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nado, governor of New Galicia, to m.arch thither with
fome forces, and plant colonies where he thought con-
venient. Cornado fet out from Culiacan in may, with
an hundred and fifty horfe and two hundred foot, and
liore of ammunition and provifions. He directed his
courfe almolt north- eall, and after a long march of
many days came to the firft town, where Stephen the
black above-mentioned was killed. Here they faw five
towns, each of about two hundred inhabitants, and
the houfes of ftone and mud, and Hat at the top ; the
country cold, but plentiful, the people clad in fl^ins of

G sr 4. bcafts.

45 6 The Hi/lory of Navigation.

beads. Five days journey to the north-cad: of Cibola
is a province called Tucayan. All thcfe places gave
the rpaniards friendly reception, except the iird town
of Cibola. They travelled leven days further dill
north-cad, and came to the river Cicuique, where
they found abundance o^ cows, and then proceeded
twentv days without knowing where they were. Here
Cornado ordered all his forces to day, except thirty
rrien, and with them he travelled thirty days to the
northward always among abundance of cattle, and on
the fead of St. Peter and Paul came to the river to
which he gave thofe names. Hence they turned into
the province of Quivira, which is a finer country than
mod in Europe, and where they favv grapes and feveral
forts of european fruits, as alfo flax growing wild.
Having taken an account of all this country, he re-
turned to his government. In his way outwards he
travelled three hundred and thirty leagues, arid but
two hundred in his return, becaufe he came back the
direcl way. Quivira is in 40 degrees of latitude.
Cornado was out two years upon his difcovery, and
was blamed at his return for not having planted a co-

The fame year the viceroy of Mexico fet out two
fhips at Acapulco on the South-fca, to difcovcr on that
element, whild Cornado travelled by land, and gave
the command of them to Ferdinand de Alarcon, who
fet fail on the ninth of may. Coming to the flats at
the entrance of the drait of California, he fent his
boats before to found, and yet run aground ; but the
tide rifing, brought him oif, and he run up till he
came to a great river, up which he went with his boats,
and traded with the Indians for provifions and hides.
Having ^nnii very far up this river, Alarcon heard
tidings of Cibola, which was what he looked lor, and
of the d -ath of Sfphen the black. He called the river
Buena Guia, and returning to his diips, put aboard
his boars .ibundance of provifions and commodities to
trade with; rcfolving to join Francis Vafquez de Cor-
nado that way. Alarcon went up this river eighty
five leagues, and then hearing no news of Cornado,


The Hijlory of Navigation. 457

in fearch of whom he went, he took down the river
again to his iliips. He proceeded on his voyage many
days after up the coaft, inquiring for Cornado and Ci-
bola, till perceiving at laft there were no hopes of
finding them, he returned to New Spain ; having failed
4 degrees further than the fliips fcnt by Cortes. Her-
rcra, dec. 6. lib. IX.

This year ftill, James Cartier before mentioned failed
from S. Malo with five fliips on the twenty third of
may for the coafl of Canada and Sagucnay ; and meet-
ing with very bad weather at fea, were parted, and came
together again after long beating at fea, in the port of
Carpont in Newfoundland ; and on the twenty third of
augull put into the haven of Santa Croix, or the holy
crofs in Canada. Hence the lord of Roberval failed
four leagues further, where he thought a convenient
place, and there ereded a fort, into which he landed
the provifions and ammunition ; and keeping three
fhips with him, fcnt back the other two into France.
This is the firil: colony I find in north America, and
the firfl: in all that continent of any nation, except the
fpaniards or portuguefes. Hackluyt, vol. 3. p. 232.

There occurs another navigation this year, no lefs
remarkable in its way, than any of thofc already men-
tioned. Pizarro having conquered the mighty empire
of Peru, guided by his boundlefs ambition, travelled
up into the inland, and wanting provifions, fent cap-
tain Orellana down the river of the Amazons with
eighty men in a boat and feveral canoes. He fet out
about the latter end of this year, and being carried two
hundred leagues from the place where he entered,
the violence of the current driving the boats twenty
five leagues a day, he thought he was too far gone to
return againfi the ftream, and therefore held on his
way, till in January for want of provifions his men eat
all the leather they had. Being ready to perifii, they
came to an indian town, where they found provifions,
the Indians abandoning it at firfi ; but Orellana fpeak-,
ing to fome in the indian tongue, they all returned,
and plentifully furnifiied him with turkeys, partridges,
Hih, and other neceiTIiries. Finding thefe indians fin-
cere, they ftaid here twenty daj's ; in which time they


45? The Ilijlory of Navigation,

built a brigantinc, and fct out again on candlcn^.as dav,
and ran two hundred leagues farther without feeing
any town ; when being again in great want, they fpied
fome indian dwellings, where they civilly al"kcd for
fome fuftcnance, and had abundance of tortoifes and
parrots given them. In the way hence they faw good
towns, and the next day two canoes came aboard, bring-
ing tortoifes and good partridges, and much fifli, which
they gave to Orellana, who in return gave them fuch
things as he had. Then he landed, and all the caciques
of the country about cam.e to fee and prefent him w ith
provifions : fo that he ftaid here thirty five days, and
built another brigantinc, which he caulked with cotton,
and was fuppLed by the indians with pitch for it.
They left this place on the twenty fourth of april, and
running eighty leagues without meeting any warlike
indians, came to a dcfart country. May the twelfth
they came to the province of Machiparo, w here many
canoes full of indians fct upon them^; yet they landed
fome men, w ho brought provifions Irom the town in
fpite of the multitude of natives that oppofed it, and
repulfed the indians from their boats. Yet when he
'«vent off, they purfued him two days and two nights,
and therefore when they left him, he refied three days
in a town, w hence he drove the inhabitants, and found
much provifion, whereof he laid in good llore. Two
days after he came to another town as plentiful as the
laft, and where they faw much lilver and %^'T^\'\y but va-
lued it not, being now intent only upon laving their
lives. In fine, with fuch like accidents he run down
this vaft river, feeing many towns and large rivers
that fell into this: fighting often with the indians,
till he came into the North-fea. Thefc fpaniards
judged the mouth of the river to be fifty leagues over,
that the frclh water ran twenty leagues into the fea,
that the tide rifcs and falls five or fix fathoms, and
that they had run along this valt river eighteen hun-
dred leagues, reckoning all the windings. Being out at
fea, they coafied along by guefs with their finall veffels,
and after many labours and fufierings, arrived at laft in
feptcmbcr at the ifland Cubagua on the coalt of Paria,


ne Hijlory of Navigation. 459

vbcre was then a fpanifli town, and great pearl-fifhery.
Herrera, dec. 6. lib. IX.

An. 1542. John Francis de la Roche, lord of Rober-
val, whom Francis I. king of France had conftituted
his lieutenant in the countries of Canada, Saguenay,
and Hochclaga, failed from Rochel with three fhips,
and in them two hundred perfons, as well women as
men, on the fixteenth of april ; and by reafon of con-
trary winds did not reach Newfoundland till the feventh
of June. Here he made fome Hay to refit, and there
came into the fame port James Cartier with all his
company, who we mentioned went into Canada two
years before. He left the country becaufe he was too
weak to withftand the natives; and Roberval command-
ing him now to return with him who had ftrength
enough, he dole away in the night, and returned into
France. The laft of June the general Hiiled out of port
S. John in Newfoundland, and run up the river of Ca-
nada, till four leagues above the ifland of Orleans, the
place now called QLiebec. Finding here a convenient
harbour, he landed and eredled a llrong and beautiful
fort, into which he conveyed his men, provifions, and
all neccflaries, fending two f.iips back into France
with the account of his proceedings. Being fettled in
this place they fuffcred much hardlliip, their provifions
filling ibort, but were relieved by the natives. Ro-
berval took a journey into the country of Saguenay to
difcover, but we have no particulars of this his expe-
dition. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 240.

The fame year 1542. D. Antony dc Mendoza, vice-
roy of Mexico, fitted out two fliips on the coaft of the
South-fea to difcover to the northward, under the com-
mand of John Rodriguez Cabrillo a portuguefe. He
failed from the port of Navidad on the twenty feventh
of June, and on the twentieth of auguft came up with
cape Engano on the back of California in 31 degrees of
latitude, where Cortes his difcoverers had been before.
September the fourteenth they anchored at a cape they
called de la Cruz, or of the crofs, in ^3 degrees of la-
titude. October the tenth they traded w ith fome peace-
able indims in 35 degrees 20 minutes^ and called thofe


460 ^he Hijlory of Navigation.

the towns of the canofs, hccaiifc they faw many there.
On the ei<j;htecnth of the fa id month they aiichored at
rape Galcra, and above it in a ])ort they called Of
Pofreflion, trading with the natives, who go naked,
have their faces painted in chequers, and arc all filher-
men. From this time they had many Horms, which
obliged them to turn back to the ifland Of Polfefrion,
where they continued many days by reaibn of the foul
weather. At length they put to fea agaifi, and failed
to the north v.ard as far as 44 degrees, where the cold
W2S fo intenfe they could not bear it ; and their pro-
vifions now failing, they returned to New-Spain ;
having failed further to the northward, than any had done
on that fide. Herrera, dec. 7. lib. V.

An. 1543. The viceroy lall mentioned gave the com-
mand of two lliips, a galley, and two fmall tenders,
to Ruy Lopez de ViUalobos, to difcovcr the iilands to
the weilward. He failed from the coall of New-Spain
on the firli of november, and having run a hundred
and eighty leagues in 18 degrees and a half of latitude,
came to two defart iflands about twelve leagues diitant
from one another, m hich he called S. Thon^i and Anu-
blada. Eighty leagues further they faw another, and
called it Roca Portida. Seventy two leagues beyond it
they found an Archipelago of fmall iflands inhabited
by a poor people, where they watered; and on the
fixth of January paffcd by ten other iilands, which for
their p!eafL\ntnefs they called the Garden-^, all of them
in about 9 or 10 degrees of latitude. Januar}' the roth,
after a great ftorm, in which they lo(\ their galley, they
difcovered another ifland, from which fome Indians
came in b^ats making the fign of the crofs, and bid-
ding them good-morrow in fpanifli. I'Vbruary the
fecond they c :une to an ifland they called Ciefarea Ca-
roii, about fifteen hundred leagues from New-Spain,
where Villalobos would have planted a colony, but
forbore becaufe the place was unwholfome. 'Hi is illand
by its bigncfs, for he ccxaQcd along it lixty leagues to
the fourh, muft be Luzon or Manila, the biggell of
the Phili]5pincs, and he lays it is three hundred and
fifty leagues in compafs. In a fmall illand near to it


The Hijlory of Navigation. 4^1

he found china ware, muflc, amber, civet, benjamin,
ftorax, and other perfumes, as alfo fome gold. Here
they refolved to flay, and fowed fome grain, which
being little they were reduced to extremity. Hence
they removed to the ifland of Gilolo near the Moluc-
cos, at the invitation of the king of it ; whence they
fcnt two fhips at feveral times to carry news of them
to New-Spain, which were both forced back by con-
trary winds. Between the Moluccos and Philippine
iflands the fpaniards were long toffed, fometimes re-
moving to one, fometimes to another, ever perfecuted
by the portuguefes, and fuffering great wants : till being
quite fpent and without hopes of relief, they put theiii-
felves into the hands of the portuguefes, and were
by them fent through India into Spain. Hcrrera, dec,
7. lib. V.

An. 1562, The french admiral Chadillon fitted out
two of the king's (hips under the command of captain
John Ribault who filled with them on the eighteenth
of february, and two months after arrived on the coail
of Florida, where he landed at cape Francois in about
30 degrees of latitude, but made no ftay. Running
hence to the northward, he came into the river of
May, where he was friendly entertained by the Indians,
who prefented him with fifli, Indian wheat, curious
bafket5, and fl-iins. He proceeded ftill northward to
the river of Port Royal, about which he law turkey-
cocks, partridges, and feveral other forts of birds and
wild beads. The mouth of the river is three leagues over,
and he failed twelve leagues up it, where landing, the
natives prefented him chamois ikins, fine bafkets, and
fome pearls ; and here he eredled a pillar with the
arms of France. Having taken a view of all the Ihores
of this river, he built a Tort here but fixteen fathom in
length and thirteen in breadth, with proportionable
flanks, in which he left only twenty fix men with provi-
fions, ammunition, and all other necellaries, and called it
Charles Fort. This done, he failed fome leagues fur-
ther along the coall, and finding it dangerous, and
his provifions nlmoft fpent, returned to France. Thofe
left in the new fort difcovered up the river, and con-


4^2 ^hc lUJlory of Navhialtou,

traclcd great fricndfliip uith five Indian princes, whofc
fubjedts, when their provifions failed them, gave them
all they had ; and when that was fpcnt guided them
to other princes fouthward, who freely prefented them
with what they wanted. The fort happening acciden-
tally to be burnt dou n, the Indians of their own ac-
cord rebuilt it. The french had lived long in a peace-
* able manner, and having no enemy abroad they fell
out among themfelvcs, and murdered their captain
choofing another in his ftead. After which growing
weary of the place, they built a fmall bark and put
to fea in it ; but their provifions failing, they were
all like to perilh, and eat one of their company. In
this diftrcfs they met an englidi velfel which fet fome
of them afliorc, and carried the reft into England.
Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 308.

This fame year Mr. Hawkins made a voyage to
Guinea, . where having got three hundred blacks, he
failed over with them to Hifpaniola, and fold them
at good rates. But this being a trading voyage, and
not upon difcovery, deferves no further mention.
Hackluyt, vol. HI. p. 500.

An. 156JL. Captain Laudonnierc had the command
of three Ibips given him by the king of France, and
failed with them on the twenty fecond of april for
Florida. He paffcd by the illands Antilles, and arrived
on the coaft of Florida on the twenty fecond of junc.
After fpending fome days along the coaft, every where
entertained with the greateft tokens of affection by
the indians, he failed up the river of May, and finding
a convenient place erected a fort, which he called Ca-
roline in honour of Charles king of France. The fort
finilhed, Laudonniere fent fome of his men up the
river, who at fcvcral times run eighty leagues, always
meeting with natives that courted their friendihip.
After lome tinie many mutinies happened among the
french, of whom fcvcral went away with two brigan-
tines to the fpanilh illands, and having committed fome
rapine were clofely purfued and drove back to Florida,
where four of them were hanged. Whilft thefe mu-
tineers were abroad, Laudonniere fent fome of his n^en


^hc Hijlciy of Navigation. 463

up the river, who difcovered as far as the great lake
out of which it runs, and the mountain Apalache, in
which the indians faid there were rich mines. The
following winter the french having exchanged away all
their commodities, the indians forfook them, and they
were reduced to great ftraits, being obliged to ufe force
to get provifions. In the height of their diflrefs, when
they had thoughts of venturing to return to France in
a frnall vefiel icarce able to contain them, with very
flcnder provifions ; Mr. Hawkins beforemcntioned, who
this fame year had made another voyage to Guinea, and
thence to the Weft-Indies to fell blacks, and in his way
hom.e run along the coaft of Florida, coming to the river
of May found the french in this diftrefs, and therefore
fold them a fliip upon credit, generoufly fupplying
them with all they wanted, which clone, he failed away
and returned into England. The french were now pre-
paring to depart for France, this being

An. 1565. When in auguft captain John Ribault ar-
rived with feven fail of french (tiips to take poflefTion
of that country. A few days after fix great fpanidi
Ihips came upon the coaft, and gave chafe to four of
Ribault's that were without the port, which being
better failers efcaped ; and Ribault made out with the
other three after them, leaving Laudojmiere in the fort
with eighty five men, where the fpaniards attacked him,
and made themfelves mafters of the fort. Laudonniere
with fome of his men efcaped aboard two ftiips they
had in the river, in one of which he arrived in En-
gland, and thence into France. Ribault with his
ftiips as foon as he was out of May river met with a
dreadful ftorm, which wrecked them all on the coaft of
Florida, where abundance of his men faved themfelves
from the fea, but were afterwards deftroycd by the
fpaniards. Flackluyt^ vol. III. p. 319. and 349. and
Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1604.

An. 1567. Captain Gourgues failed from France with
three ftiips, and coming to the river of May in Tlo-
rida, revenged the death of his countrymen, killing all
the Spaniards he found there, but did nothing as to


464 The Hijlory of Ndvigation,

difcovcrics. Tlackluyt, vol. III. p. 356. Piuchas,
vol. IV. p. 1604.

An. 1576. Mr. Martin Forbifher with two barks and
a pinnace fet out from Gravcfcnd for the difcovcry of
a pafTagc to China and Cathay by the north-weft, on
the twelfth of June. Sailing about the north of Scot-
land, on the twenty eighth of July, and in 62 degrees
of latitude, he difcovered land which he fuppofed to be
the continent of America, called Ticrra de Labrador,
with abundance of ice about it. Within a cable's
length of the fliore he found an hundred fathom water,
and not being able to anchor ftood to the north-caft, as
the coaft there lies, and by reafon of the ice could not
come within five leagues of the fhore. I'he tenth of
auguft he landed on a defart iiland : the eleventh in 63
decrees and 8 minutes latitude he entered a ftrait which
is called by his own name ; the twelfth he came to S.
Gabriel's ifland, and anchored in a bay which he called
Prior's found. The eighteenth having failed north-
north-weft, he came to Butcher's iiland, where landing
they fpied {^vtx\ boats. Thcfe people came aboard
and looked like tartars, with long black hair, broad
faces and flat nofes, of a tawny complexion, clad in
feal-llvins, the boats alfo made of feal-f!<ins ^^ ith a
wooden keel. The twenty fixth one of thofe men came
aboard, and the boat going to fet him aftiore, \\as
taken by thofe favages with all the men. Having ftaid
a day in hopes to recover them, and no figns a])pearing,
he failed homewards, and arrived at Harwich on the
firft of odober. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 29, 57.

An. 1577. Mr. Forbiftier failed the fccond time on
the twenty fixth of may with a fhip of two hundred
tons and two barks, and in them an hundred and forty
men, upon the fame difcovcry he had attempted the
foregoing year. June the feventh he arrived at the
ifles of Orkney, and July the fourth at Friefland : the
fixteenth he came to his ftrait difcovered the laft year,
and much ice appearing durft not venture in with his
ftiip, but went with two pinnaces, and took one of the
favages aftiore. July the nineteenth the ice driving


^he Hijiory of Navigation. 465

away the fliips, he run into the flrair, and anchored in a
bay which they called Jackman's found : here he landed
with mod: of his men, and having travelled forne way
and found nothing to fatisfy his defircs, he coafted a
little in the barks and boats both eaft and wed; and
though he faw fcveral people, could take none but a
woman and her child ; and therefore on the fourth of
auguft came to that he called Anne Warwick's found
and ifiand. Here he ufcd all podible means to bring
the natives to trade, or give fome account of themfclves,
but they were fo wild, that they only fludied how to
deftroy the englifh- Forbilher this year did not run
above thirty leagues up the (Irait, and the winter draw-
ing on returned into England, having loaded his veflels
with a fort of ihining fand and flones, which he ima
gined to be gold^ but it proved a fallacy. Hackluyt,

vol. III. p. ^ly 60.

An. 1578. The noifc of gold pretended to be found,
and the hopes of a pallage, encouraged people to pro-
fecute this voyage ; and fifteen fail of fliips provided
for it met at Harwich, carrying a wooden fort ready
framed to be fet up in the golden country difcovered,
and an hundred men that were to be left there. The
thirty firfl: of may they left Harwich, and the fecond
of July came into Forbiiber's ftrait, which they found
choaked up with ice, and as they ftrugglcd to \^ork
through it, a fuddcn florm arofe, and fo inclofed them
with mountains of ice, that it was wonderful they did not
all perifn. One vellel of an hundred tons was loft, but
the men faved ; two others had not been feen in twenty
days before, and four that were fartheft out at fca belt
efcapcd the danger of the ice, clearing themfelves of
it in time. Being got out of this danger by the wind
turning to the north-weft, and into fea-room, they were
driven down by the current to the fouthward of For-
biflier's ftrait, and run into another about 60 leagues,
without knowing where they were, the cloudy weather
obftruciing their making an obfervation. Returning
out of it again, moft of the fcattered fleet met and
made for Forbilbcr's ftrait, m hopes of thofc golden
mountains, but found others of ice to obftruct their
palfage. After many other difficulties Forbiflier with

Vol. IX. H h moft

4^6 ^'he Hijlory of Xavi^^atioit,

tpoft of the fliips worked his way through, and on the
thirty fird of July reached his long dcfired port of the
countcfs of Warwick's found. Here they landed, and
thought of erecting the houfe or fort brought from En-
gland ; but part of it being loll in the fhip caft away,
and more of ir, as aifo of the provifions not yet come,
being in four lliips, the dcfign of inhabiting there was
laid afide. The other Ihips that had been miffing,
after hard flruggling with ice and florms, joined the
fleet. Here they fct their miners to work, and loaded
abundance of ore, which done they directed their
courfe for England, whither they returned in fafcty.
Hackliiyt, vol. III. p. 39, 74.

The fame year 1582. Francis de Ovalle failed fron^
Acapulco, and running to the wcllward about eighteen
hundred Ica^riics, came to the illand del Engano, the
farthell of thofc called de los Ladroncs, in thirteen de-
grees of north latitude: thence he held on his courfe
^velhvard two hundred and eighty leagues, to Cabo del
Efpiritu Santo, or the cape of the Holy Ghofl in the
ifland of Tandaya, the firfl of the Philippines. He
fpent feveral days in the narrow channels among thcfe
iflands, fliaping his courfe diverfly as they would per-
mit; and coming out into the open fea run up into
the bay of Manila, now the metropolis of the Philip-
pine iflands, lying in 14 degrees and a quarter. Re-
turning out of this bay, he made ovef to the coaft of
China, and arrived in the port of Macao. Here he
furnifned himfelf with neccflarics, and turning again to
the eaftward pafTcd tiirough the iflands called Lequios,
whence he held his courfe eail:, and caft by north, never
touching any where, or meeting with any* land till he
came upon the coafl of California in 38 degrees and a
half (^t' latitude. r>om this place he ran fouth-cafl:, and
fouth-eali and by fouth to cape S. Eucas, which is five

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