt llorms any of them
had ever feen, which feparated the adiriiral from the
earravel Pinta, fo that he faw her no mor'^ ; bur at laft: it
plcafed God to bring his fliattcred caravel into the
river of Lifbon, where the people flocked with adrni-
ration to fee him, and fome advifcd the king of Portu-
gal to murder him, but he having entertained him gene-
roufly difmilfed him; and he putting to fea again, ar-
rived fafe at Palos de Mogucr, from whence he fa out on
the fifteenth of march, having been out fix months and
a half upon his difcovery. The court was then at Bar-
celona, whither the adniiral repaired, carrying with him
?he Indians he brought, fome gold, and other famples
of what the difcovery afforded. The king and queen
received him with all poffible dcmondrations of honour,
making him fit down in their prefence, and ordering
all the privileges and titles before granted him to be
confirmed. After fom<e time fpent in thefe entertain-
ments, the admiral defired to be luted out as became
bis dignity, to conquer and plant thofe new countries ;
T\<hich was granted, and he departed for Seville to fet
out on his fecond voyage, which we are to fpeak of
next ; we have been very particular in this, becaufc being
the firff, it required a more exac'f account to be given
of it, and ihall therefore be more fuccinct in thofe that

An. 1493- A fleet of fevcnteen fail of all forts was
fitted out at Seville, well furnilhcd with provillons,
ammunition, cannon, corn, feeds, mares and horfes,
tools to work in the gold mines, and abundance of
commodities to barter with the natives. There were
aboard lifteen hundred men, many of them labouring


7ibe Hijlory of Navigation, 42 7

people, ^nd artificers, feveral gentlemen, and twenty
horfe. With this fleet Columbus fet fail from Seville
on the fifteenth of September the aforefaid year, and on
the fifth of Ovllober came to the Gomeru, one of the
Canary iflands, where he took in wood and water, as
alfo cattle, calves, flieep, goats and fvvine to ftock
the Indies, befides hens and garden-feeds. Sailing
hence more to the fouthward than the firft voyage, on
the third of november in the morning, all the fleet
fpied an ifland, which Columbus called Dominica, be-
caufe difcovered on a funday, and foon after many
others, the firft of which he called Marigalanti, the
name of the fliip he was in, the next Guadalupe, then
Mont ferrate, Santa Maria Redonda, Santa Maria el
Antigua, S. Martin, Santa Cruz ; thefe are the Caribbe
iflands. Next he came to the large ifland, which he
called S. John B^ptift, but the Indians Borriquen, and it
is now know n by the name of Puerto Rico. November
the twenty fecond the fleet arrived on the coaft of Hifpa-
niola, where they found the fort burnt down, and none
of the fpaniards, they being all deflroyed either by
difcord among themfelves, or by the indians. Not
liking the place he had chofen the firft voyage to plant
his colony, he turned back to the eaftward, and find-
ing a feat po his mind, landed and built a little town
which he called IfabcUa, in honour of Ifahel then
queen of Caftile. Then keeping five fliips of the fleet
with him for his ufe there, he fent back twelve to Spain,
under the command of Antony de Torres, with fome
quantity of gold, and a full account of what had been
done. Thus ended this year 1493, and here it muft
be obferved, that all the adions done afliore mufl: be
omitted, as too great for this difcourfe, and in reality
no way belonging to it, the defign of it being only to
fhow what advantages have been made by fea lince the
difcovery of the magnetical needle, as has been declared

An. 1494. Columbus failed from his new^ colony of
Ifabella with one great fliip and two caravels on the
twenty fourth of april, directing his courfe weftward,
^nd came upon the point of Cuba on the eighteenth of


42 5 ne Hijlory of Navigation.

maj, where failing along the coafl he faw an infinite
dumber of fmall iflands ; fo that it being impofTible to
give them all names, he in general called them the
-Queen's Garden. Thus he proceeded as far as the
ifland de Pinos, near the weftermofl end of Cuba, having
difcovered 330 leagues to th^ weflward from his colony
of Ifabella. He fuliered very much in this voyage by the
continual fl-orms of rain, wind, thunder and lightning;
and therefore refolved to return, taking his way more
to the fouthward, and on the twenty fecond of July
found the idand of Jamaica ; whence he dircdcd his
courfc to Hifpaniola, and coafting about it, arrived at
the town of Ifabella on the twenty ninth of feptember,
where he found his brother Bartholomew Columbus,
who was come with four fliips from Spain. The ad-
miral built many forts in the illand, and being much
offended at the ill behaviour of many of the fpaniards,
who began to ufe him difrcfpectfully, and fcnt com-
plaints againft him to court, returned into Spain to
Tuftify his proceedings, and fccure his authority.
Thus far out of Herrera*s firll decade, lib. I, II, and

The fame of thefe mighty difcoveries being fprcad
abroad throughout Europe, Sebailian Cabot, a Venetian,,
but reliding in England, made application to king
Henry the feventh, to be employed in finding out a paf-
fage to the Eall-Indies through the north-weft. The
king admitted of his propofal, and

An. 1497. Ordered him two fliips provided with all
necelTaries for fuch an undertakings with which he
failed from Briftcl in the beginning of fummer (for
here does not appear a particular journal) and direct-
ing his courfe north-weit came into 56, Hcrrcra fays
68 degrees of north latitude, where he difcovered land
running f\ill to the northward, which made him l]c{^
pair of finding a paffagc that way, as he had projecled,
and therefore came about to the fouthward, hoping to
meet it in lefs latitude. Thus he foon fell in upon
the now much frequented illand of Newfoundland,
reaching from 54 to 48 degrees, where he found a wild
people clad in (kins of beafls, and armed with bows and
arrows^ as alfo bears and ihi^^s, and great plcntv of


Ihe HiJIory of Navigation. 4^9

fi(h, but ihe earth yielding little fruit. Here he took
three of the favages, whom at his return he carried
into England, where they lived long after. Hence -he
continued his courfe along the american coafl as far as
38 degrees of latitude, where his provilions begirminor
to fall fliort he returned to England. Hakluyt, voL
III. p. 6. & feq. This imperfcd account is all wc have
of this voyage, which was not profecuted by the en-
glilh in many years after; and Cabot finding little
encouragement went away into Spain, where he was

An. 1498. On the thirtieth of may admiral Columbus
having been again well received and honoured by the
king and queen of Caftile and Aragon, and provided
as he deiircd, failed from S. Lucar with fix fhips upon
new difcovcrics, and coming to the ifland Gomeru,
one of the Canaries, on the nineteenth, fent thence
three of his fliips with provifions to fail direclly for
Hifpaniola. He with the other three made the iflands
of Cabo Verde, refolving to fail fouthward as far as
the equinoctial ; and therefore fleering fouth wcfl: om
the thirteenth of July he felt fuch violent heat, that they
all thought they fhould there have ended their days:
and this continued till the nineteenth, when the wind
frcfhening they flood away to the weftward, and the
lirfl of auguft came to an anchor in the ifland which
he called La Trinidad, near the continent of fouth
America, in about 1 1 degrees of north latitude. Dif-
covering land from this place, which he fuppofcd to be
another iiland, but it was the continent, he failed over
and came upon the point of Paria, and run many-
leagues along the coaft of the continent, without know-
ing it was fo, trading with the indians for gold and
abundance of pearls. However thinking his prefcncc
neceffary at Hifpaniola, he could not continue his dif-
covery, but returned the fame way he ca!nc to the
ifland Trinidad, and found that he called Margarita,
where was afterwards the great pearl -firti cry, and that
of Cubagua, befides many others of Kfs note, and
arrived at Santo Domingo, a town ne^^ ly built on the
3 fourh

430 The Hiftory of NaVigatio)*,

fouth coaft of the iflanei Hifpaniola on the twenty fccond
of augufl:. Hcrrcra, dec. i. lib. IV.

An. 1499. The news having been brought to Spain
of the difcovery Columbus had made on the continent,
though it was not yet certainly known whether it \^as
continent or an ifland ; Alonfo de Ojeda and fome
other private men fitted out four Hiips to make dif-
coveries, and An led from port S. Mary on the twentieth
of may. John de la Cola, a bifcainer, went with him
as oilot, and Americus Vcfpucius as merchant. They
took their courfe to the fouth weft, and in twenty
feven days had fight of land, which they fuppofed to
be the continent. Being within a league of the fliore,
they fent fome men in the boat, who faw abundance
of naked people, who prefently fled to the mountains ;
and therefore they followed the coall to find fome har-
bour, which they found two days after, with multitudes
of natives, thronging to fee the Ihips. They were of
a middle feature, well Ihaped, broad fiiced, and of a
ruddy complexion: they covered their nakednefs with
leaves or cotton clouts. Their wealth confilkd in tine
feathers, fifli-bones, and green and \\hitc Rones, but
they had neither gold nor pearls. Ojeda ran along this
coaft till he came to a town feated like Venice in the
Avater, but containing only twenty lix great houfes ; for
which reafon he called it Venezuela, or little Venice,
in about 1 1 degrees of north latitude. Still he kept
along the coall of Paria, before difcovered by Colum-
bus, for the fpace of two hundred leagues, and then
proceeded two hundred further to the point called
Cabo de la Vela. Then turning back he came to the
ifland Margarita, where he careened, and on the iifth
of novembcr arrived at the iiland of Hifpaniola, where
we may put an c\\^ to his difcovery.

This fame \ car lYter Alonfo Nino and Chriftopher
Guevara failed Irom Sevil with one fliip to difcover,
but did nothing more than had been done before,
trading along the coaft where Columbus and Ojeda had
been. '^Hcrrcra, dec. i. lib. IV.

An. 1500. Vincent Yanez Pinzon, who was with
Columbus the lirft voyage, fet out four ftiips at his


^he Hifto-ry of Nixvigxition, 43 1

iawn /charge, and failing to the fouthwarJ was the firS:
fpaniard that ever cut the equinodtial line. Then fail-
ing to the weftward, on the twenty lixth of January he
difcovered land at a diftance, which was the point ot
land now called cape S. Auguftin, on the coafl of Brafii,
where he took pofTciTion for the king of Spain : but nor
being able to bring the natives to trade with him, he
palled on to a river, where landing, eight ot his men
were killed by the indians; which made him remove
again down to the mouth of the river Maranon, which is
thirty leagues over, and runs with fuch force, that the
water is frelh forty leagues out at fea. Finding no benefit
could be made along this coaft, he held on his courfeto
Paria, whence he failed over to the iflands in th^ way
to Hifpaniola ; and being at an anchor among them,
a furious florm funk two of their fliips downright,
the other two efcaping repaired to Hifpaniola, and
having refitted returned to Spain. In this voyage thcj
difcovered fix hundred leagues along the coaft lying
fouth eafi: from Paria.

In dccember this fame year James de Lepe failed from
Palos de Moguer to difcover, and went fome way to
the fouthward of cape S. Auguftin, but did little con-
fiderable. Herrera, dec. i. lib. IV.

This year alfo Emanuel king of Portugal fitted out a
fleet of thirteen fail for the Eaft-Indies, commanded by
Peter Alvarez Cabral, who failing from Lifbon in majch^
to avoid the calms on the coaft of Guinea, ftood out
far to fea ; and being carried away further to the weft-
ward than he intended by a ftorm, on the twenty fourth
of april fell in upon the coaft of Bralil in America,
in 10 degrees of fouth latitude. He failed along it one
day, and going afhore found a tawny people; but the
weather ivill forced him to the fouthward, to a harbour
he called Porto Seguro, in 17 degrees of fouth latitude,
where he landed, and found the country abounding m
cotton and Indian wheat. Here he ereded a crols in
token of pofteftion, and therefore called the country
Santa Cruz, but the name of Brafil prevailed, becaufc
of that fort of wood brought from thence. Peter Al-
varez fent a ftiip to Portugal to give advice of this dif-


43^ ^-^^ Hiflory of Navigation.

covcry, and he with the reft profecuted his voyage to
the Eaft-Indics, as may be feen in the account of them,
Hcrrera iibi fiip. and Faria in Afia, part I. p. 53.

Again this year 1500, Gafpcr de Cortereal a portu-
gucfe, failed to the north parts of America with two
caravels, where he run along a great part of what was
iaid before to have been difcovered by Cabot, and gave
his name to fome fmall iflands about the north of
Newfoundland, bringing away fixty of the natives.
He made a fecond voyage into thofe parts, but was caft
away. Herrern, dec. i. lib. VI.

An. 1501. Roderick de Baftidas fitted out two fliips
at Cadiz, and taking John de la Cofa, who was bcft
acquainted with the weftern fcas for his pilot, put to
fea in the beginning of february, following the fame
courfe Columbus had taken when he difcovered the
continent ; and coafting all along where he and the
others had been, he traded with the indians. Not fo
fatisfied, he run to the weftward, and difcovered Santa
Marta, Carthagena, and as far as Nombre de Dios, be-
ing above an hundred leagues more than vas known
before. I lis iliips being now leaky and worm-eaten,
fo that they coul'd not long keep the fea, and having
traded for a confiderable quantity of gold and pearls,
he with difficulty made over to Xaragua in Hifpaniola,
where his fliips funk after faving the treafure; and he
after being imprifoncd in this illand got over into
Spain with his wealth. He carried fome indians from
the continent to Hifpaniola, who went ftark naked,
only carrying their privities in a gold cafe made like a
funnel. Herrera ubi fup.

An. 1502. Admiral Columbus, being through the
malicious inlinuations of his enemies removed from the
government of Hifpaniola, but Jlill fed by the king
with fair words, obtained of him four lliips to go upon
fome new difcovery, and fiiled with them from Cadiz,
on the ninth of may. On the twenty ninth of June he
came before Santo Domingo in the iPiand Hifpaniola,
where the governor refufed to adnut him into the port.
On the fourteenth of July he failed away to the weft-
ward, and after driving fome days with the currents in


The Hijiory of Navigation. 433

calms, ftruggled for (ixty days with violent ftorms ;
after which he difcovered the little ifland Guanaja,
northward of cape Honduras, in 19 degrees of latitude.
He fent his brother afliore, who met w ith a canoe as
long as a fpanifh galley, and eight foot wide, covered
with mats, and in it many men, women and children, with
abundance of commodities to barter, which were large
cotton cloths of feveral colours, fhort cotton fliirts
without lleeves curioufly wrought, clouts of the fame
to cover their privities, wooden fvvords edged with
flint, copper hatchets to cut wood, horfe¬ębells of the
fame metal, and broad flat plates of it, crucibles to
melt the copper, cocoa-nuts, bread made of Indian
wheat, and drink of the fame. Being carried aboard
the admiral, he exchanged fome commodities with them,
and then difmifl^ed them, only keeping an old man, of
whom when he inquired for gold, he pointed eafl:ward,

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