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having. fpent nine weeks betwixt the ifland of Java and
this place, which is about eighteen hundred league*
dillance. O^ the, ninth of June he anchored at the
ifland of S. Helena,, about live hundred leagues diftant
from the cape of Good I lope, lying betwixt the coafl
of Afric and Brafll, in about 15 degrees of fouth la-
titude. This ifland is generally touched at by fliips
going to and returning from the £alK Indies, becaafe
K k 2 of

^oo '^he Hijiory of Navigation,

of the convcriency of watering, befidcs the great plenty
it produces of excellent fruit, as alfo abundance of
fowl, fwine, and gouts, the place being extremely
pieafant, but very fniail. Maving taken in wood and
water here, and made clean the fliip, on the twentieth
of June, Candifli failed for England ; on the twenty
fourth of augud he difcovcred the iflands Flores and
Corvo, two of the Azores, and on the ninth of fep-
teniber after a terrible I^orm, which carried awav part
of his fails, put into the port of Plymouth. Hack-
kiyt, vol. 111. p. 803. and Purchas, vol. I. lib. II. p.

An. 159S. The dutch refolving to perform as much as
had been done before by Magellan's Ihip, and by fir Fran-
cis Drake and fir Thomas Candifii, they fitted out four
fhips under the command of captain Oliver d'Oirt, a>i
Van Meteren calls him, or Oliver Noort, according to
Purchas. The reft proceeded on their voyage upon the
nineteenth of July ; and to omit particulars of lefs mo-
ment, and their touching at places not material, on
the tenth of december they came to the Prince's Ifland*
or Ilha do Principe on the coall of Congo, in 2 degrees
of north latitude ; where the portuguefes killed fome
of their men, and the dutch commander in revenge
afiaulting their fort, was repulfed v.ith greater lofs.
This made him defift; and failing thence, on the fifth
of february 1599, camiC on the coaft of Brafil. Here
they fpent much time, feeking refiefiiment and water
along the fliorc, and being much (liakcn by a fiorm,
and abundance of the men fick, befidcs, that it was
the \\inter feafon there, they put into a little ifland
called S. Clare, on the coaft of Brafil, in about 21 de-
grees of fouth latitude. Here the lick men being fet
aftiore, fomc of them prefently died ; the reft ailing
nothing but the fci'rvy, were cured with eating four
plumbs they found there. One of the fhrps being very
leaky, was here burnt, after all that could be of ufe had
been taken out of her. On the fixtecnth of July they
left this place, ftcvring for Port Dcfirc in 47 degrees ;
and after many i^orms put into it on the twentieth of
feptcmber, careened their ftiips> and took abundance
6 of

The Hifiory of Navigation. 501

of fowl. Some men were here killed by the Indians.
Departing hence on the twenty ninth, they came to
.,cape Virgincs at the mouth of the flrait of Magellan,
on the fourth of novembcr; where they met with
llorms of wind, rain, hail, and fncw, bcfides much
iicknefs and contention among themfelves, having been
from home fifteen months, before they could ger into
the flrait ; io that it was the lafr of fcbruary i6oo»
before they came into the South-fca. March the
twelfth they loft fight of the vice-admiral, and failed
without him to the ifland Mocha, in 3S degrees fouth.
Another fhip miffing the iiland of S. Maries, and being
drove by neccflity to make the continent for provifions,
lofl moll of its men alliorc, the reft putting to fea
with the vcfTcl. Being now in fear of the fpanifh men
of war, he dircded his courfc with the two fliips he
had left for the illands de los Ladrones, which he
had fight of on the fifteenth of feptembcr ; and on
.the fourteenth of odlober difcovcrcd the ifland of
Luzon or Manila, the chief of the Philippines. Near
this iiland he met the two fpanifli fliips bound thence for
New-Spain ; and after a dcfpcrate fight, Noort funk
one of them ; but at the fame time the other took his
fccond fhip, and he made all hade away to Borneo,
but made no Hay there for fear of the natives, who
attempted to cut his cable ; and therefore fiiiling hence,
he traded for pepper a: Java, and at length returned
by the cape of Good i lope, and ille of S. I-Ielena, ar-
riving at Amflerdam on the twenty fixth of auguft
i6or. Purchas, vol. I. lib. 2. p. 7 I. Van Metercn, lib.

An. 1614. George Spilbergcn, commander of five
dutch fliips, failed out of the Texel on the eighth of
augull, and entered the Uiait of Magellan on the twenty
eighth of march 161 5, but being drove out again by
contrary winds, he re-entered on the fecond of april.
In the flrait they continued going afliore on the fouth
fide upon the land called Tierra del Fuego, known
fince to be an ifland, till the fixth of may, when they
came out into the South-fea, which received them with
itorms, and on the twcntv fixth came up with the ifland

K k 3 la

502 ^'he JUJtory of Navigaltoa.

]a Mocha, oa the ccafi: of Chile, mentioned in all
the former vo\ages. Merc they traded with the In-
dians, exrhan^zM^L hatchets, and other utenfils, as alfo, for large peru fliccp, which ferve not only to cat,
hilt to carry burdens. Landing at the illand of S.
Mary on t!"»e 29th, they kid a Ikirmiih with fomic
few f,,aniards, and got fomc booty of ihcep. Running
along the coall, they toucheii at Valparaifo, cape Quin-
tcro, and other places; but Imding the ipaniards every
where had taken ihe alarm, they durit not do any thing
afnor/. July the feventcenth keeping along the (liores of
Peru, tl.ey difcovered eight fpaniih Ihips fet out to engage
them. That very night they engaged, and after a hot
difpute, three of the fpanilli fliips funk. In this
action they had forty m.en killed, and fixty wounded.
Drawing too near the iliore at Callao the port of Lima,
the Huntfman, one of the dutch Tuips, was almotl
funk with a thirty fix pounder, which made them keep
further off: and holding their courfe to the northward,
they took the little town of Peita. Therefore auguft
the twenty firll they fet out to fea again, and beat
about in bad weather till the eleventh of oclober,
when they put into the harbour of Acapulco in New-
Spain, and there exchanged the prifoners they had taken
for proviiions. Which done, they run up into tw enty
degrees of north latitude, and on the twenty lixth of no-<
vember flood over for the iflands de los Ladrones. In
January following, which was the year 161 6, many of
the men died of difeafcs. On the twenty third of the
fime month they difcovered the J atlrones, and on the
ninth of february cape Efpiritu Santo, the eafi-ern^oH:
point of the Philippine iflands to the northward; palling
among which, they arrived at Ternate, the chief of
the Moluccos, on the t^^enty ninth of march, which
the dutch in the ifland reckoned the twenty eighth ;
the fleet by following the courfe of the fun having loll
a day, whereas they that fiiil round to the caliward
giin a day. About thefe illands they continued fomc
months, and arrived at Jacatra in the iiland of Java
on tlic iftecnth of feptember, on rhc thirtieth of march


The Hipry of Ncvjrafi:?!. 503

1617 at the ifltind oi S. Helena, and in July following
in Zealand. Purchas, vol. I. lib. 2. p. 80.

An. 1615. Ifaac Ic Mairc a merchant of Amflcrdam,
and William Cornell Ton Schoutcn of Horn, refolving to
find out a new way to the Eafb Indivs, bciides thofe
already knov. n by the cape of Good Hope and flrait
of Magellan; at their own charges fitted out a good
Ihip of three hundred and lixry tun and twenty guns,
and a fmallcr of an hundred and ten tun and eight gims,
In which' they failed tlieirifcives out of the Tcxcl on the
fixteenth of June in the aforefaid year, refolving to
find another paiTage into the South-fca, to the fouthward
of the (frail of Magellan ; which their delign they kept
fecret, till they came near the line, where they difco-
vercd it to the feamen, \vho were v. ell pleafed with
the undertaking. To pafs by all ctlier particulars, as
too like thofe in the fofegoing voyages, on the ninth of
dccembcr they failed up into Port Deiirc, on the coafl: of
America, in 47 degrees and 40 minutes of fouth latitude:
uhere bringing their fliips afhore to clean them, as
they were burning reeds under the lell<:r of them, fhe
took fire, and burnt till the tide coming up, quenched
the flame; yet fo that nothing of her could be faved,
but a little wood for fuel and the iron-work. The
thirteenth of januar\' 1616, the great fliip now left alone
failed out of Port Dili re, and the twenty fifth difco-
vered the illand thcv called Statcn-land to the caff ward,
and the point of Ticrra del Fuego to th^ wefhvard,
which they called Maurice-land, in almoit 55 degrees
of fouth latitude. I^'ntering betwixt thcfc tv.o lands,
they ifeercd fouth fouih-well, till coming under 55 de-
grees 36 minutes, they (food fouth-wed and then fouth.
llius the t-.^enty lixth they came under 57 degrees, and
the twenty ninth difcovered thofe they called Barnevelts
i (lands. The third of february they were under 59 de-
grees 25 minutes, and the twelfth foun.l the (friits of
Magellan lay eaft of them ; and therefore being fatif-
fied that they were in the South -fea, they called the
new-found palfage the (frait of ie Miire. March the
firfl they came near the illands of John rVrnande?,- in
33 degrees 40 minutes of fomh latitude, and at fomc

K k 4 dillnnec

£04 '^ke Hijhry of Navigation,

diftancc from the coaft of Chile: but though they en-
deavoured it, could never conne near enough to anchor,
being ftill beaten off by the wind and current, and
therefore ftecred away to the wedward to profecute
their voyage ; and in april they difcovered fcveral fmall
iflands inhabited by naked people, none of whom
would come aboard, nor could they come to an anchor.
Thefe iflands were in about 14 and 15 degrees of fouth
latitude. Sailing on flill weftward, they faw many
inore illands in m.ay, and had fome trade with the na-
tives, who attempted to furprize the fhip, or at leaft
the boat ; but were foon feared away by the fire arms,
when they faw they did execution, for before they
thought they had only made a noife. Finding no con-
tinent,- and perceiving they were at leaft fixteen hun.
dred leagues to the weftward of Chile or Peru, they
fleered to the northward, for fear they fhould fall fouth
of New-Guinea, and perhaps not be able to clear
themfclves of the coafl:, the winds being always at call.
Many more iflands are mentioned in the journal, at
fome of which they touched and got refrefhment ; but
on the firft of July they anchored near the coall of
New-Guinea, whence they failed Hill along the fliOre,
and amidfl: a multitude of iflands, till they came into
half a degree of fouth latitude, where they faw a fniall
iOand off the lliore of the land of Papous, and called
it William Schouten's Illand, after the captain's name,
and the w eflermofl point of it the cape of Good Hope.
September the 17th they arrived at the illand Ternate,
and thence in October to Jacatra, or Batavia in the
ifland of Java; where the prelident of the dutch eall-
india company feized the fliip and goods. Whereupon
William Cornelifon Schouten the maRer, Jacob Ic
Maire the merchant, and ten feamen put thcmfelves
aboard the Amflerdam, a dut^h ihip hon^.cward bound,
and twelve others aboard the Zealand, and arrived in
fafety at Amflenlam in July ; having difcovered the
new lira it called le Maire, as was faid before, and per-
formed the voyac;e round the world in two years and
eighteen days. Purchas^ vol. 1. lib. 2. p. 8H.


^he Hijlory of Navigation. 505

An. 1643. Brewer, or Browcr, \vcnt another way into
the South-lea, by a pailagc called after his own namc»
which is eaft of Ic Mairc's ftrait; but whether this was
ii flrait with land on each fide, or an open fea, is not
known, his diary not being made public ; but moft
maps make it a new ftrait.

An. 1683. One John Cook failed from Virginia in a
fhip of eight guns and fifty two men a buccaneering;
and with him one Cowley, as mader. On the coaft of
Guinea they took a fhip of forty guns by furprife, in
which they failed away to the South-fea, meeting by
the way another fhip commanded by one Eaton, who
joined them to follow the fame trade. They ran into
60 degrees of fouth latitude, and palTed that way into
the South-fe^, where Cowley fays they difcovercd feveral
iilands about the line. Thence they failed over to the
Ladrones, whence they continued their courfe, and an-
chored at Canton in China. Departing from Canton, they
came to the ifland Borneo, where Cowley, the author
of this relation, with nineteen others, got a great boat
in which they went away to Java. At Batavia the author,
with two others, ihipped himfelf on board a dutch
veflcl, and fo returned to Europe. The relation of
this voyage is fliortened, bccaufe there have been fo
many voyages round the world before, and all of them
performed m the fame ihip ; whereas in this there was
much flTifting. Thofe that dciire may fee it at large in the
colledion of original voyages, publilhed by captain
William Hack, An. 1699.

Captain Dampier in his Hril book of voyages gives
an account of this fiime lad mentioned, but more at
large, he being aboard with the fame Cook ; and there-
fore no more needs be faid of it, though there may be
many circumftanccs which this difcourfe cannot defcend
to : wherefore here fliall end the voyages round the
world, it being time to proceed to what remains.

After fo long a difcourfe of voyages and difcoveries,
it may feem fuperfluous to treat of the advantages the
public receives by navigation, and the fiithful journals
and accounts of travellers. The matter is natural, and
no man can read the one without being fcnfible of the


5o6 'The Hlfiory of Navigation.

other; anj therefore a few words may fufhcc on thii
fu' jcct, to uvoid cloyin<:^ the judicioi:s reader vith what
is fo viliblc and plain, and to fave running out this in-
Troduolicn to an unreafonable length. What was cof-
niography before thefe difcoveries, hut an imperfect:
frajjir.ent of a fcience, fcarcc defcrving fo good a name ?
When all the known world was only Europe, a fmall
part of Afric, and the lefler portion of Afia ; fo that of
this terraqueous globe not one fixth part had ever been
feen or heard of. Nay, fo great was the ignorance of
man in this particular, that learned perfons made a
doubt of its being round ; others no Icfs knowing
imagined all they were not acquainted with, defart and
unmhabjtable. But now^ geography and hydrography
have received fome perfe6lion by the pains of fo many
mariners nnd travellers,, who to evince the rotundity
of the earth and water, have (iiiled and travelled round it,
as has been here made appear ; to fiiow there is no part
uninhabitable, unlefs the frozen polar regions, have vi-
iited all other countries, though never fo remote, which
they have found well peopled, and mod of them rich
and delightful ; and to demonflrate the antipodes, have
pointed thern out to v:s. Agronomy has received the
addition of many conflcllations never (can before. Na-
tural and moral hiflory is embellillicd with the mioft
beneficial increafe of fo many thoufands of plants it had
never before received, fo many drugs and fpices, fuch
variety of beafls, birds, and nfiie.>, fuch rarities in mi-
nerals, inoun ains and w.iters, fuch unaccountable di
verfity of cliniates and men, and in them of complex^
ions, tempers, habits, manners, politics, and religions.
Trade is raifed to the higheli pitch, each part of the
world fupplying the other with what it wants, and
bringing home what is accounted mod precious and
valuable; and this not in a niggird and fcanty man-
ner, as when the veneilars fcrved all F.tirope with fpicc
^\\A drugs from In li.t by the \\ay of l\irky and the Rcd-
Ica ; or, as when gold and filver were onl) drawn from
fome poor european and aiVican mines ; but with plenty
and affluence, as wc now fee, nsoil nations reforting
freely to the l.lHll-Indie';, and the Wefl, yearly fendrng


Ihe Hijlory of Navigatkn. 5O7

forth prodigious quantities of the moll eficcmcd and
valuable metals. To conclude, the empire of Europe
is now extended to the utmoil bounds of the earth
where feveral of its nations have conquers and colonies.
Thefc and many more are the advantages drawn from
the labours of thofe who expofc rhemfelves to the dan-
gers of the vail ocean, and of unknown nations ; which
thofe who fit ftill at home abundantly reap in every
kind : and the relation of one traveller is an incentive
to (iir up another to imitate him, whilfl: the rclt of
mankind, in their accounts, without llirring a foot,
compafs the earth and feas, vilit all countries, and
converfc with all nations.

It only remains to give fomefew direclions fgr fuch as
go on long voyages ; which fliall be thofe drawn up by
Mr. Rook, a fellow of the Royal Society, and geometry
profeflbr of grefliam college, by order of the faid fo-
ciety, and publiflied in the philofophical tranfadions of
the eighth of January 1665-6, being Numb. S. They
are as follow :

1. To obferve the declination of the compafs, or its
variation from the meridian of the place, frequently ;
marking wiihal the latitude and longitude of the place
where fuch obfervation is made, as exadlly as may be,
and fetting down the method by which they made them.

2. To carry dipping needles with them, and obferve
the inclination of the needle in like manner.

3. To remark carefully the cbbings and Mowings of
the fea in as many places as they can, together with
all the accidents ordiniry and extraordinary of the
tides; as, tlieir precifc time of ebbing and Mowing in
rivers, at promontories or capes, which way the cur-
rent runs, what perpendicular diMance there is between
the higheft tide and loweff ebb, during the fpring
tides and neep tides, \\ hat day of the n)oon's age, and
what timics of the year the highcn" and lowed tides fall
out: and all other confiderable accidents they can ob-
ferve in the tides, chieMy near ports, and about i Hands,
as in S. Helena's iflan.], and the three rivers there, at
the Bermudas, &:c.

4. To

^o8 The Hifioiy of Navigation.

4. To make plots and drauglrs of profpcrl: ofcoafls,
promontories , i Hands and ports, marking the bearings
and dillanccs as near as they can.

5. To found and m.ark the depth of ccafts and ports,
and fuch other places near the Ihore as they fhall think

6. To take notice of the nature of the ground at the
bottom of the fea, in all foundings, \^ hether it be clay,
fand, rock, <Scc.

7. To keep a regifter of all changes of wind and wea-
ther at all hours, by night and by day, fhouing the
point the wind blows from, whether firongor weak : the
rains, hail, fnow, and the like ; the prccife times of
their beginnings and continuance, cfpecially hurricanes
and fpouts ; but above all, to take exadl care to obferve
the trade-winds, about what degree of latitude and
longitude they firft begin, where and when theyceafeor
change, or grow Wronger or weaker, and how much, as
near and exact as may be.

8. To obferve and record all extraordinary meteors,
lightnings, thunders, ignes f^itui, comets, <?cc. marking
flill the places and times of their appearing, continu-
ance, tftc.

9. To carry with them good fcalcs, and glafs-vials
of a pint, or fo, with very narrow mouths, which are
to be filled with fea-water in ditierent degrees of la-
titude, as often as they pleafe, and the weight of the
vial full of water taken exadlly at every time, and re-
corded, marking withal the degree of latitude, and the
day of the month ; and that as well of water near the
top, as at a greater depth.

This may fufficc for fea-voyages ; but in regard it may
be expected fomething fliould be laid for thofe who
travel by larui, a few inftrudtions have been colieded
from experienced travellers, w ho are bed able to diredt
fuch as de(ign to follow them into remote countries.
We will therefore begin with monfieur de Bourges,
\vho with the bilhop ot Berytus made a journey through
Turky, Perfia and India, as far as Cochinchina. He
advifes fuch as intend for thofe parts fo to order their


^he Hiflory of Navigation. 509

affairs, that they may come Into Turky in oflobcr,
to avoid the cxccHive heats of thofe countries for four
or five months before that time. If our traveller will
hold on his journey to Pcrfia, he mufl- go with the cara-
van from Aleppo to Babylon, or Bagdat, which will
take him up a month ; thence he embarks upon the
river Euphrates, which carries him down to BafTora,
whence he proceeds by fea to Bander, where he may
find convenience by land to Ifpahan, the capital of
Perfia : from Ifpahan the dif!i:uhies of travelling by
land to India are almofl invincible, and therefore the
proper way is to repair to the port of Gomrom, whence
there is a conflant and fife pailiigc to Suratte, or any
other part of India. All perfons that travel in Turky
mud change their habit into that of the country, and
muft lay aiide the hat, and wear a turbant, and the
meaner the habit the fafcr they will be from extortions
and robberies: they muft endeavour to have a turkifli
interpreter on the road with them, who may own what-
ever goods they carry, and protedl them againfl any
affronts that may be offered them ; but above all, they
mufl: endeavour to be well recommended to the caotain
of the caravan, which will be their greatcft fafeguard.
This recommendation muft be from fome of the chrif-
tian confuls, but generally the beft from the french,
who are much regarded in thofe parts. Such as will
not carry all their ftock in ready money, muft be care-
ful to carry thofe commodities that will turn to beft
account, amongft which the brigliteft yellow amber,
and the largcft red coral, are in great eftecm. Thefe,
though not wrought, are profitable; and t(^ avoid the
duties paid at feveral places, may be carried in a bag,
or portmanteau on the horfe the traveller rides, for
thofe are not fearched. Tne beft money they can carry
are fpanifti pieces of eighr, provided tb.ey be full
weight, and not of Peru, which are not i'o fine filver
as the others. By this money they will have fcvcn or
eight per cent, profit in fome parts, and ten per cent.
in others, ami the fame in french crowns. As for gold,
the greateft profit is rriade rf the Venetian and hunga-
rian, and it h very conliderablc. There is fo great an


510 ^he Jlijlcrv of Navigation,

advantage to be made by thofc who rightly underhand
the bed coins and their value, that thofc who are \\cll
inftructcd in it can travel for a very inconfiderable cx-
pence. It is abfolutely necefTary to cany good arms
to defend thcmfelvcs upon all occafions, but luoic
particularly to fight the arabs, and other rovers. Above
2.II, it is requilite in Turky that travellers be armed
with patience to bear many affronts the infidels will
put upon tlum, and with prudence and moderation to
prevent, as much as polTibly may be, any fuch inf()!<:n-
cies. Thev will do well never to go without provi-
fions, becaufc the caravans never Hop to bait, ii\\^\ very
often at night have no other inn but the open fields,
vhere they lie in tents, and eat what they carr} . Wliea
they travel w ith the caravan, they mud take care never
to be far from it, for fear of being devoured by wild
bealls, or by the wilder arabs. This in Turky, for in
Perfia it is (|uite otherwife ; here we may travel in the
european habit, and wear hats, which are better againll
the heat than turbants ; the roads are fafe, and the per-
fians courteous to 11 rangers, efpecially the better fort.
However the traveller mull watch the fervants, and
meaner fort of people of the country, who elfe will
impofe on him in matter of payments, of buying and
felling; and therefore his boll: way is, where there arc
milTioners to repair to them, who will aflifi: and inllruct
him. He mull carrv no gold into Perfia, becaufc it
bears a low price, and he will be a great lofcr by it :
the bcfl: way is to change his money on the turkilh
frontiers into periian coin, or elfe to carry a quantity
of good amber and coral, which will \ ield profit, as
willalfo good watches. In India f])anilh gold yields
fome profit, though fmall, which the traveller m.ay
take notice of, in cafe he has no goods to carry that
niav yield a greater profit : this at Suratte ; but further
in India, and particularly at Golconda, gold yields more,
and efpecially old |?;old : however, at Siam again there
is great lofs in fpanifli gold, and all other forts, for

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