John Locke.

The works of John Locke (Volume 9) online

. (page 41 of 51)
Online LibraryJohn LockeThe works of John Locke (Volume 9) → online text (page 41 of 51)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


An. 1669. Captain John Narbrough, afterwards fir
John Narbrough, failed in the S\vecpl\akes, a man of
war of three hundred tun, thirty fix guns, and eighty
men and boys, with a pink of fevcnty tun and nineteen
men, both fet out at the charge of his majefty king
Charles II. and his royal highncfs the duke of York,
to make a farther difcovcry on the coafl of Chile. On
the twenty firfi: of odlobcr the year following, he came
to the mouth of the llraits of Magellan, and through
them to the South-fca, about the middle of no-
vember ; having taken a moft cxadt furvey of that paf-
fage, which is made public in his voyage. On the
twenty fixth of november he went afiiorc on the fmall
ifiand called Neufira Senora del Socorro, or Our Lady
of Succour ; where he watered, but found no people.
Holding on his rourfe to the noi-thward, on the fif-
teenth of december he fcnt his boat, with the lieutenant
in her, afhore on the fouth fide of port Baldivia, which
is in 39 degrees 56 minutes of fouth latitude. Here
the lieutenant and three others going afhore to a fpanifli
fort, were detained, and the fifip failed away without
them. From hence captain Narbrough turned again
to the fouthward, and through the ftrait of Magellan
returned into England; where he arrived in June fol-
lowing, having been out above two years.

An. 1673. On the thirteenth of may F. Marquette a
jefuit, with only ^\^ other frenchmen, fet out in two
canoes from the Lac des Puans, or the Stinking Lake,
in the province of Canada in North America; and paf-
ling through the provinces of Folic Avoine and Ili-
quois, indians in peace with France, fometimes carry-
ing their boats by land, and fometimes being carried
in them, they came at length to the great river Mif-
fiflipi. They ran many leagues along this river through
a defart country, their courfe always fouth, though
fometimes bending eafi, and fometimes wefi. At the
end of fevcral days folitude, they came among favagc
Indians, were friendly received, and heard that the fea
was within two or three days fail of them ; which was
the gulph of Mexico. Thus he difcovered all that in-
land "part of North- America alor.^- the river, from 3S

to



^he Hijlory of Navigation, 4 7^

to 34 degrees of north latitude, lying on the back of
Canada, Virginia, &c. down to Florida. The parti-
culars of this voyage may be fecn in Thevenot's fmall
coUedlion of voyages in odavo.

An. 1680, and 1681. Captain Sharp having been
buccaneering in the South-fea, and not able to recover
the ftrait of Magellan to return home, he ran further
to the fouth beyond le Maire*s and Brovver's, till he
came into 60 degrees of fouth latitude ; meeting with
many iOands of ice, and abundance of fnow, froft, and
whales, and called a fmall place he found the Duke of
York's illand. Thus he came into the north fea a new
way, and made it appear that the land in the ftraits of
le Maire and Brower mufl be iflands, and not joined to
any continent. Introduction to the account of feveral
late difcovcries printed in 1694. p. 13.

Here we may conclude with the american voyages
and difcoveries, having run along from north to fouth
on the eafb fide of that new v/orld, or along that com-
monly called the north fea ; and back from fouth to
north along the weft fide, or South-fca. It follows
next, as was done after the eaftern difcoveries, to fiiow
the extent of this vaft tradl of land thus found, and
what benctits the world has received by this navigation.
The whole length of what has been difcovercd, is from
78 degrees of north latitude, in which fir Thomas
Smith's bay lies, to 60 degrees of fouth latitude, in
all a hundred and thirty eight degrees ; which, al-
lowing twenty leagues to a degree, in a ftrait line
amounts to two thoufand fcven hundred and fixty
leagues, a thing almoft incredible, were it not fo well
known, and ftupendous that fo great a part of the
world fhould lie concealed fo many ages ; bcinp- never
known fmce the creation, till about three hundred years
ago. Now to defcend to particulars ; from 80 to al-
moft 50 degrees of north latitude being i^o degrees,
and according to the rate above of twenty leagues to
a degree, fix hundred leagues ; the extremity of the
cold, which is there more fierce than in the parts of
Europe under the like elevation, renders that pare
little regarded, and confequently not inhabited by any
europeau nation, though much of it be peopled by fa-



vagcs.



^So 'The Hijlory of NaiJigatiolt.

vagcs» living there little better than brutes : and aH
the advantage made of thofe northern nations is the
fifliery of whales and morfes ; the former for their oil
and bone, and the latter for their teeth, which arc
finer than ivory. The next divilion beginning above
50 degrees of north latitude, and reaching to about 44,
is Canada or New-France ; running up the river of
Canada above two hundred leagues into the continent,
and poflelTcd by the french, who have there feveral co-
lonies, and trade with the natives for furs. Next to
Canada is New England, lying along the fea-coafl north-
eaft, and fouth-wefl about 70 miles, fubjcct to the
crown of England, and their chief trade furs, Hax, hemp,
and fome corn. After it follows New-York, the trade
much the fam.c with thofe fpoken of. Then comes
Penfylvania, Virginia, and Maryland, almoft north
and fouth for above a hundred leagues of englilli con-
quelt, and the principal commodity tobacco. Carolina
is next in courfe, being a part of the great province
of Florida, lying bet\\een 29 and ;^6 degrees of latitude,
and therefore about a hundred and forty leagues in
length ; It has been pofTelled by the englilh but of later
years, in the reign of king Charles II. from w horn it
took the name ; and being ^o lately fubdued, the re-
turns of it arc not yet great, but much is hoped from it.
Florida is a vail part of the continent, reaching above
two hundred and fifty leagues from north to fouth, and
above four hundred from ealt to weft, belides a large
province of it fli'^oting out into the fea, where begins
the channel of Bihama : part of it is fubjeci: to the
fpaniards, and a greater part not yet conquered ; fo
that it affords no great profit. But now follows the
great and wealthy kingdom of Mexico, running above
a hundred and thirry leagues almoll north and fouth,
and about the fame length upon a turn it makes in the
fouch part towards the call, including the great penin-
fuia oi Yucatan, above three hundred leagues in com-
pafs. In this vaft coi^.iinion, entirely fuhject to Spain,
is to be lound in great plenty all that is necelFary and
convenient for human life, except wine and oil ; and
from it Europe is fupplitd with great ilcre of lilver,
5 cochineal.



^he Hijlory of Navigation. 481

cochineal, indigo, cacao, bairullas, cotton, mcchoacan,
and many other precious commodities. Whence to
Porto Bello the coafl runs partly near eaft and wefb,
and partly ahiioft north and fouth, above three hundred
and lifcy leagues of countries incredibly rich, and afford-
ing ail the commodities abovementioned, more plenty
of gold, and many other pi*ecious things. From Nom-
bre de Dios to Cabo de Galera, taking it in a llraight
line, the coafl runs eaft and weft about four hundred
and fifty leagues, all ftill fpanifli, and abounding in
wealth ; particularly the pearl-fifliery on the coaft of
Paria, and the rich emeralds up the inland. From
cape Galera to Cabo de Conde, along the coaii of
Caribana, lying fouth-eafl: and north-weft about two
hundred and fifty leagues, and thence to Caparare more
foutherly about a hundred and twenty leagues, in all
three hundred and feventy ; all this for the moft part
unconquered, and peopled by favage indians. From cape
Caparare to Cabo do Natal about four hundred leagues
eaft and weft, fomewhat foutherly, and from Cabo do
Natal to Rio de Janeiro almoft north and fouth near four
hundred leagues, and fo to Lagoa de Pcrnaba a hundred
and fifty leagues, in all nine hundred leagues ; all this
trad of land, commonly known by the name of Brafil,
and fubjecl to the crown of Portugal, yielding abun-
dance of tobacco and fugar, infinite quantities of brafil
wood, which gives the name to the country, and of
late years a gold mine found in it, which yields confi-
'derable treafure. From Lagoa de Pernaba to the river
of Plate, about three hundred leagues fouth-weft and
north-eaft, under the dominion of Spain, From the
mouth of the river of Plate, running up the continent
on the back of Brafil, the fpanifii dominions reach
quite acrofs to Peru, being at leaft four hundred
leagues, and above as much north and fouth in the in-
land; being fruitful countries, almoft overrun with
flocks and herds of all forts of catile, whence they
fend abundance of hides to Spain, and much filver,
which they have from Peru by way of trade. From
the mouth of the river of Plate, to the entrance into
the ftrait of Magellan, fouth-weft and north-eaft four
hundred leagues; all this counrrv is inhabited only by
Vol. IX. 1 1 ' favage



4S2 The Hijlory of Naz-i^atio7j.

favage indians, and was never ful^cuKcl bv any ciiroptan
nation : therefore yielding no profit, though fniiiii:!
and good land. Terra del Fuogo, or terra Magtllimica
lying to the fouth of the llrait, is little known, and not
worth conquering by rcafon of its coldntfs, and there-
fore no more needs be faid of it. The ftrait of Ma-
gellan is about a hundred lengiies in length, and corrrmg
ont of it into the South-fea, from cape \ icloria to Rio
dc los Gallcgos, about two hundred leagues; all 11 ill
the country of the patagones, never inhabited by
chriflians, nor yielding them any benefit. But here
begins the coaft of Chile, extending above three hun-
dred leagues; a country infinitely rich in gold, fcr
^^hich the lilver is ncglce'led, though it has plenty of
it, and yielding the mofi: precious natural bcdfam in
the world ; all fubjedt to Spain, as is the whole coaft
on the South-fea up to 40 degrees of north latitude,
for which rcafon it \\'\\\ be needleis to repeat it. Peru
reaches four hundred leagi_ies north-wefl and fouth- eafb,
well known for its inexhauflible lilver mines of Potofi
and Porco. Next is the province of Quito, about .an
hundred leagues along the coafl north and fouth.
'J'hen the firm land, or continent [\^ called peculiarly,
tmd provinces of Pan-jma and Vcragua, above an hun-
dred leagues north-cafi: and fouth-wefl", and north-well

■ and fouth-ead. After this follows the government of
Guatemala, near three hundred and fifty leagues along
the coal> north-w cfl and fouth-caft ; and then that of

■ Mexico two hundred and fifty leagues, abounding in
gold, filver, all ufeful woods, rich drugs, cotton, and
iiiany other precious commodities. Lalily, New-Mex-
ico reaching up to 40 degrees of north latitude, being
about four hundred leagues ; a rich country in lilver
mines, and plentiful in cattle, corn, and all otiier blcf-
fmgs for human life. Maving run along both fides of
America, and given a particular of each divifion, as
to extent, product, and by whom pofTelled, as far as the
brevitv of this difcourfc would permit ; it is fit to note
that ail the lengths are here taken in a llraight line, and
nof wmdmg with the fnores, which would make them

'double what is computed; and, as in fuch va(l extents,
not pretended to be ineafured to cxactncfs, but accord-
ing



ne liijlory of Navigation. 483

ing to Lhe general computation of Tailors. The total
thus amounts to fix thoufand five hundred leagues,
taking only the greatefl windings of the coaff, and
this along what is conquered by europeans ; excepting
only the {z^aw hundred leagues of the land of the Pa-
tagones about thc'ftrait of Magellan, and two hundred
and {\{vj or thereabouts, Qi Caribana, not fo well fub-
dued. And to fuin up the commodities we have from
thefe countries; the principal are gold, fil'/cr, pearls,
emeralds, amethiils, cochineal of feveral forts, indigo,
anatro, logwood, brafil, Nicaragua wood, braliletie,
fufbic, lignum vitre, fugar, ginger, cacao, bairullas,
cotton, red wool, tobacco of various forts, fnuff, hides
raw and tanned, amber-grecce of all forts, bczoar,
balfam of Tolu, of Peru, and of Chile, jefuit's bark,
jalap, niechoacan, farfaparilla, faflafras, tamarinds,
cafTia, and many other things of lefTer note. It only
remains now to add a word concerning the illinds be-
longing to this mighty continent. The firft of thefe
beginning northerly, is Newfoundland, above three-
hundred leagues in compifs, peopled by french and
englifh, who have fome coloaies in it fruitful enough,
were it well cultivated ; yet it yields no commodity to
export from the land : but the fca is an inexhaufted
treafure, furnifliing all Europe with fait and dried fifh;
which yield a mighty profit to thofe that follow the
fifhery, and is a general benefit to all men. The next
are the Bermudas, or Summer-illands, lying above
three hundred leagues eafl: from the coall: of Virginia ;
the biggell of them is not twenty miles long, and
not above two or three in breadth, the others much
fmaller: yet here is a llrong colony of englifh, the
land being delightful to live in, producing all things
for human life plentifully, and the trade is fome co-
chineal, ambergrecce and pearl : it ufed to fend abroad
the fairefl oranges in thefe parts, but they have failed
of late years. OlT the coafl: of Florida are the iflands
called Lucayos, the firfl difcovered by Columbus ; but
they are fmall and of no account. South of the point
of Florida is Cuba, above two hundred leagues in
length, and al^out forty in breadth in the wideft place ;

I i 2 a plea-



4^4 ^^^^ Hiftoiy of Navigation,

a plcafant place, has gold and copper mines, and yields
tobacco, luf;ar and cotton. Eaft of Cuba lies Hifpani-
ola an hundred and fifty leagues in length, and about
fixty in breadth, producing the fame commodities as
Cuba ; and both fubjcdt to Spain. Jamaica lies fouth
of Cuba, about feventy leagues in length, and twenty
in breadth, poflcfled by the englifl., and producing
fugar, indigo and cotton. The illand of Puerto Rico
is lefs than Jamaica, yields the fame commodities, and
belongs to Spain. The Caribbc iflands are many, but
fmall ; fome of them poifeired by the cnglilh, french
and dutch, others not inhabited : they produce fugar,
indigo, cotton and tobacco, and run from the coall of
Paria to Puerto Rico. The Lceward-iflands lie along
the coaft of Paria, the moft remarkable of them being
Margarita, and Cubagua, famous for the pearl fifliery.
La Trinidad is a large illand before the gulj^h of Paria,
near which there are many fmall ones, but not conli-
derablc. All the coafl fouth ward has no illand of any
note, till we come to the llrait of Magellan, the fouth
part whereof is made by Terra del Fuego and other
iflands, of which little is known. Nor is there any
afccnding again northward worth fpeaking of, till the
mouth of the bay of Panama, where are the iflands of
Pearls, fo called from a pearl-lifliery there; they arc
fmall, and of no coniideration in any other refpect.
The only great iOand on this lidc America is Califor-
nia, found to be fo but o'l late years, running from the
tropic of cancer to 45 degrees of north latitude, north-
well and fouth-eaih above five hundred leagues in
length, and an hundred in breadth in the northern
part, whence it runs tapeii ng dow n to the fouth. It has
hitherto yielded no great profit to the fpaniards, who
have not had leifure to Iniild colonies there till within
thefe very few years, and not above two as y:t. This
is all that belongs to America ; it remains to add fome
few voyages to the illcs of Solomon, Terra Aullralis
incognita, and the land of YelFo, or Jedfo ; which
being properly no part of the Mall or Well-Indies, and
but little of them as yet known, they have been rcferved
to be fpoke of by themfclves.

An.



^he Hijlory of Navigation. 48-5

An. 1595. Alvaro dc Mcndana with the title of go-
vernor and lord-lieutcnant, fct out from Peru for the
iflands of Solomon, whereof fomc uncertain knowledge
was had before by lliips that accidentally had 'incn fome
of them: he had four fail, with men and women, and
all other nccelFaries to fettle a colony. In about 9 or
TO degrees of fouth latitude, and fifteen hundred
leagues weft of the city of Lima in Peru, he difcovcred
four fmall i (lands inhabited by very handfome and
civilized people. Hence holding on his courfe ftill
weltward, he found fevcral other more confiderablc
iflands, where he intended to have fettled his colony,
but was hindered by many misforturies, and among the
rell: ficknefs. All that is extant of this relation, is
only a fragment in fpanilh taken out of Thevcnot's
fccond volume ; which being inferted in this collection,
it will be needlefs to add any more in this place, only
that three of the lliips perillied ; two were never heard
of, a third call: away on the Philippine iflands, the
men faved ; and the fourth, being the admiral, arrived
at Manila, with the men almoft llarved : and thus this
enterprife was difappointed.

An. 1600. Four Ihips failing from Peru for the Phi-
lippine iflands, were by northerly winds driven fouth
of the equinodlial, where they fell upon feveral rich
countries and iflands, not far from the ifles of Solo-
mon : they called one place Monte de Plata, or Moun-
tain of Silver, bccaufe they found plenty of it there.
After which a captain of note went out on purpofe,
and faw thefe difcoverics. This is all we have of it
in Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1432 ; only he adds two petitions
of captain Peter Fernandez de (^iros to the king of
Spain, fuing to be employed in conducing colonies to .
thofe fouthern parts, alleging the vafl: extent and riches
of the continent, and great value of the iflands, which
he fpenks of as an cye-witnefs, and by the report of
natives he brought away from thence, as may be {izzn
more at large in Purchas, vol. IV. p. 1422.

An. 1628. On the twenty eighth of October, the dutch
fet out eleven fail for India, among which was the Ba-
tavia, commanded by captain Francis Pelfart, which

I i 3 being



4^6 ^he Hijlory of Xurigaticn.

bcinp: parted firm the red uas caft away on the roclcj
near feme fniall illands not inhabited, and having no
frefli water, in upwards of 38 degrees of fouth hititude,
but all the people faved on the iflands. This want
oblijred them to ln:Ild a deck to their lon^^; boat and
put out to fea, where they foon difcovered the conti-
nent, bearing north and by wefl about fix miles from
them. This was on the eighth of June,

An. 16:9, '^^^ ^^^ weather being rough, and the
coaR high, they were forced to beat at fea till the four-
teenth, when they found themfelves in 24 degrees of
fouth latitude; and fix men fwimming afhore, faw
four favages quite naked, v. ho fled from them: they
went to feck fredi warer, but finding none, fwam back
to their boar. The fifteenth the boat made into fi^iore,
and found no frefh water, but the remains of the rain
that lay in the hollow of the rocks, which relieved them,
beinf^ almofi: choaked. The fixteenth they went aihorc
again, but found no water, the latitude here 22 degrees;
the twentieth in 19 degrees, the twenty fecond in 16
deforces 10 minutes. Thus Pelfart failed along this
coafi to the northward till he came among the indian
i Hands, and then firuck over to Java, where he met
two dutch fhips, w hich carried hinr^ to Batavia, whence
he returned with a veficl to favc as much as might be
of the wreck. Thcvenor, vol. i.

An. 1642. Abel Janfen Tafman fet fail from Batavia
in the ifland o'i Java with a yacht and a fiybc^-at, and
fentember the fifth anchored at the ifiand Mauritius
in 20 degrees of foulh latitude. The eighth they dc-
]iarted thence ibuth till 40 or 41 degrees, then bore
pv.ay eafl fom.cwhat foutherly, till the fixth of novem-
• bcr they were in ^9 degrees. The twenty fourth in 42
degrees 25 minutes they faw land eafi and by north at
t n ri-jiles difiance, and called it Antony van Dicmen's
fand, and after running along the coafl came to an anchor
rn the firH- of decembcr in a bay they named Frederick
Hendrick's bay: they heard fome noife as of people,
but faw none, and only the footing of wild beafis, and
foHH' fn^.okes. Departing hence, on the thirteenth of
citccmbcr they anchored in the country called in the
' ' ' maps



The IliJIory of Ndvigation. 487

maps New- Zealand ; here they faw fome natives lufty
people, and half naked, who coming aboard on pre-
itintt to tniiiic, fell upon the men in the boat and killed
four of them, for wl-ich reafon it \\as called Murder-
ers Bay. Here they feemcd to be embayed, but on
the fourth of January 16^3, came up with the N. W.
cape of this land, and finding an ifland there, called
it Three Kings Illand ; and going thither to refrefli,
they faw fome large men, but could not underftand
them. Hence they directed their courle nortli-eafl-,
till in 22 degrees 35 minutes they law a fmali illand,
which they could not come at, hut called it Piilftreet's
ifland. Jan. 21 in 21 degrees 20 niinutes they called
two iilands, tlie one Amtferdam, the other Zealand :
on the firfl: they got many hogs, hens, and all forts of
fruit. The inhabitants were friendly, had no weapons,
and feemed to know no evil, but that they would flea).
In the latter of thefe iflands they faw crardens with
f.juare beds and trees regularly planted. Leaving this
place they faw many iflands as they flood north- ward,
and in 17 degrees 19 minutes they run among eighteen
or twenty iflands, which in the charts are called Prince
William's Iflands, or Hemlkirk's Shoals. Direcling
their courfe now N. or N N. W. after much foul
veather, on the twenty fecond of march in 5 degrees 2
minutes fouth latitude they had fight of land four
miles weft of them, being about twenty iilands, called
in the charts Onthong Java, about ninety miles from
the coafl: of New-Guinea. March the twenty fifth in
4 degrees 35 minutes they were up with the iflands of
Mark, found before by William Schouten, and John le
Mair: the natives are favage and have their hair tied
up. March tl^e twenty ninrh they palled by Green-
Ifland, the thirtieth by S. John's Ifland, and april the
ilrfi: in 4 degrees 30 minutes they reached the coafl of
New-Guinea at a cape called by the fpaniards, Santa
Maria, and run along the coafl: to the promontory called
Struis Hook, where the land bends to the fouth and
fouth-eafl, as they did to find a palFage to the fouth,
but were forced to turn to the welf. April the twenty
eighth they came to the burning ifland, where they

I i 4 favN'



488 'I'he Hijlory of Navigation,

faw a great fire come out ot the hill, and failing betwixt
the idand and the main faw many fires. At the iflands
Jama and Moa they got rcfrclhnicnt. May the twelfth in
only 54 minutes oflouth latituue, they failed along the
fide ot William Schouten's idand, uhich feems to be
well inhabited ; and the eighteenth they came to the
ved-cnd of New-Guinea, and on the fifteenth of june
returned to Batavia, bav.ng hnifl^ed the voyage in ten
monLUs. Thevenot, vol. 2.

An. 1643. A dutch fliip failing to the northward of

Japan, came upon a coaft in 39 degrees 45 minutes

latitude. Running up as far as 43 degrees, they faw

fever.il villages near one another, and fay there are

about them many mines of filver. The land in fome

places feemcd to bear no grafs, but the fea was very

full of fifh. Ill 4^ degrees 30 minutes, they went

afliore in a mounti^uious country, fuppofed to be full

of filver mines. In 46 degrees the land refembled the

roafl of England, the foil being good, but the natives do

not till it. In i}8 degrees there are fmall hills covered

with Ihort grafs. In 45 degrees 50 minutes is an ifland

which the dutch call Staten idand, and beyond it the

companies land, another idand : in this they found a

fort of mineral earth, that looked as if it had been all

filver. In 45 degrees they obferved, that though the

land was not cultivated it yielded very good fruit of

feveral forts, the fea-diore was covered with rofe-trees,

and on the rocks many large oyders, but on the land

they faw no bead but one bear. The inhabitants of this

land of Efo or Yedfo, for fo it is called, are all drong let,

thick, with long hair and beards, good features, no Hat

nofes, black eyes, a fallow complexion, and very hairy

about their bodies : the women are not fo black as the

men, fome of them cut their hair, and others tie it up.

They feem to have no religion nor government, every

man has two wives, who fcrve him at home and abroad :



Online LibraryJohn LockeThe works of John Locke (Volume 9) → online text (page 41 of 51)