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hundred leagues from the north cape called Mendocino,
whence he continued his voyage fucccfsfully back to the
port of Acapulco. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 442. This
Yoyage is inferted bccaufe it is the Hrn. from New-Spain
to China, and the firftthat found the way of returning to
New Spain by the north-ward ; for want oi which know-
ledge, man}- Ihips that attempted to return from the Mo-


The Hiftory of Navigation 467

luccos to America, were flill beaten back, there being
no pofTibility of returning the way they go, which is
near the line, where the caflerly winds continually

An. 1583. On the eleventh of June fir Humphrey
Gilbert failed from the weft of England with five velTels,
and in them two hundred and fixty men, defigning to
plant a colony in feme part of north America. On
the thirteenth the biggeft fhip ftole away by night, and
returned to Plymouth, there being a contagious diftem-
per among the men. July the thirtieth he came upon
the back of Newfoundland, which is about fifty leagues
from the coaft, and has at leafl twenty five or thirty
fathom water, and about ten leagues over, lying like
a long ridge of mountains in the fea, for on each fide
of it there are above two hundred fathom water. He
came upon the coaft, and running along it put into
S. John's harbour, where he anchored among abundance
of fifliermen of feveral countries, who w^re there before.
Here he went afliore and took pofTeflion. One of his
fhips had before played the pirate at fea, robbing a
french vefTel, and here his men run away with a Ihip
laden with fifh, and others hid themfelves ; fo that
finding too few men for his fhips, fome being fick, he
put them into one of his velTels, and fent it home, re-
maining^ now with only three. Ausiuft the tv/entieth
he failed from port S. John, and the next day canie up
with cape Raz in 46 degrees 25 minutes latitude.
Turning from hence to the weftward towards cape
Breton, eighty feven leagues diltant, they fpcnt eight
days in the pafTage ; and coming among the fiats, the
biggeft ftiip of the three was caft away, and nothing
faved except a few men in the boat. Sir Humphrey Gil-
bert was not aboard the ftiip caft away : the other two
left refolved to return home, but by the way the fmall
vellel fir Humphrey was in perifhed, the otlicr arrived
fafe at Dartmouth. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 143.

An. 1584. Mr. Philip Amadas and Mr. Arthur Bar-
low failed on the twenty feventh of april from the we(^
of England in two barks, to difcover in America. On
the tenth of June they came among the iflands of Ame-
rica, much more to the fouthward than they had de-
ll 1? 2 iigncd

^^g The Hijlory of Navigation.

figned. July the fourth they difcovered the continent,
and failed along the coaft four leagues till they came
. to a river on the thirteenth, where they anchored, and
going alhore took polfeflion. This place they after-
wards found to be the illand of Wokoken, on the
coaft of Virginia, in 34 degrees of latitude, and in it
deer, rabbits, hares, fowl, vines, cedars, pines, falia-
fras, cyprefs and niaflich trees. The natives from the
continent repaired to the Ihips, and exchanged fevcral
forts of Ikins, white coral, and fome pearls, for tin
things, and other trifles. The country is fruitful, pro-
ducing all things in a very Ihort time. The natives
called it Wingandacao, and the cnglidi Virginia. Going
afliore they were entertained with extraordinary civility
at a little village, and heard news of a great city up
the country, but law it not. They made no long ftay
here, nor proceeded any further upon difcovery, only
juft to the neighbouring parts in their boats, and re-
turned to England in fcptcnibcr, bringing two of the
natives with them. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 246.

An. 1535. On the ninth of april fir Richard Greenvil
departed from Plymouth with fevcn fail; and after
touching at the iflands of Puerto Rico, and Hifpaniola,
on the twenty lixth of June came to an anchor at the
ifland Wokoken in Virginia, where the admiral's fnip
was loft through the ignorance of the pilot. Here Mr.
Lane was fet afliorc \Nith above an hundred men to
fettle a colony, with all neceirarics for that purpofc.
Then the adnural returned to England, and the new-
planters made fevcral difcovcries up the country, find-
ing it every where plentiful aiul pleafimt. Here they
continued a year, at the end w hereof the natives con-
fpiring to d'eilroy them, and no relief as yet coming
from England, rhey returned home on board iir Francis
Drake's Ihip.s, which happened to touch there after his
expedition to the fpanilli plantations. Hackluyt, vol.
III. p. 251. Purch. vol. IV. p. jr)45.

The fame year 15S5, on the feventh of junc, Mr.
John Davis failed Worn Dartmouth with two barks for
the difcovery of the north-well: pnllage to China. Jul/
the nineteenth they met with much ice, and on the
twenty ninth difcovered land bearing north-call of them


The Hiftory of i\avigairon, 469

in' 64 degrees 15 minutes latitude. Here they went
afhore, and found a tractable fort of people, with whom
they dealt for feal fkins, and feveral lorts of leather.
Augufl: the firft they proceeded on their difcovery to
the north-weft, and on the fixth came into 66 degrees
and 40 minutes free from ice, and landed under a hill
which they called mount Raleigh, where they favv no
inhabitants, but many white bears. The eighth they
coafted on, and the eleventh found themfelves in a paf-
fage twenty leagues wide, and free from ice, along
which they failed lixty leagues ; and fcarching all about
found many iOands and feveral harbours, with all ap-
pearances of a further palfage, yet the winds proving
contrary to proceed, they returned for England, and
arrived at Dartmouth on the thirtieth of feptember.
Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 98.

An. 1 5 86. Mr. Davis failed the fecond time on the
feventh of may with one fliip, two barks, and a fmall
pinnace, upon the fame difcovery. The fifteenth of
June he difcovered land in the latitude of 60 degrees,
but could not come near it for ice, till the twenty ninth
he came to land in 64 degrees latitude, and went
afhore on an illand, where he traded very friendly with
the natives for feals, ftags, and white hares llsios, and
dried fifh and fomc fowl. Here he continued fomc
days trading with the natives who were very thievifh ;
at his departure he brought away one of them with
him. He run into 66 degrees 20 minutes latitude, and
then coafted fouthward again to 56 degrees, where in
a good harbour he continued till feptember; and failing
thence in 54 degrees found an open fea tending weft-
ward, which they hoped might be the paftage fo long
fought for ; but the weather proving tempeftupus, they
returned to England in October. Hackluyt, vol. III.
p. 103.

The fame year 1586, fir Richard Grccnvii returned
to Virginia with three fnips to relieve the colo .y left
by him there; which being gone, as was faid I efore,
he left lifteen men on the ifland Rcanoak with provi-
fions for two years, and then returned to England.
Hackluyt, vcl. 111. p. 265.

H h 7 This

^^i5 The H(/}ory of Na'Vigathns

This year alfo was begun the voyage round the
world by lir Thomas Candilh, which may be feen
among the voyages about the globe after thcfe Weft-
India difcoveries.

An. 1587. Mr. John Davis on the nineteenth of
may failed with three fmall vcfTcls, upon his third
voyage for his difcove -v of a paflage to the north-weft.
June the eighteenth tho/ canie to an anchor on the
northern American coaft, and the twentieth were in 67
degrees 40 minutes latitude in an open fea ; and then
ftcering weftward ran forty leagues, where meeting \\ ith
much ice, and the north wind driving them from their
intended northerly courfe, they were forced to feek
the open fea again. The twentieth they had fight of
the ftrait they difcovered the year before, and failed
up it 60 leagues ; and having landed without finding
any thing more than the year before, came out again
to the wide fea : then they coafted along to the fouth-
ivard as far as 52 degrees of latitude, whence they re-
turned home, without doing any thing of note. Hack-
luyt, vol. III. p. III.

The fame year 1587, fir Walter Raleigh provided
three veflcls to carry over to Virginia a hundred and
•fifty men to fettle a colony there under the command
of John White. They failed from Plymouth on the
eighth of may, and having fpent feveral days among
the fpaniih american iflands, arrived at laft on the
twenty fecond of July at Hatoralk in Virginia ; whence
crolling over to the ifland Roanoak, they found the fif-
teen englifn left there the year before were killed by the
natives. Here the new planters were fet afhore with
all their provifions, goods, and ammunition, and the
fliips returned into England, carrying with them the
governor to foil ic it for fpcedy fupplies to be ftnt to the
new colony. Hackluyt, vol. III. p. 280.

An. i5<yO. John U'hite returned to Virginia to the
place where he had lei'r the colon v, but found none oi
the men; only an infription on a tree, lignifying they
were removed to Croatoan, another iiland on the coaft,
and many chcQs broke up, and fomc lumber belonging
to them, fcat:cred about the place. In going afhore


ne Hijlory ef Navigation, 47 j

here a boat was overfet, and a captain with fix men
drowned ; the reft with much difficulty got aboard
again, leaving behind them feveral calks they had car-
ried to fill with frefli water. They had fpcnt much
time before they came hither, ranging about the fpanifh
iflands ; and the feafon being now ftormy, they were
forced to return to England, without fo much as know-
ing what Avas become of the colony. Hackluyt, vol.
in. p. 288.

An. 1602. Captain Gofnols failed from Falmouth on
the twenty fixth of march, and on the fourteenth of
april difcovered land in about 40 degrees of north lati-
tude ; and having fpent fome days founding along the
coaft, on the twenty fourth came upon Elizabeth's
ifland, in 41 degrees 10 minutes, and four leagues from
the continent. This ifland was not inhabited, but
over-grown with trees and fnrubs of all forrs, and in
it a pool of frefh water, about two miles in compafs,
one fide of it not above thirty yards from the fea, and
in the midft of it a fmall rocky illand about an acre
in extent, all covered with wood, where the captain
defigned to build a fort, and leave fome men. The
thirty firft he went over to take a view of the continent,
which he found a mofl delicious and fruitful country,
and the natives peaceable and friendly. Having taken
this fmall view of the country, and the men refufmg to
be left on that defart place, he returned for England.
Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1651.

An. 160J. Captain Samuel Champlain of Brouage,
failed from the port of Honfleur in Normandy on the fifth
of march for Canada. The fecond of may thcv came
upon the bank of Newfoundland in 44 degrees 20 mi-
nutes of latitude. The twelfth they came upon cape
•S. Mary, and the twentieth to the illand of the Af-
fumption, at the mouth of the river of Canada. He
run up it a hundred leagues to the little port of Ta-
doulfac on the north fide of Canada, and at the mouth
of Saguenay river, where they contradled i\ntl friend-
fhip with the natives. He ran twelve leagues up the
river Sanguenay, all which way is a mountainous
"country, and the river deep and wide. Next they run
up the great river of Canacia as far a^ that of the Iro-

II h 4 ■ quois.

4*72 ^y^-^^* Hijlory of Navigation.

quois, and ihencc to the firft great fall of the river, which
tumbles down there about two fathom uith an incredi-
ble fury; and the indians told them there were ten
more falls, though not fo great, beyond the firlh
After difcovering thus much, and getting information
of fevcral great lakes up the country, and of a hound-
lefs ocean at four hundred leagues diilan^e welfward,
they returned to Tadouflac, and fpending fome days
more in fearching the great and kjUr rivers, and get-
ting intelli^a-nce of the country, they failed back into
France. Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1605.

The fame year 1603. Two velTels of Briftol, and one
of London, made their voyages to Virginia, in which
there was nothing remarkable, except that the laft of
them run up into Chefapeac bay in about 37 degrees of
latitude, where the captain going afliore, was killed
with four men ; upon which the red: prefently returned
home. Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1654, and 1656.

An. 1604. Monlieur de Monts having obtained a
patent from Henry IV. king of France for peopling
the countries of Acadie and Canada, he failed tor thofe
parts with two fhips well manned, and nionfieur dc
Potrincourt with him. They were kept long at fea by
contrary winds, and met with much ice; but on the
fixth of may they put into a port in the fouth of
Acadie, which they called RofTignoI, becaufe there they
took a french fliip, commanded by a captain of that
name, being confifcate for trading there contrary to
the king's patent. Then doubling cape Sable, the
fouthermoft of that country, they ran up to the north-
ward in a large bay to that of S. Mary, and thence to
a convenient harbour, which they called Port Royal ;
which monfieur de Potrincourt demanded a grant of,
to fettle 4 colony and inhabit there, and had it given
him. They proceeded Hill further up to cape Mines,
fo called becaufe of fome found there, and into the
river of S. John ; and then turning bac k, erected a
fort in a fmall illand twenty leagues from tlic faid river,
refolving to fettle there, and taUing it the illand of
Sante Croix, or the Holy Crofs. It is fmall but \trY
fruitful^ anc^ lies as it were among many others. Here


ne Hijlory of Navif^<:ttio}u 473

winter coming on, and the fort being ill feated as cx-
pofed to the north, the men fuffcred very much through
extremity of cold and deep fnovvs ; and being forced to
crofs a great nver for water and wood, many of them
were dangcroully iick. This hard fcafon being over,
iponfieur de Monts fearched all the coad in a fmall
Yellel he built to difcover a more convenient place to
fettle, and at laft pitched upon Port Royal, where
he left part of his men, and returned himfelf to France.
Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1620.

An. 1605. and on the laft day of march, captain
George VVeymouth with one fliip failed from the Downs,
and on the eighteenth of may came to an anchor in S.
George's ifland on the coaft cf Virginia, where he
found great plenty of fifli ; and two days after removed
into an excellent port, which he called Pentecoft har-
bour. Then he run up a great river twenty fix miles,
and found it lit to receive and fecure any number of
fliips. The natives of this coaft traded in a friendly
manner for feveral days, but were found at laft to be
treacherous, as only contriving by their fair fliow of
kindnefs to draw the englifli into their power; who
being aware of them in time broive otf the corrcfpond-
ence, and returned into England without making any
confiderable advantage of this fmall difcovery. Purchas,
vol. IV. p. 1659.

An. 1606. Monfieur de Monts and monficur dc Po-
trincourt fiilcd again from Rochel with one Ihip of aa
hundred and fifty tun. The twenty eighth of June they
came upon the bank of Newfoundland, and making
the iliore, coalted all along to Port Royal, where they had
before left their colony, and anchored at the mouth of
the harbour on the twenty fixth of July. Here they found
but two frenchmen, the reft being gone with their
fmall vefiel towards Newfoun^lland ; but foon returned,
being met by a pinnace belonging to this laft come
ihip, left to coaft along clofe by the ihore. Here they
fettled a-nevv, viewed all the country about for a more
convenient feat for their town, were moft obligingly
treated by the natives, and planted, and had crops of
all forts of curopcan grain and garden-ftuft*: yet after


474 ^-^^ Hiftory of Navigation,

all, the colony was forfakcn, not for any defect in the
country, as may appear by what has been faid ; but
becaufe new meafures were taken in France, and the
fupplies that fhould have been fent them were employed
another way. Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1627.

The fame year 1606, on the twentieth of december,
three fhips failed from London, commanded by captain
Newport, to fettle a colony in Virginia ; and paiTmg
among the fpanifli american iflands, on the twenty
fixth of april came into the bay of Chefapeac, where
they prefently landed, and had fome men hurt in fkir-
milh with the natives. The twenty feventh they
marched ci^ht miles up the country, and the twenty
eighth went up the bay in their boats, where they
always found fliallow water; but returning, they fell into
a channel fix, eight, and ten fathom deep, which was
a fatisfacttion, and therefore they called the point of
land next it cape Comfort. The point at the mouth
of the bay they called cape Henry. The following
days they furveyed all the fhores in their boats, being
civilly treated every where by the Indians ; and run-
ning up Powhatan river, found a place where their
fhips could lie moored to the trees in fix fathom water.
Here on the fourteenth of may they landed all their
men, and fell to work to fortify themfelves, refolving
to fettle their colony, as they did, giving it the name
of James Town ; which is the firfl plantation of the
cnglilli in Virginia that continued, as it does to this
day. June the twenty fecond captain Newf>ort in the
admiral was fent back into England. In the colony
were left an hundred and four men with little provifion,
and therefore they were foon reduced to great extremis
ties ; many alfo dying of difeafes peculiar to that
country. But in their greatell diftrefs, the natives,
who before had been their enemies, fupplied them with
plenty of all forts of victuals, which recovered the fick
men, and was the fivin'i; of the colony. Every year
after fliips arrived from England w ith fupplies, till the
new town grew to a confiderable body, and fent out
other colonics to the parts adjacent, w here they were
thought nccellarvj till rlv*} made themfclYcs mafters of


ne Hijlory of Navigation, 475

that northern part of America. The relation is too
long any more than to be hinted as above, but to be
leen at large in Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1705.

An. 16 10. Mr. Hudfon again undertook the difco-
very of a north- weft palTage, which had been laid afide
for fome years, and proceeded an hundred leagues fur-
ther than any before him had done, giving names to
fome places, to be fecn in the maps ; as Defire pro-
vokes, Ifle of God's Mercies, Prince Henry's Cape,
King James's Cape, and Queen Anne's Cape : but he
could proceed no farther for ice.

An. 161 1. Sir Thomas Button, at the inftigation of
prince Henry, whofe fervant he was, purfued the north-
weft difcovery. He pa fled Hudfon's ftrait, and leaving
Hudfon's bay to the fouth, failed above two hundred
leagues to the fouth-weftward, through a fea above
eighty fathom deep, and difcovercd a great continent
called by him New-Wales ; where after much mifery
and ficknefs, wintering at port Nclfon, he carefully
fearched all the bay, from him called Button's bay,
back again almoft to Digg's iOand. He difcovered the
great land called Cary's Swanfneft. He loft many men
during his ftay in the river called Port Nelfon, in 57
degrees 10 minutes of north latitude ; though he kept
three fires in his Ihip all winter, and had great ftore
of white partridges, and other fowl, befidcs deer, bears
and foxes.

An. 161 2. Mr. Richard Moore was fent in april with
one fhip and ftxty men to inhabit the Summer illands,
otherwife called Bermudas, long before difcovered by
the fpaniards, who after fome attempts to fettle there,
abandoned them ; and were after accidentally found by
fir Thomas Gate and fir George Summers, who were
fhipwrecked upon them, and lived there nine months,
during which time they built a ftiip and a pinnace v» ith
. the cedar growing there, and in 1610 failed away tor
Virginia, leaving only two men in the great ifland. A
fhip fent thither from Viginia left only three men in
the ifland, who found there amber-greece to the value
of nine or ten thoufand pounds. Mr. Moore at his
coming this year found thofe three men in perfect


^-76 The Hifiory of Navigation.

health. He fettled a colony, and continued there three
years, being relieved from time to time, till they
amounted to above fix hundred inhabitants, who built
fcveral forts, but had like to have been themfelves
dcrtroyed by an iiilinitc number of rats, which in-
creafed from a few coming afnorc out of a (liip, and
continued for four years devouring all the growth of
the country, notw ithltanding all jxjfiible means were
ufed to dellroy them.

An. 161 2. James Hall and William Bafhn returned
into England, having difcovercd Cockin's found in 65
degrees 2 minutes latitude, and tried the mine at
Cunningham's River, which they found to be worth

An. 16 1 5. Mr. Baffin went again, and the chief thing
he difcovered was, that there is no pafTage in the north
of Davis's Strait.

An. 16 1 6. Mr. Baffin was fent the third time, and
entered fir Thomas Smith's bay in 78 degrees of lati-
tude ; and returned, defpairing of finding any paflage
that way.

An. 1620. A fliip failed from Plymouth for New
England on the fixth of feptember ; though we have
not the commander's name, nor what force his fliip was
of. It is alfo here to be obferved, that all the north-
ern coaft from about 60 to 40 degrees of north latitude,
was hrft difcovered by Sebaliian Cabot, and afterwards at
fcveral times by Cortereal a portuguefe, as has been fet
dov n in their proper places, and by fundry engliili and
frcnch difcovcrers ; to particularize every one of whofe
voyages would fuell a volume, arid therefore only the
principal difcovcries and plantations are here fet dow n,
as molt fuitable to the nature of this difcourfc, and
the intended brevity. This fliip \\c now fpeak o\, an-
chored in the bay of cape Cod in New England, and
in J. I degrees and a half of north latitude on the ele-
venth of novcmber. Here thcv put out their boat, and
]an(kxl men, ^vh() went ibme miles into the coui)try
feveral ways without meeting any people, and only
found fome little Indian wheat buried, the boat coafl-
ing along the fliorc. This they continued for feverul


ne Hijiory of Navigation. 477

Jays, feeking out fome proper place to fettle. At
length on the twenty third of decembcr, they pitched
upon a place to their mind, and fell to work to build-
ing their houfes, dividing themfelves into nineteen fa-
milies, that the fewer houfes might ferve. About this
place they found no people, but were told by an Indian,
who came to them from the next part inhabited, that the
natives there had all died lately of a plague. This favage
brought fome of the neighbouring people to them, by
whom they were conducted to their king, a very poor
one, with whom they concluded peace and amity. The
following year this new colony was reinforced with
thirty live men from England, and fupplied with pro-
vilions and necelfaries, and called New Plymouth in
New England. A war foon breaking out with another
Indian prince, the engliili fortified their colony to fe-
cure themfelves againft all attempts of their enemies.
From hence all other colonies were by degrees font
into other parts of the country ; of which it were too
tedious to give any further account. Purchas, vol. IV,
p. 1842.

An. 163 1. Captain James failing into the north- well,
was much peftered with ice in June and jul\ 3 and en-
tering a great bay near port Nelfcn, he named the land
New South-Wales. Roving up and down thcfc feas,
he gave names to thcfe places difcovered by him, viz.
cape Henrietta Maria, Lord Wefton's Ifiand, Earl of
Briftol's lOand, Sir Thomas Roe's liland. Earl of
t)anby's Ifiand, and Charlton liland. He wintered
there in 52 degrees 3 minutes latitude, and returned
home the following yeiir 1632, having difcovered much
beyond Hudfon, Button, and Baifui. 1 he danes have
attempted to difcovcr in thcfe northern parts, but there
is nothing remarkable in tlieir adlions.

An. 1667. Zachariah Gillam in the Nonfuch ketch
palTed through Hudfon's Strait, and then into Baffin's
bay to 75 degrees of latitude, and tr.ence foutherly into
Ji degrees; where in a river called Prince Rupert's
River, he had a friendly correfponJcncc with the na-
tives, built a fort, which he called Charles Fort, and
returned with fuccefs ; having laid the foundation of an
advantageous trade in tlicfe ^arrs.


^'jS The Hijlory of Navigation,

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