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his provifions falling ihort, he refolved to return into
France, having difcovered feven hundred leagues along
the coafl, and giving it the name of New-France.
Hcrrcra, dec. 3. lib. VI. Hackluyt, vol. HI. p. 295.
Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1603.

The fame year 1524. Francis Pizarro failed from Pa-
nama in november with one fliip and two canoes, in
which were eighty fpaniards, and four horfes to dif-
cover to the fouthward. Coming under the equi-
nodlial, which was further than any had difcovered on
that fide, he landed, and provifions failing font back
the fliip for them, remaining himfelf alliorc with moft
of the men, where they were drove to fuch extremities,
that twenty feven of them died for want, and therefore
they called this place Puerto de Lahambre, that is.
Port F^amine. The Ihip returning with provifions, they


The Hijlory of Navigation. 445

proceeded On their voyage to the port they called De
la Candclaria, where they again went afliore and tra-
velled up the country ; but all the people lied from
them, and the continual rains rotted their clothes.
Though all the reft of his actions in this expedition
were in the enfuing years, yet the funimary of them
fhall here be delivered together, to avoid the confulion
that might be caufed by the difmembering of them.
Hence they went on to a place they called Pueblo Que-
mado, where they had two bloody encounters with the
Indians, and therefore proceeded to Chicama, whence
they again fent back the (hip to Panama for provifions.
Whilft the Ihip was returning, James de Almagro,
who was at the chief expence of this enterprife, went
out of Panama with a fliip full of provifions, and fixty
men in it, and running along the coaft, at length
found Pizarro at Chicama; and having relieved and con-
ferred with him, returned to Panama for more men,
whence he brought two {hips and two canoes with arms,
men, ammunition and provifions. Leaving Chicama,
they proceeded along the coaft ; and after many delays,
and feveral times fending back to Panama, during which
time the reft of the men were left aftiore, and fuftered in-
credible hardftiips, Pizarro came to Tumbcz, where he
. fent men aftiore, who were friendly entertained by the
natives, fupplied with proviftons, and returned aboard
with the joyful news, that they had fcen ftately palaces,
and all forts of vefTcls of filver and gold. Here he was
invited aftiore, and went twice, having much difcourfe
with the indians, who gave him an account of the great
city of Cufco, and of the immenfe wealth of the
mighty monarch of Guaynacapa. This done, having
gathered a good quantity of gold, and got fome of the
large pcru ftieep, and other things to fnow the wealth
of the country, he returned to Panama to gather a
force fufficient to make a conqueft in that rich country,
he had difcovered. In this voyage he reached as far
as the port of Santa in 9 degrees of fouth latitude,
having run above two hundred leagues, in which he
fpcnt three years, beinp- detained {o long by the misfor-
tunes and wants above-mentioned, bcfides many more
too tedious to infcrt here. The conqueft and furtlicr
3 difco-

44^ ^-^^^ Hijlory of Navigation.

difcovcrics fliall fall in their due place. Hcrrcra^ dec.
3. lib. VII, VIII, and X. and dec. 4. lib. II.

An. 1525. The ennperor Charles the fifth fitted out
fix (hips and a tender at Corunna, under the command
of D. Garcia Jofre de Loayfa, and well furnillied with
provifions, ammunition and commodities to trade, as
alfo four hundred and fifty fpaniards. Thefe iliips were
Co pafs through the Itraits of Magellan to the Molucco
illands, and failed from Corunna in July. On the fifth
of deccmber they came upon the coad of Bralil in 21
degrees and a half of fouth latitude. Deccmber the
twenty eighth the fliips were parted in a ftorm, but
met all again except the admiral. January the fifth
they came to cape Blanco in 37 degrees, and thence to
Santa Cruz in 51 degrees, where the admiral and ano-
ther fhip being miiTmg, they put up fome figns to direct
them. Coming to the mouth of the ft raits, one of the
fhips was caft away in a Itorm, the other three with
niuch difficulty got into the ftrait. January the twenty
lixth the admiral, with the other fliip that was milfing,
and the tender came to the mouth of the ftrait, where
it was near peri filing in a ftorm : and on the fifth of
april the five ihips being again joined, put into the
ftrait, whence the foul weather had beaten them out.
May the twenty fifth they came out into the South-lea,
where a violent ftorm parted them all ; and the tender
being left alone with very little provifion failed to the
northward, till it came upon the coaft of New-Spain,
where the men were plentifully relieved by the Indians
for the prefent, and afterwards by Cortes from Mexico.
The admiral was parted from the other ihips, and never
faw them nujre, for he dR:d on this lide the line, and
foon after him John Sebaftian Cano his fuccellbr, who
had brought the ftiip called the Vivflory home, after
failing round the world in the voyage undertaken by
Magellan. Then they chofe Toribio Alonfo de Sala-
zar for their admiral, and fo direcling their courfe tor
the iftands Ladrones, on the thirteenth of feptember
difcovered an illand, which they called S. Bartholomew;
and the wind not permitting them to come near it, fol-
lowed on their courfe to the Ladrones, and came to
the two fou'.hcrmoft of thcm^ where there came to


ne Hiftory of Navigcition, 447

them a fpaniiird that had been left there when a flup
of Magelhin's company left at the Mokiccos attempted
to return to New Spain, as may be feen in that voyage.
Five days this which was the admiral's fhip continued
in the iiland Bataha, and then profccuted its voyage to
the MoUiccos on the tenth of fcptember 1526, and on
the fecond of ocftobcr came to the great iiland Minda-
nao, one of the Philippines, where they got feme frcili
provilions, and then failed away towards the Moluccos,
and arrived fafe at Tidore on the lafi: day of deccmbcr,
and there built a fort, whence for a long time after
they made war with the portuguefcs of Tcrnate; where
we will leave them, having ended their navigation,
and fhall hear of them again in the following years.
Herrera, dec. 3. lib. VII,>III, IX. and dec. 4. lib. I.
An. 1526. Sebaftian Cabot, who made the great dif-
covery in north America for king Henry the fevcnth
of England, being now in the fpanilh fcrvice, failed
from Cadiz with four fliips, defigning for the Moluc-
cos through the ftrait of Magellan : but when he came
upon the coafl: of Brafil, his provilions began to fail,
and the men to mutiny, both which things obliged
him to lay afide his firfl: dcfign, and run up the river
then called of Solis, now of Plate ; and going up it
thirty leagues, he came to the ifland of S. Gabriel, and
feven leagues above it to the river S. Salvador, where
he landed and built a fort, in which he left fome men,
whilll he difcovered higher. Thirty leagues further up
he found the river of Zarcarana, and ereded another
fort, which was called by his name. Then continuing
the fame courfe, after running up two hundred leagues
he came to the river Paraguay, up which he turned
leaving the great river, and at the end of thirty leagues
found a people that tilled the ground, which he had
not feen before, and they oppofed him fo vigcrouHy,
that he was forced to return down the river after lofmg
twenty eight of his men: where we muft leave him
a-while, to fliow that this fame year James Garcia was
fent from Galicia with one Ihip, a fmall tender, and a
brigantine to difcover this fame river of Plate, and
came upon that part of the coa(l of Brafil v hich for


448 The Hijlory of Navigation.

Its many rocks and flioals is called Abrelojo, or Open
your Eyes, at the end of the year.

An. 1 527. At the beginning of the year he came into
the river of Plate, and there found two of Cabot*s
fhips, but fent back his own to carry flaves into Por-
tugal. Then he run up the river, and found Cabot in
that of Paraguay, where we faid he loft his men, whence
they returned together to the fhips. Cabot fcnt one
of them back into Spain, with an account of what he
had difcovered, the reafons why he went not to the
Moluccos, and fome filver and gold, defiring to be
reinforced, and to have leave to plant there, which
was not done till fome time after, when it fhall be
mentioned in its place. Herrcra, dec. 3. lib. IX. and
dec. 4. lib. I.

This fame year Cortes fitted out three fliips on the
coaft of New Spain in the South fea, and fent them to
the Molucco illands, where they joined the fpaniards
before-mentioned, and profccutcd the war with the
portuguefes. One of the Ihips attempted to return
w ith cloves to New Spain, but was beaten back to Ti-
dore by contrary winds, where the continual wars re-
duced the fpaniards to only twenty, who were forced
to put thcmfclves into the power of the portuguefes,
and by them were carried into India, where fome of
them returned into Spain. Thefe fhips were in fcveral
of the Philippine iflands, and took pofTeffion of them
for the king of Spain. Hcrrera, dec. 4. lib. I.

This year alfo Francis de Montejo failed from Sevil
with three fliips, and five hundred men in them, to
conquer the province of Yucatan, and Peter de Alva-
rado for that of Guatimala. Of the dift overy of both
fomething has been faid already, and therefore there
needs no repetition.

The fame year ftiU Pamphilo de Narvacz failed from
Sanlucar on the feventeenth of June with five vefTels,
and in them fevcn hundred men, and fpent much
time at Hifpaniola and Cuba, where after efcaping a
dreadful ftorm, he was lorced to winter. In march
following he put to fea with four fliips and above four


^he Hijlory of 'Navigation. 449

hundred men, and on the twelfth of april after many
ftornis and dangers came upon the coaft of Florida ;
he landed his men and forty horfes, and then travelled
with them by land, fending the Ihips at the fame time
to coall along and find a fafe harbour where they might
fettle a town. Thofe that marched by land, after in-
credible fufTering alhore, and loiing their fliips, built
Ibme barks to carry them off, making fails of their
fliirts, and ropes of their horfes tails and manes. By
the twenty fecond of feptember they had eaten all their
horfes, and then went aboard their barks : they crept
along the fliore feven days in thofe creeks almolt
liarved, till they found fome dry filli in an indian
houfe, but after this fuffered fuch extremity of thirft>
that five of them died with drinking of fait water.
They landed again and got fomc refrefl^ment, but the
Indians proving treacherous, they loft fome men, and
fo put to fea again, where they ranged many days in
foul weather, and were all parted. At lafl all the barks
were cad upon the fliore and fcveral men drowned,
thofe that efcaped almoft naked and flarved met with
charitable Indians, who came down and lamented their
misfortune with tears, fetching wood to make fire to
warm them, carrying them to their houfcs, and giving
them all the beft they had ; but this laded not long ;
for the indians though fo loving were poor, and foon
after fuffered extreme want themfelves, fo that the
fpaniards difperfed to fliift, and the fixty that landed
were foon reduced to fifteen. Such was their mifery,
that five of them who had kept together ate up one
another till only one was left. Three or four that
furvivcd thefe calamites travelled fome hundreds of
leagues acrofs the country, and with incredible hard-
fliips at length came to New Spain, the rell: \^irh
their officers all pcriflied ; and this was the end of the
expedition. Herrera, dec. 4. lib. II, IV.

Before we proceed, it muit be here noted, that this
fame year king Henry the eighth ot England fent out
two Ihips to difcover to the northward, which failed
out of the Thames on the twentieth of may, and en-
tering between the north of Ncufoundhind and the
continent one of them was call: away. The other di-

VoL. IX. Gg reded

45a ^he Hijlory of Navigation.

rcdcd its courfe towards cape Breton, and the coail of
Arambcc, often fending men a'liore to ju-t informa-
tion of the country, and returned home in October;
uhich is all the account we have of this voyage. Hack-
luyt, vol. III. p. 129.

An. 1530. I'rancis Pizarro having been in Spain, and
obtained many favours of the emperor, and power to
conquer what he had difcovered, failed from Panama
with a hundred and eighty five fpaniards, and thirty
feven horfes. At the bay of S. Matthew he landed
the horfes and molt of tiie nu-n to march along the
fhore, â– whilll the fliips coalk-d ; and falling upon the
town of Qiiapel, he took a vail booty of gold, filver,
and emeralds : then he fent three Hiips to Panama and
Nicaragua to bring recruits of men and provifions.
Being reduced to great 11 raits, and ready to abandon
the country, a fliip arrived with fupplics. Hence they
failed to the ifland Puna, which lies between three and
four degrees of fouth latitude ; where after much feigned
friendfnip from the indians, he came to a battle \\\t\\
them, and having gained the vi(ftory, continued there,
fetting at liberty fix hundred indians of Tumbez, kept:
there in flavcry, which gained him the alfection of
thofe people. Two fhips coming to him w ith recruits
from Panama, Pizarro failed over to Tumbez, of which
place he poilelfed himlelf after killing many indians,
wha ufed all means by open force and treachery to
deiVroy him. Here inquiring into the affairs of the
country, he was informed of the greatnefs and infinite
wealth of the city of Cuzco, and of the vail power and
large doniinion of the emperor of Peru. Then moving
Hill to the fouthward, he founded the city of S. Mi-
chael, and flaid there long to fettle that new colony, to
get more fuppliesand further intelligence into the aHairs
of .he country ; and though thefe things happened in the
following years, we will conclude with them at once,
according to the intended brevity. At that time two
brothers contended for the monarchy of Peru, thefc
were Atahaulpa and Guafcar, of whom the former had
been fuccefsful in leveral battles. Pizarro refolved to
make his advantage oi their divifions. He therefore


The Hijiory of Navigation, 4^

marched into the country with fcarce two hundred
men, and coming to Caxamalca, whence Atahaulpa
drew out with his army, he fent to invite him back.
The inga came with an infinite multitude of indians ;
and having filled the great market of Caxamaica, he
ordered they fliould feize all the fpaniards, and take
care that not one efcaped : upon which as his horns
and other warlike inlirumcnts began to make a dread-
ful noife, Pizarro gave the fignal in like manner; and
falling on, routed that multitude, and took the inga
prifoner, and with him an incredible treafure of gold,
filver, and cotton cloth. The inga being prifoner,
offered for his ranfom ten thoufand ingots of gold, and
a great room full to the top of lilver; which he had
almoft performed, when new troubles arifmg, he was
put to death. After which Pizarro marched to the
great city of Cuzco, near two hundred leagues from
Caxamaica, to the fouth-eaft ; whence moving to the
fea, he founded the city of Lima in i8 degrees of fouth
latitude, and fubdued all that vaft empire of Peru.
Herrera, dec. 4. lib. VII. and IX. and dec. 5. through-
out the greatcfl' part of it.

An. 1532. Nunho de Guzman, fent out by Cortes
from Mexico by land to reduce the province of Me-
choacan, difcovered and fubdued the provinces of Cu-
liacan and Cinaloa, extending to 28 degrees of north
latitude on the coafl: of the fouth fea, and oppofite to
the fouth end of California; all which was done by
land, and a confequence of the former navigations.
Plerrera, dec. 5. lib. I.

Some lliips were fent out thefe years by Cortes from
New-Spain, to difcover to the north-weft ; but they
having gone no further than has been already mentioned,
it is nccdlefs to give any account of them.

An. 1534. Simon de Alcazova, a portuguefc in the
king of Spain's fervice, undertook to difcover to the
fouthward of Peru ; palling the flrait of Magellan, and
fitting out two good fliips with two hundred and fifty
men, he fiiiled from S. Lucar on the twenty firfl of
feptember, and entered the mouth of the flraits jOf
Magellan in January following. Having fpcnt fom^

G g 2 lime

452 The Hijlory of Navigation.

time in it, and being half way through, the violent
fiorms, which laded many days, were the occafion
that his men in a mutinous manner obliged him to
turn back out of the flrait, and put into port Lobos,
a little above the mouth of it. Here he landed a hun-
dred men to difcovcr up the ccuntr}', appointing his
lieutenant to command them, becaufe he could not
himlelf, by rcafon of his indifpolition. They marched
ninety leagues through a defiirtcountr} , feeing fcarceany
inhabitants, and being ready to perifli fometimes for want
of water; and by this time all the provifions they brought
from aboard were fpent, the country atTording little or
nothing. This done, they returned towards the fhips,
and fome of them mr.tinying by the way, fecured thofe
that oppofcd their wicked defigns ; and coming aboard,
murdered Alcazova their commander in chief and his
pilot, defigning to leave the rcfl that had oppofed
them on fliore, and turn pirates. But being divided
among themfelves, the loyal party took the advantage
to poflefs themfelves of the ihips, and executed many
of them. This done they directed their courfe for the
iflands of America. The greateft fliip was caft away
on the coail of Bralil, the other in much dilhefs arri-
ved at the itland Hifpaniola. Thus ended this enterprife,
Herrera, dec. 5. lib. VII. and MIL

This fame year 1534- J^qucs Carrier failed from the
port of S. Malo, by order of Francis I. king of France,
to difcover the north part of America. He fet out
on the twentieth o^ april, and on the tenth of may
put into the port of S. Catherine in Newfoundland
w here having (pent fome days in refitting, he failed all
the length of the illand from cape Raz to caj^e de Graces
and entering between the illand and the continent, run to
the welbvard along the fhore, till a: the mouth of th(
great river Canada, he turned to the fouthward, came tc
the bay called du Chaleur, and traded with the natives ir
a very peaceable manner, as rhoy did all along thof<
fliores on the back of Newfoundland, viewing all th(
creeks and harbours ; till the fifteenth of augufl, whe
they departed thence homeward, and arrived at S


T"/?// HifloYy of NaZ'i^aiioft. 453

Malo on the fifth of feptember. Hacklu)t, vol. III.
p. 2or.

An. 1535. The fame Jaques Carticr flulcd again from
S. Malo, may the nineteenth, with three Hups upon
the fame difcovcry ; and after fuffering much by ftorms,
^vhich parted them, Cartier upon the twenty fifth of
June came upon the coalt of Newfoundland, in 49 de-
grees and 40 minutes of latitude, and flaying fome
days, was there joined by his other two (hips. Then
they all together entered the great bay on the back of
Ne\^foundland, failing to the well ward, and foul wea-
ther coming on, anchored in the port of S. Nicholas,
where they {laid till the feventh of auguft ; and then
fleering to the fouthward, on the fifteenth came upon
the ifland of the Alfumption. Thence he turned again
into the great river, and coaiiing along it, came to the
iiland he called of Orleans, in the country of Canada,
V. here he traded amicably w ith the indians ; and leaving
the fliips there, with fifty men in the boats, he ran-
fifty leagues higher, where he faw the town of Hoche-
laga, confiding of about fifty great houfes, each capa-
ble of a great number of people, and the town inclofed
with a triple fence, all of timber. Returning hence
to his fliips, he went to Stadacona, a town about a
league from them, to vifit the prince of that part of Ca-
nada. In thefe parts he found much ftlli, Indian wheat,
and tobacco. lie continued here all the winter, dif-
covering what was neareft, and inquiring into the fur-
ther parts of the country; and in may following re-
turned home with a particular account of the great river
of Canada, and the whole country called by that name,
or New-France. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 212.

This year D. Peter de Mcndoza failed from S. Lucar
with eleven lhip>: and eight hundred men in them, for
the river of Plate, where he happily arrived, and fettled
the colony of Buenos Ayres, uhich continues and is
famous to this day ; tlu^jugh the greateft part of his
people perifiied there for want, before they were re-
lieved from Spain. Herrc'ra, dec. 5. lib. IX.

An. 1536. Two fliips were fitted out at London,
under the command of Mr. Horc, with a hundred and

G g 3 twenty

4S4 ^^^^ Uijlory of Navigatioju

twenty men, for north America ; of whom wc find no
account that they did any more than get to Newfound-
land, where they were in fiich want, that they eat up
one another; and thofe that were left, furprifed a irench
fliip that came into thofe parts, and fo returned home.
Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 129.

An. 1539. F. Mark de Niza, with his companion F.
Honoratus, a black, whofe name was Stephen, and
fome inJians for interpreters, fet out on the feventh of
majch from the town of Culiacan at the entrance into
the flrait of California on the South-fea fliore, to dif-
cover the country to the north\\ ard by land. V. Ho-
noratus fell fick, and was left behind ; and F. Mark
proceeded to Petathen, li>vty leagues from Culiacan;
the people there and all the way paying him extraor-
dinary refpecl:, and fupplying him plentifully with all
neceriaries. Hence he went on to Vacapa, and fent the
black towards the fea to difcover that port, who foon
after fent meirengcrs, defiring the father to come
fpeedily to him, becaufe he had received information
of a country called Cibola, where there were feven
great cities, built with (lone two Itorics high, and the
people well clad ; and that it was but thirty days
journey from the place where he then was. F. Marl:
fet out towards this country, and all the way he went,
the people offered him not only provifions, but turky
flones, earthen difhes, and other things, whereof he
would receive nothing, but what was baiely for his and
his company's maintenance. He palfed through a
defart of four days journey, and coming out of it, the
people of the firft towns ran to meet him all clad in
cotton cloth, or fkins, w ith collars and other ornament*
of turky Hones. Having travelled a hundred aiul
twenty leagues from Vacapa, he came into a moli de-
lightful plain, all inhabited by very civiHzed people,
and fix days journey over ; and then entered into a
defart of fifteen days journey, where an indian brought
him the news that Stephen his black, who had gone
all the way before, was killed at Cibola by the go-
vernor's order; which was confirmed by other Indians
that went with him, and iiad rfcaped. F. Mark having


'7 be Hijlory of Navigation. ^^^

with much difficulty pcrfuaded fome few Indians to fol-
low him, went on till he came in light of Cibola,
which he viewed from a rifing ground, and afterwards
declared it was the bed: city he had {ccy^ in America,
the houfes being two or three (lories high, and very
beautiful; but durft not go into it, for fear if they
fhould kill him, there would be none to carry back an
account of that difcovery. He therefore returned,,
having {c^w many good towns in his way, and found
people very much civilized ; whereof he fent an account
to the viceroy. He alfo was informed, that beyond
Cibola there were three great and powerful kingdoms,
called Marata, Acus, and Tontcac, vvhere the people,
lived very politely, v\ ove cloth, and had great riches.
Cibola lies in about 38 or 39 degrees of north latitude.
Herrera, dec. 6. lib. VII.

Upon the news of this great difcovery by land, Cor-
tes fct out three iliips from New Spain, under the com-
mand of D. Francifco de Ulloa ; who direc1:ed his
courfe to the north-wcfi:, run along the back of Cali-
fornia, fearching all that coafi: as f:tr as cape Enganho
in the latitude of 30 degrees : but here was no dif-
covery of any confequence made, and Ulloa refolving
to go further, was never more heard of; another of his
three (hips had been loft before, and the third, which
now left him, returned to New Spain. Herrera, dec.
6. lib. IX.

An. 1540. Don Antony Mendoza viceroy of Mexico,
upon the information above given by F. Mark of the
country of Cibola, ordered Francis Vafquez de Cor-

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