John Locke.

The works of John Locke (Volume 9) online

. (page 37 of 51)
Online LibraryJohn LockeThe works of John Locke (Volume 9) → online text (page 37 of 51)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


which made Columbus alter hisdeflgn of failing weftward.
Therefore taking the way he was diredcd, the firfl:
land he came to was cape Cafinas on the continent of
the province of Honduras, where his brother landed
and took pofTeffion, the natives coming down in peace-
able manner, wearing fhort jackets of cotton, and
clouts of the fame before their privy-parts, and bring-
ing him plenty of provifions. Sailing hence many
days to the ealhvard againfl the wind, he came to a
great point of land, from which perceiving the fliorc
run to the fouthward, he called it Cabo de Gracias a
Dios, or cape Thanks be to God, becaufe then the
eaflerly winds would carry him down the coaih He run
along trading with the n:\tives, and touched at Porto
Bello, Nombre de Dios, Belcn and Veragua, where he
heard there were gold mines, and fent his brother up
the country, who returned to him with a confiderablc
quantity of that metal, exchanged for inconlidcrable
trifles. Upon this encouragement Columbus rcfolved
to leave his brother there with eighty men, and ac-
cordingly built houfes for them ; yet after all, the In-
dians becoming their enemies, and the fpaniards mu-
tinous, he was forced to take them aboard again, and
then failed away for Hifpaniola. The fhips being quite
Hiaken with the many ftorms, and eaten through with
Vol. IX. F f the



434 ^^^^ Hijlory of Nai'tgatioK,

the worms, could not reach that iflancl, and therefore
he was forced to run tncm a-ground on the coall of Ja-
inaica, clofc board and board by one another, flioring
them up with piles drove in the fand, and making huts
on the decks for the men to live in, becaufe they were
full of water up to the deck. Hence with incredible
difficulty and danger he fent melfengers in a canoe
over to Mifpaniola for fome veilels to carry him and
his men away, and after futfering much was at laft
tranfported to that ifland, and thence into Spain, where
he died. Herrera, due, i. lib. V, VI. So that we have
here an end of his difcoveries, and all the continent of
America made known from cape Honduras in i 8 degrees
of north latitude, to Porto Seguro on the coafi of Bralil
in 17 degrees of fouth latitude, being above fifteen hun-
dred leagues, taking only the greater windings of the
coad.

An. 1506. The news of Columbus's new difcovery
being fpread abroad in Caftile, John Diaz de Solis,
and Vincent Yancz Pinzon refolved to profecute what
he had begun ; and coming to the ifland Guanaja,
whence Columbus had turned back to the eaflward,
they held on their courfe flill weftward, running along
the coall of Honduras till they came to the bottom of
that deep bay, which they called Baia de Navidad, now
called the gulph of Honduras. Then turning to the
north-eaft, they difcovered a great part of the province
of Yucatan, whereof little was afterwards known till
the difcovery of New-Spain.

An. 1507. It being IHII unknown whether Cuba was
an ifland or part of the continent, Nicholas de Obando
governor of Hilpaniohi fent Sebaftian de Ocampo to
difcover it: he (ailed along the north fide of it, touch-
ing at fevcral places and careened his (liips at the port
now \\ell known by the name of the Havana, which
then he called de Catenas. Then continuir.g his voy-
age to the weik*rmoi\ end ot the ifland now called
Cabo de S. Anton, he turned to the ealhvard along the
fouth coalt of the ifland, and put into the port of Xagua,
which is one of the bc-ft in the world, and capable of
coataining a thouland ihips. Here he was moil cour-

teoufly



^hc Hijiory of Navigation, 435

tcoufly entertained, and fupplied with abundance of
partridges and good lilli. Having refted here a few
days, he held on his way along the coail, and returned
to Hifpaniola, with the certain news of Cuba's being an
ifland. Herrera, dec. r. lib. VII.

An. 1508. John Ponce de Leon failed over from Hif-
paniola to the ifland called by the Indians Borriquen,
by the fpaniards S. Juan de Puerto Rico, and by the
cnglifli Porto Rico: it is but fifteen leagues diftant
from Hifpaniola, has a good harbour, which with the
plenty of gold found in it gave it the name of Puerto
Rico, or the Rich Harbour. Herrera, dec. r. lib.
VII.

The fame year 1508. John Diaz de Solis, and Vincent
Yanez Pinzon, who before difcovered the gulph of Hon-
duras, failed with two caravels fitted out at the king's
expencc to difcover the fouth coaft of America ; and
coming upon cape S. Auguflin in about 11 degrees of
fouth latitude, continued thence their navigation along
the coaft, often landing and trading with the natives
till they came into 40 degrees of the fame latitude,
whence they returned with an account of what they had
found into Spain. Herrera, dec. i. lib. VII.

An. 1509. John de Efquibcl was fent from Hifpa-
niola, by the admiral James Colunibus, fon to Chrillo-
pher Columbus, with feventy men to fettle a colony in
the ifland of Jamaica.

This fame year John de la Cofi failed from Spain
with one fliip and two brigantines, to join Alonfo de
Ojeda in the ifland Hifpaniola, thence to go and fettle
on the continent. James de Nicucfia fet out foon after
him with four fliips upon the fame defign. After fomc
difpute about the limit^s of their provinces, they agreed
that the river of Daricn fliould part them, and then
they fet out towards their feveral governments. Herrera,
dec. I. lib. VII.

An. 1 5 10. Ojeda landed at Carthagena, whereafter
endeavouring to gain the indians by fair means without
fuccefs he came to a battle with them, in which John
de la Cofa was killed, and he efcaped by flight having
lofl: feventy fpaniards. Nicuefla arrived a few days

F f 2 after.



436 ^e Hijlory of Navigalion,

after, and joining the other fpaniards belonging to
Ojeda, revenged the death of the former feventy, and
took a great booty. However Ojeda removed thence
to the gulph of Uraha, where he founded the town of
S. Seballian, being the fecond built on the continent,
if we reckon that before founded by Cohimbus near
the fame place, which did not fland as has been men-
tioned, nor did this continue long at that time, being
removed after moll of the fpaniards were confumed to
Daricn. Hence the indians carried fwine, fait and fifh
up the country, and in return brought home gold and
cotton-cloth. NicuelTa with his fliips failed to Vera-
gua, and after many miferies and calamities, at lafl
founded the town of Nombre de Dios on the fmall
iflhmus that joins the two continents of north and fouth
America. Herrera, dec. 1. lib. VII, VIII.

An. 1 51 1. The admiral James Columbus from the
ifland Hifpaniola fent James Vclafqucz with about three
hundred men to plant in the ifland of Cuba, where no
fettlement had yet been made.

An. 15 12. John Ponce de Leon, before mentioned

as firft planter of the ifland of Puerto Rico, being

grown rich, fitted out three fliips in that iiland, re-

folving to difcover to the northward. He f^iilcd on the

third of march, fleering north-wefl and by north, and on

theeio-hth anchored at Baxos de Babueca, near the iiland

del Viejo, in 21 degrees and a half of north latitude,

and on the fourteenth at the iiland Giianahani, which

was the firft difcovered by Cohimbus. Hence he di-

re6ted his courfe north-wefl, and on the twentv fcventh,

being Eafter funday, difcovered an iiland not known

before; whence he proceeded, well-north-well, till the

fecoad of april, when they came to an anchor near a

part of the continent they had run along in 30 degrees

and eight minutes of north latitude, which he believed

to be an iiland, and called Florida, that is, fiowry, or Hou-

rifliing, both bccanfe it looked green and pleafant, and

hecaufc it was eafter time, which the fpaniards call

pafqua fiorida. After landing to take polTcffion, he

failed fouth and by eafl till the twenty lirfb of april,

when he met fo ftrong a currcntj that though they had

the



ne Hijiory of Navigation, 437

the wind large, his fhips could not ftem it, "vvhich
obliged him to conne to an anchor; this being the
now well known channel of Bahama, through which
mofl ihips return out of thofe parrs into Europe.
Here he landed, and had a fl^irmifli with the indians
who were warlike. On the eighth of may he doubled
the point of Florida, which he called cape Corricntes,
bccaufe of the great flrength of the current there.
Being come about, they fpent many days along the
coaft and neighbouring i (lands, watering and careening,
and dealing with the indians for hides and guanines,
which are plates of a mixture of gold and copper.
In June he had two battles with the indians, who in
their canoes came out to draw his fliips afliore, or at
leafl: to cut his cables. Having beaten them off he
came upon the coaft of Cuba, though he knew it
not to be that ifland, and thence returned to Puerto
Rico, whence he failed into Spain to beg of the king
the govcrnm.ent of what he had difcovered. Herrera,
dec. I. lib. IX.

An. 15 13. Bafco Nunez de Balboa, who had fub-
tilely wound hin.fclf into the government of the fpani^
ards, who w ere before mentioned to have built the town
of Daricn, having ufcd ail his endeavours as others did
to find out more gold, and being told by an indian,
that there was a mighty prince beyond the mountains
who had a vaft plenty of it, and that there was alfo an
open fea, he lefolvcd to venture over to find thefe
treafures, and gain the honour of being the firfl that
found this fb long looked for fea. Accordingly he fet
out from Darien in feptember with indian guides, and
others given him by the caciques his friends to carry
burdens. Entering upon the mountains, he had a fight
with a cacique that would have (lopped him, in which
he killed the cacique and fix hundred of his men.
On the twenty fifth of feptember he reached the top
of the mountains, from whence, to his unfpcakablc
joy, he faw the fouth fea; with this fatisfaction he
went down, and coming to the ihore walked into the
fea to take poirellion of it for the king of Spain. This
do|ie, he with eighty of his men, and a cacique his

F f 3 friend.



43 5 "^^(-^ Hijiory of Navigation. ^

friend, went into nine canoes, and put out to Tea,
where a itorm riling, they had all like to have pcriflied;
however, with nnich difficulty they got into a fmali
ifland, where forne ot their canoes were beaten to pieces
and all their provifions loll. The next day with what
canoes remained they landed on the further iide of the
bay, where after fomc oppofition from the indians they
made peace, and the cacique brought a good quantity
of gold as a prefent, and two hundred and forty large
pearls ; and feeing the fpaniards valued them, he fent
fome indians to filh, who in four days brought twelve
mark-weight of them, each mark being eight ounces.
Bafco Nunez would have gone over to the iOand of
pearls, live leagues diHant, but was advifed by the
indians his friends to put it off till fummer, becaufe
of the d inger of the fea at that time. Here he had
fome information of the wealth of Peru, and was af-
fured that the coafl ran along to the fouthward without
end, as the indians thought. Bafco Nunez having
made fo great a difcovcry, and gathered much wealth,
returned over the mountains to Darien, whence he pre-
fently fent advice to the king of what he had found.
Herrcra, dec. i. lib. X.

An. In 15. John Diaz de Solis was fent out by the
king to difcovcr to the fouthward : he failed on the
eighth of October, and came to Rio de Janeiro on the
coall of J^raiil in 22 degrees twenty minutes of fouth
latitude, whence he continued his courfc down the
coall which lies fouth-weft to cape S. Mary in 35
degrees of latitude, where he landed and took polfefiion.
Then turning with one of his caravels into the river
of Plate, w hich becaufe it was fo large and frelh, they
called the frelh fea, and by another name, the river of
Solis, he fpied along the fliore abundance of houfes ot
indians, and the people coming down to gaze at the
Ihips, and offering what ihey had. Solis landed with
as many men as his boat could carry, who going a
little up from the lliore, were let upon by the natives,
who lay in ambudi \\\ the woods, and every man ot
them killed, notwithliandmg the cannon fired from
aboard. X'v'hcn rhr^ \\ii\ killed tb.tmrn they removed

them



The Uijlory q/ Navigation. 439

them further from the fhore, yet not fo far but that
the fpaniards aboard might fee them, where cutting off
their heads, arms and legs, they roalled the whole
bodies and cat them. Having iccn this difmal fights
the caravel returned to the other veird, and both toge-
ther repaired to cape S. Auguftin, w^here having loaded
U'ith Brafil wood, they failed back to Spain. Thus
ended the famous feaman John Diaz de Sol is. Hcrrera,
dec. 2. lib. I.

An. 1516. Padrarias governor of Darien before fpoken
of, {cwt the licentiate Kfpinofa with . a good body of
men over the mountains to Panama, who had fome
encounters with the indians in thofe parts, and made
fome confiderablc difcoveries along that coaft. But
having gathered a great quantity of gold, and abun-
dance of flaves, he returned to Darien, leaving Hernan
Ponce de Leon with a fmall force at Panama. This
commander loft no time, though he had no good vef-
fels but fome fmall barks, for in them he ventured to
run up to the north-weft as far as the port of Nicoya in
the province of Nicaragua, a hundred and forty leagues
from Nata, which is at the mouth of the bay of Pa-
nama ; where finding the people in arms, and that
they Hed to the mountains upon the firft firing, he con^
eluded there was not much good to be done there at
that time, and returned to Panama. At the fame time
Bafco Nunez de Balboa, who firft difcovercd the South-
fca, cut timber at Ada on the north-fea, and having
hewed it out fit to put together, had it all carried up
twelve leagues to the top of the mountains by indians,
blacks and fpaniards, and thence down to the South-
fca, which was an incredible labour, there being all the
timber, iron-work and rigging for two brigantines.
Ilcrrera, dec. 2. lib. II.

This fame year 1516. Hackluyt mentions a voyage
made by fir Thomas Pert and Sebaftian Cabot, by order
of king Henry the eighth of England, to Brafil, but
gives no particulars of it. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 49S.
An. I 5 17. James Velafquez, governor of Hif])aniola,
gave commifiion to Francis Hernandez de Cordova to
make, fume further difcovery on the continent. He

V i 4 bought



440 The Hijlory of Navigation.

bought two fnips and a hrigantinc, furniflicd them with
all ncceflarics, and a hundred and ten men, and failed
from Ha\ ana on the eighth of february to the weflward.
At the end of twenty one days they faw land, and
drawing near perceived a town. Five canoes came to
the Ihip, and thirty men went aboard, wearing (hort
jackets without llccvcs, and clouts about their waftes
jnftead of breeches, who being well entertained were
difmiffed: and the next day twelve canoes came with
a cacique, who faid conez cotoche, that is, com.e to
my houfc; and the fpaniards not underftanding it, called
that point of land cape Cotoche, being the wcftermoft
of the province of Yucatan, in 22 degrees of latitude.
The fpaniards going alhore with this invitation, were
fet upon by Indians that lay in ambufn, whom they
put to flight. Here they found three ftrudures like
little tempies with idols, built with lime and flone,
which were the firft that had been feen in America.
Returning to their fliips, they kept along the coaft
weflward till they came to Campeche, where they took
water out of a well, there bemg no other, and retired
to their (hips, the indians purfuing at their heels, yet
without engaging, ^urther on at a place calle i Po-
tonchan, being af! ore again to water, they were befet
bv the indians, wlio killed fifty of them, and the reft,
whereof many were wounded, with much difficulty got
aboard their fhips. Wanting hands for them all they
burnt one, and with the other two vefPels in great want
of water, flood over for the coaft of Florida, where as
they were watering the indians fell on them and killed
four or five more, but were put to flight, fo that the
fpaniards had time to carry oif their water, and fo re-
turned to Cuba, where James Fernandez the commander
died of his uounds. Herrera, dec. 2. lib. II.

An. 1518. The report of the difcovery made in Yu-
catan pleafing the undertaker James Vclafquez governor
of Cuba, he provided three fhips and a brigantine,
with two hundred and fifty men, to profecute that en-
terpnfe, under the command of John dc Grijalva, who
failed from Cuba on the eighth of april, and driving
to the fouthward with the currents came upon the iUand

of



ne Hijlory of Navigation, 441

of Cozumel, in the 20th degree of latitude, not known
before, and fouth of the cape of Cotoche; where keep-
ing along its coafi:, they anchored at a place they called
Santa Cruz, becaufe that was the third of may and the
feafl: of the finding of the crofs. Landing he could
not prevail with any of the natives to come to trade,
yet found in the ifland good honey, fvvine with their
navels on their backs, and feveral fmall temples of
ftone, as alfo an indian woman of Jamaica, who w^nt
aboard, and was afterwards of great ufe to them. Gri-
jalva failed on to Potonchan, where Francis Heniandez,
the firll difcoverer of that country, had been; and
after defeating the natives held on to the river of his
own name, faying this coimtry was like a new Spain,
becaufe of the many liructures he faw of lime and
Hone, whence the name remained to the adjacent
kingdom of Mexico. Coming to the river of Ta-
bafco, he treated with the natives, and a cacique there
with his own hand put upon Grijalva a fuit of com-
plete armour all of beaten gold, bclides many other
rich prefents he gave him. Then coaftmg along, he
faw the great mountains of S. Martin, and the rivers
of Alvarado and Banderas on the coaft of New-Spain,
at which laff place he was fupplicd with provifions, and
traded for much gold with the governor, who had re-
ceived orders fo to do from Montezuma the great mo-
narch of Mexico, upon the news brought him of the
firlt fhips that appeared on that coaft. He fpcnt feven
days at S. John de Ulva, trading with the natives, and
then went on as far as the province of Panuco, from
^vhence he returned to Cuba, having in this voyage
difcovcred all the coaft of New-Spain, almoft as far as
the province of Florida. Herrera, dec. 2. lib. III.

This l^ime year the licentiate Efpinofa, by order of
Peter Arias Davila governor of Darien, founded the
town of Panama on the South-fea. Ibid.

An. 1519. Ferdmand Corres, with eleven fail fitted
out at the charge of James Velafquez, failed from
Cuba in february, and landing on the coaft of New-
Spain before difcovcred by Grijalva, marched up to
Mexico, made himfclf mafter of that mighty city, and

fubdued



442 7/^^ Hijlory of Navigation.

fubdutd all the provinces about it till he came to the
South-fca. Here were found thofe rich mines onilver,
vihich with the others of Peru have ever fmce enriched
the univcrfe, not to fpeak of the abundance of cotton,
and very many other precious commodities. In fine,
his actions and the wealth of this country are the fub-
ied of large volumes, and too great for fo lliort a dif-
courfe. Therefore we will proceed to the difcoveries.
Ibid.

This year alfo Ferdinand Magalhacns, or as we call
him, Magellan, failed from Spam to difcover the flrait
of his name, the particulars of which voyage are the
lubjed of the firfl of thofe round the world, to be
found together at the latter end of this difcourfe, and
therefore need not be repeated at this place, for there the
reader may find it at large, with an account of thofe
fouthern parts of America.

This fame year 1519- an engliili fliip of two hundred
and fifty tun came to the ifland of Puerto Rico, pre-
tending it came out with another to difcover a palfagc
to Tartary, and had been at Newfoundland, where there
Avere fifty fpanifh, french and portuguefe iliips ft thing,
and that offering to go afhore their pilot was killed.
They further laid they came to load Bralil wood,
and carry the king of England an account of thofe
countries. Hence they failed over to Hilpaniola, where
being fired at from the caille they returned to Puerto
Rico, where they traded with the inhabitants, and going
thence were never more heard of. Herrera, dec. 2.
lib. V. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 499. gives the fame ac-
count out of Ramufio, only diticring in that he lays it
uas in the year i 5 17.

An. 1522. Cortes having fubdued the mighty king-
dom of 'Mexico, and greateil part of the provmces of
Mechoacan, Panuco, Guaxaca, Tabafco and Soconufco,
a conqueft above two hundred leagues in length,
above a hundred and fifty in breadth in the widelt
part, and lying betwixt 14 and 24 degrees of north
latitude; and having difcovered the South-fea, which
walViCs the fiiores of feveral of the provinces men-
tioned, he reiblved that way to fend to the Molucco

iliands.



ne Hijlory of Navigation. 443

iflands, and in order to it fcnt fhip-wrights to the
port of Zacatula to build two fhips to difcover along
the coaft, and two caravels to fail to the Moluccos,
caufing all the iron-work, fails and rigging to be
carried upon mens backs from Vera Cruz acrofis
the country, which is at Icaft a hundred and forty-
leagues.

Whilil: thefe vefTels were preparing in New-Spain,
Giles Gonzalez Davila with incredible labour had built
four in the illand Tarrarequi, not far from Panama,
whence he failed on the tw^enty firft of January this
fame year 1522, taking Andrew Nino along with him
as his pilot. Having failed an hundred leagues along
the coalt to the northwefl, they were forced to fend to
Panama for necelfaries to refit their diips, which being
brought they proceeded. At Nicoya Giles Gonzales
landed, and travelled into the province of Nicaragua,
where abundance of indians with their cacique fubmitted
themfelv<js : but afterv^ards meeting with a more war-
like nation, he was forced to retire to the fea. Whilft
Gonzales travelled by land, Andrew Nino had failed
along the coaft as far as the bay of Fonfeca in the
province of Guatimala, difcovering three hundred
leagues that way further than was known before;
which done, they both returned to Panama with great
wealth in gold and pearls. Herrera, dec. 3. lib. IV.

An. 1524. Francis the firft, king of France, employed
John Varrazona a florentine, to n¬Ľake fome difcovery to
the north-weft. He fet out from Diep with four fhips,
and after fome time fpent privateering on the coaft of
Spain, he ftccred to the illand of Madera, whence difmif-
ing the relr, he departed with one fhip and fifty men upon
his cnterprife. The firft twenty five days he ran five hun-
dred leagues to the weftward, after which followed a
dreadful ftorm ; and that ceafing, in twenty five davs more
ran four hundred leagues, and then difcovercd a land be-
fore unknown, which was low and well peopled, running
to the fouthward. He failed fifty leagues along the
coaft to the fouch without finding any harbour, w hich
made him ftand about to the northward, and at laft
conic to an anchor, where he traded with the indians,

who



444 ^^^ Hijlory of Kavigaiion,

who went naked, covering only their privities with {wx^
like fables, and garlands about their heads made of
fine feathers ; their complexion like the other indians,
their hair black and long, tied up behind like a tail.
His fhort flay there gave him not Icifure to learn any
thing of their cuHoms, but the country feemcd de-
lightful> with pleafant plains, and plenty of woods of
feveral forts of trees, great variety of beads and birds,
and fome tokens of gold. This country was in 34
degrees of north latitude, a temperate climate, and is the
northern part ot the province of Florida. Sailing hence
fifty leagues to the north-eaft, they came upon another
coall, where they took a boy, and fo run on, feeing all the
way abundanc e of trees, variety of herbs and flowers
for two hundred leagues, where they again anchored,
and were well entertained by the natives, a cacique
coming often aboard, and feeming well pleafcd with
the frcnch. Hence they held on their courfe above a
hundred leagues, and faw people cloathed with feathers,
and a very pleafant country ; but pafTed on Hill to a
great ifland, and anchored betwixt it and the continent,
"where the people were flill naked, with only furs before
their privities, and valued copper beyond gold. Thus
he proceeded, landing and taking a view of the fliores,
till he came into fifty degrees of north latitude, where



Online LibraryJohn LockeThe works of John Locke (Volume 9) → online text (page 37 of 51)