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Ancient States and Empires.



BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

THE OLD ROMAN WORLD:

'J 1 LIE GRANDEUR AND FAILURE OP ITS CIVILIZATION.

1 vol. croicn Svo, toith map, uniform with "Ancient States and Empires"
Pbii k $8.00.



THE AXCIEXT VOCLD ; PHYSICAL AND ETHJCOG-JUVEHIC AL




'nit'Ahjui-H-Iuirnjjirn-.'.MI-l-.Sr.lifi.l'-i.TI Hmu.1wnvN.Y.



ANCIENT STATES AND EMPIRES



COLLEGES AKD SCHOOLS



JOHN LORD LL.E>

AUTHOR OF THE " OLD ROMAN WORLD "
" MODERN HISTORY " &c.



*r< *



NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER & COMPANY

1869



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869,

B5T JOHN LORD, LL, D.

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
District of Connecticut,



ALYORD, PRINTER.






rf»



PEEFACE.



This work is designed chiefly for educational
purposes, since there is still felt the need of
some book, which, within moderate limits, shall
give a connected history of the ancient world.

The author lays no claim to original investi-
gation in so broad a field. He simply has aimed
to present the salient points — the most important
events and characters of four thousand years,
in a connected narrative, without theories or com-
ments, and without encumbering the book with
details of comparatively little interest. Most of
the ancient histories for schools, have omitted to
notice those great movements to which the Scrip-
tures refer ; but these are. here briefly presented,
since their connection with the Oriental world is
intimate and impressive, and ought not to be



4 PREFACE.

omitted, even on secular grounds. What is his-
tory without a Divine Providence?

In the preparation of this work, the author
has been contented with the last standard author-
ities, which he has merely simplified, abridged,
and condensed, being most indebted to Rawlin-
son, Grote, Thirlwall, Niebuhr, Mommsen, and
Merivale, — following out the general plan of
Philip Smith, whose admirable digest, in three
large octavos, is too extensive for schools.

Although the author has felt warranted in
making a free use of his materials, it will be
seen that the style, arrangement, and reflections
are his own. If the book prove useful, his object
will be attained.

Stamford October, 1869.



CONTENTS.



BOOK I.

THE ANCIENT ORIENTAL NATIONS.



CHAPTER I.

THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.

PAGE

Creation — The Garden of Eden — Fall of Adam — Cain and Abel —
The Deluge — Its Traditions, 13

CHAPTER II.

POST-DILUVIAN HISTORY TO THE CALL OP ABRAHAM.

Noah and his Sons — The Tower of Babel — Dispersion of the De-
scendants of Noah — Patriarchal Constitution, 19

CHAPTER IIL

THE HEBREW RACE TO THE FALL OF JOSEPH.

Abraham — Lot — Covenant with Abraham — Sodom — Isaac — Ja-
cob — Esau — Laban — Joseph, 24

CHAPTER IT.

EGYPT AND THE PHARAOHS.

I Geography of Ancient Egypt — Wonders — Dynasties — Ramesis II.

— Thebes — Religion and Manners of the Old Egyptians, 34

CHAPTER V.

THE JEWS TO THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN.

Elevation of Joseph — The Famine — Settlement of the Israelites in
Egypt — Moses — The Exodus — The Jewish Code — The Wilder-
ness, 43



Contents.



CHAPTER VL

THE CONQUEST OP CANAAN TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE
KINGDOM OP DAVID.

PAGE

Joshua- — The Canaanites — The Judges — Samuel — The Philis-
tines — Saul, 56



CHAPTER VII.

THE JEWISH MONARCHY.

David — Solomon — Jerusalem — The Rebellion of the Ten Tribes —
The Princes of the House of David — The Princes who reigned at
Samaria — The Jewish Captivity, 62

CHAPTER VIII.

THE OLD CHALDEAN AND ASSYRIAN MONARCHIES.

Nineveh — Assyrian Kings — The Chaldseans — Babylon, 80

CHAPTER IX.

THE EMPIRE OP THE MEDES AND PERSIANS.

Media — Median Princes — Lydian Mouarchs — The Persians — Zo-
roaster — Cyrus — Cambyses — Xerxes — Fall of the Monarchy, . . 88

CHAPTER X.

ASIA MINOR AND PHOENICIA.

The various nations of Asia Minor — Lydians — Croesus — Phoeni-
cians — Voyages and Colonies — Carthage, 100

CHAPTER XL

THE RULE OF THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND OF THE ASMONEAN AND
IDUMEAN RINGS.

Return of the Jews — Esther — Rebuilding of Jerusalem — Alex-
andria — The High Priests — The Asmonean Princes — Herod
and the Idumean Kings, 108

CHAPTER XII.

THE ROMAN GOVERNMENT.

Pontius Pilate — Herod Antipas — Agrippa — The Pharisees — The
Saducees — The Essenes — Revolt of Jerusalem — Siege and Pall
of Jerusalem, 128



Contents.

BOOK II.

THE GKEOIAN STATES.



CHAPTER XIII.

THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ITS EARLY INHAB-
ITANTS.

PAGB

Mountains — Rivers — National Productions — States — Cities — Early
Inhabitants, 143



CHAPTER XIV.

THE LEGENDS OP ANCIENT GREECE.

The Heroic Ages — Ancient Deities — Legends of Heroes — The
Danaides — Hercules — The Argonauts — Pelope — Theseus —
Cadmus — (Edipus — Priam — Helen — The Heraclidse — Early
rs, 155



CHAPTER XV.

STATES AND COLONIES TO THE PERSIAN "WARS.

Lycurgus and Sparta — The Helots — Constitution of Sparta — Mes-
senia — Corinth — Megara — Athens — Solon — His Legislation —
Pisistratus — Boeotia — Phocis — Epirus — Ionian Cities, 177

CHAPTER XVI.

GRECIAN CIVILIZATION BEFORE THE PERSIAN WARS.

Legislature — Amphyctionic Council — Delphic Oracle — Olympian
Games — Pythian Games — Nemean and Isthmian Games — Tem-
ples — Political Rights — Commerce — Art, 196

CHAPTER XVII.

THE PERSIAN AVAR.

Revolt of Ionian Cities — Their Conquest by the Persians — Darius
— Invasion of Greece — Miltiades — Themistocles — Aristides —
Marathon — Xerxes — His enormous Army — Thermopylre — Leon-
idas — Salamis — Effects of the Battle — Mardonius — Battle of
Plataea — Battle of Mycali — Rivalry between Athens and Sparta, 205



8 Contents.

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE AGE OP PERICLES.

PAGB

Rivalry between Athens and Sparta — Confederacy of Delos —
Sparta — Rebellion of Helots — Cimou — Pericles — The Piraeus —
The Long Walls of Athens — Aggrandizement of Athens — Demo-
cratic Power — Improvements of Athens — Literature and Art,. . 233

CHAPTER XIX.

THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR.

The Causes of the War — Influence of Pericles — Warlike Prepara-
tions — Invasion of Attica — The various Campaigns — Plague of
Athens — Athens solicits Aid from Persia — Revolt of Mitylene

— Nicias — Alcibiades — Cleon — Attack of Megara — Battle of
Delium — Brasidas — Loss of Amphipolis — Peace of Nicias —
Battle of Mantinaea — Invasion of Sicily — Syracuse — Gels —
Mismanagement of Nicias — Treason of Alcibiades — Lysander —
Capture of the Athenian Pleet — Annihilation of Athenian Power —
Triumph of Sparta — Consequences of the War, 250

CHAPTER XX.

MARCH OP CYRUS AND RETREAT OP THE TEN THOUSAND.

Cyrus — Xenophon — Cyrus in Asia — Battle of Cunaxa — Retreat
of the Greeks — Their Hardships and Success — Moral effect of
the Retreat, 294

CHAPTER XXI.

THE LACEDEMONIAN EMPIRE.

Great Power of Sparta — Jealousy of Greece — Tyranny of Sparta

— Agesilaus — Alienation of Allies — Conspiracies agaiust Sparta

— Revolt of Thebes — Battle of Coroneia — Decline of Sparta,. . . . 304

CHAPTER XXII.

THE REPUBLIC OP THEBES.

Thebes — Revolt from Sparta — Alliance with Athens — Epaminon-
das — Pelopidas — Attack of Thebes — Humiliation of Sparta —
The Invasion by Epaminondas — Dismemberment of Sparta — The-
ban Supremacy — Fate of Orchomenes — Battle of Mantinasa —
Philip of Macedon, 315



"Contents. 9

CHAPTER XXin.

DIONYSIUS OF SICILY.

PAGB

Carthagenian War — Dionysius — His great Successes — Tmalcar —
Invasion of Italy — Fate of Croton — Dion — Dionysius II. —
Plato in Sicily — Dion Master of Syracuse — Timoleon — His Noble
Character, 333

CHAPTER XXIV.

PHILIP OP MACEDON.

Philip and Thebes — His Duplicity and Ambition — Social "War —
Demosthenes — Phocion — Conquest of Thessaly — Encroachments
on Grecian Liberties — Siege of Perinthus — Alliance of Thebes
and Athens — Fall of Thebes — Humiliation of Athens, 356

CHAPTER XXY.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

The Persian Empire — Alexander — Conquest of Greece — Alexan-
der in Asia — Battle of the Granicus — Conquest of Asia Minor

— Battle of Issus — Siege of Tyre — Founding of Alexandria —
Darius — Battle of Arbela — Couquest of Persia — Death of Clitus

— Invasion of India — Hephaestion and his funeral — Death of
Alexander — Effects of his Conquests, 313



BOOK III.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE.



CHAPTER XXVI.

THE INFANCY OF ROME.

Foundation of Rome — Romulus — Numa — Successive Kings —
Early Struggles of Plebeians — The Servian Constitution — Expul-
sion of the Kings — Early Civilization of Rome, 398

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC TO THE INVASION OF THE GAULS.
Legends of Early Rome — The Heroic Age — Conflict between Pa-
tricians and Plebeians — Change, in the Constitution — Republican
Laws — Cincinnatun — The Decemvirs — Siege of Veii — The
Gauls — Sack of Rome '. 410



10 Contents.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

THE CONQUEST OF ITALY.

PAGE

The Samnite War — Subjection of Latium — Tarenteum — Pyrrhus
— Subjection of Italy, 422

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE FIRST PUNIC WAR.

Causes of the War — Sicily — Hioro — Carthage — Creation of a
Roman Fleet — Battle of Mylas — Regulus — Hamilcar — Hasdru-
bal — Acquisition of Sicily, 429

CHAPTER XXX.

THE SECOND PUNIC "WAR.
Hannibal — Fall of Saguntum — Invasion of Italy — Battle of the
Thrasimene Lake — Scipio — Fabius — Battle of Cannse — Revolt
of Allies — Wisdom and Talent of Hannibal — Victories of Scipio
— Siege of Syracuse — Scipio in Africa — Battle of Zama, 439

CHAPTER XXXI.

MACEDONIAN AND ASIATIC "WARS.

Macedonia — Philip — Achsean League — Independence of Greece —
Antiochus — Protectorate of Rome in Asia — Battle of Pydna —
iEmilius Paulus, 455

CHAPTER XXXII.

THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.

Massinassa — War against Carthage — Scipio — Siege of Carthage —
Fall of Carthage — Effect of The Punic Wars — Great accession
of Roman Territories, 464

CHAPTER XXXIII.

ROMAN CONQUESTS TO THE TIME OF THE GRACCHI.

The Spanish Peninsula — War with the Spaniards — Scipio — War
with Macedonia — War in Achaia — War in Asia, 473

CHAPTER XXXIV.

ROMAN CIVILIZATION AT THE CLOSE OF THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.

The Aristocracy — The Provincial Governors — Festivals and Games —
Cato — Change in the Constitution — Agriculture — Commerce —
Slavery — Small Farmers — Great Fortunes — Literature — Art,.. 478



Contents. 11

CHAPTER XXXV.

PAGE
THE REFORM MOVEMENT OF THE GRACCHI.

Evils of the Government — Tiberius Gracchus — His Reforms, and
Death — Caius Gracchus — Attack on the Aristocracy — Success
of Gracchus and Death, 488

CHAPTER XXXVI.

THE WAR WITH JUGURTHA AND THE CIMBRI.

The IsTumidian War — Jugurtha — Mileteus — Marius — The Cim-
bri — Invasion of Italy — The Victories of Mariu s, 499

CHAPTER XXXVII.

THE SOCIAL WAR. .

The Servile Classes — Insurrection — Sulla — His Legislation, 50?

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

THE MITHRIDATIO AND CIVTL WARS. MARIUS AND STJLLA.
Mithridates — Pontus — Sulla; Battle of — Choeronica — Rising of
Asia — Cinna — Civil War — Dictatorship of Sulla — Abdication of
Sulla, 512

CHAPTER XXXIX.

ROME TO THE CIVIL WARS OF POMPET AND C^SAR.

Reaction in favor of the Aristocracy — Pompey — The Servile "War

— War with the Pirates — Second Mithridatic War — Lucullus —
Pompey in the East — Cicero — Catiline. — Cassar, 520

CHAPTER XL.

THE CIVIL WARS BETWEEN POMPEY AND CJ3SAR.

Rivalship between Caesar and Pompey — Military Preparations —
War — Defeat of Pompey — Flight and Death of Pompey — Con-
sequences of the Battle of Pharsaha — Cassar in the East and
West — His Dictatorship — Triumphs — Death — Character, 534

CHAPTER XLI.

THE CIVIL WARS FOLLOWING THE DEATH OF O^SAR.

Antonius — Octavius — Lepidus — Brutus — Cassius — Cicero — The
Triumvirate — Civil War — Battle of Philippi — Battle of Actium

— Supremacy of Octavius, 546



12 Contents.

CHAPTER XLIL

THE ROMAN EMPIRE ON THE ACCESSION OP AUGUSTUS.

PAGE

Extent the of Empire — Cities — Rome — Government — Army —
Commerce — Literature — Art, 558

CHAPTER XLIII.

THE SIX OESARS OF THE JULIAN LISTE.

Augustus — Ministers — Campaign — Tiberius — "Wars with the Ger-
mans — Germanicus — Caligula — Claudius — The Conquest of
Britain — Messalina — Agrippina — Nero, 56?

CHAPTER XLIV.

THE CLIMAX OP THE EMPIRE.

Galba — Vespasian — Titus — Domitian — Nerva — Trajan — Hadri-
an — Anlonius Pius — Marcus Aurelius — Commodus, 595

CHAPTER XLV.

THE DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE.

Moral Corruption — Pertinax — Septimius Severus — Caracalla —
Elagabulus — Alexander Severus — Maximin — Decius — Gailien-
us — Invasion of the Barbarians — Warlike Emperors — Arrest
of Ruin — Diocletian — Constantino — Division of the Empire, . . . 605

CHAPTER XLVI.

THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE.

Successors of Constantino — Theodosius — Irruption of Barbarians —
The Goths — Alaric — Capture of Rome — The Vandals — Second
Siege and Sack of Rome — The Huns — Fall of the Western Empire
— Conclusion, 628



BOOK I.

ANCIENT OKIENTAL NATIONS.



CHAPTER I.

THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOELD.



The history of this world begins, according to the chro-
nology of Archbishop Ussher, which is generally received as
convenient rather than probable, in the year 4004 before
Christ. In six days God created light and darkness, day and
night, the firmament and the continents in the midst The Crea .
of the waters, fruits, grain, and herbs, moon and tlon "
stars, fowl and fish, living creatures upon the face of the
earth, and finally man, with dominion " over the fish of the
sea, and the fowls of the air, and cattle, and all the earth,
and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." He
created man in his own image, and blessed him with univer-
sal dominion. He formed him from the dust of the ground,
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. On the
seventh day, God rested from this vast work of creation, and
blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, as we suppose, for
a day of solemn observance for all generations.

He there planted a garden eastward in Eden, with every
tree pleasant to the sight and good for food, and The CTarden
there placed man to dress and keep it. The orig- of E(len -
inal occupation of man, and his destined happiness, were thus
centered in agricultural labor.



e



14 The Antediluvian World. [Chap. I.

But man was alone ; so God caused a deep sleep to foil
Adam and upon him, and took one of his ribs and made a
Eve- woman. And Adam said, " this woman," which

the Lord had brought unto him, " is bone of my bone, and
flesh of my flesh ; therefore shall a man leave his father and
mothei", and shall cleave unto his wife : and they shall be
one flesh." Thus marriage was instituted. We observe
three divine institutions while man yet remained in a state
of innocence and bliss — the Sabbath ; agricultural employ-
ment ; and marriage.

Adam and his wife lived, we know not how long, in the
Primeval garden of Eden, with perfect innocence, bliss, and
Paradise. dominion. They did not even know what sin was.
There were no other conditions imposed upon them than
they were not to eat of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of
good and evil, which was in the midst of the garden — a pre-
eminently goodly tree, " pleasant to the eyes, and one to be
desired."

Where was this garden — this paradise — located ? This is
a mooted question — difficult to be answered. It lay, thus
Situation of ^ a1 ' we know, at the head waters of four rivers, two
E(len - of which were the Euphrates and the Tigris. We

infer thence, that it was situated among the mountains of
Armenia, south of the Caucasus, subsequently the cradle of
the noblest races of men, — a temperate region, in the latitude
of Greece and Italy.

We suppose that the garden was beautiful and fruitful,
Glory of beyond all subsequent experience — watered by
Eden. mists from the earth, and not by rains from the

clouds, ever fresh and green, while its two noble occupants
lived upon its produce, directly communing with God, in
whose image they were made, moral and spiritual — free from
all sin and misery, and, as we may conjecture, conversant
with truth in its loftiest forms.

But sin entered into the beautiful world that was made,
and death by sin. This is the first recorded fact in human
history, next to primeval innocence and happiness.



Chap. I.J The Garden . of Eden. 15

The progenitors of the race were tempted, and did not
resist the temptation. The form of it may have The te mpta-
been allegorical and symbolic ; but, as recorded by tlon -
Moses, was yet a stupendous reality, especially in view of its
consequences.

The tempter was the devil — the antagonist of God — the
evil power of the world — the principle of evil — a

• t ■ i c ■ -in • • The Devil.

Satanic agency which Scripture, and all nations, in
some form, have recognized. When rebellion against God
began, we do not know ; but it certainly existed when Adam
was placed in Eden.

The form which Satanic power assumed was a serpent —
then the most subtle of the beasts of the field, and His assump .
we may reasonably suppose, not merely subtle, but ££", ° f th a
attractive, graceful, beautiful, bewitching. serpent.

The first to feel its evil fascination was the woman, and
she was induced to disobey what she knew to be a The aisobe-
direct command, by the desire of knowledge as well Eve. ce
as enjoyment of the appetite. She put trust in the serpent.
She believed a lie. She was beguiled.

The man was not directly beguiled by the serpent. Why
the serpent assailed woman rather than man, the The Fail of
Scriptures do not say. The man yielded to his Adam -
wife. " She gave him the fruit, and he did eat."

Immediately a great change came over both. Their eyes
were opened. They felt shame and remorse, for

1 . . ' The effect

they had sinned. They hid themselves from the
presence of the Lord, and were afraid.

God pronounced the penalty — unto the woman, the pains
and sorrows attending childbirth, and subserviency to her hus-
band: unto the man labor, toil, sorrow — the curse

s- ^ t t • i t M1 -, The penalty.

ot the ground which he was to till — thorns and
thistles — no rest, and food obtained only by the sweat of the
brow ; and all these pains and labors were inflicted upon both
until they should return to the dust from whence they were
taken — an eternal decree, never abrogated, to last as long as
man should till the earth, or woman bring forth children.



16 The Antediluvian World. [Chap. I.

Thus came sin into the world, through the temptations of
introduction Satan and the weakness of man, with the penalty
of sin. Q £ i a ^ or ^ pai nj sorrow, and death.

Man was expelled from Paradise, and precluded from re-
Expuision entering it hy the flaming sword of cherubim, until
diss. P r the locality of Eden, by thorns and briars, and the
deluge, was obliterated forever. And man and woman were
sent out into the world to reap the fruit of their folly and
sin, and to gain their subsistence in severe toil, and amid
the accumulated evils which sin introduced.

The only mitigation of the sentence was the eternal enmity
The mitisa- between the seed of the woman and the seed of the

tion of the , . .

punishment. Serpent, in which the final victory should be given
to the former. The rite of sacrifice was introduced as a
type of the satisfaction for sin by the death of a substitute
for the sinner ; and thus a hope of final forgiveness held
out for sin. Meanwhile the miseries of life were alleviated
by the fruits of labor, by industry.

Industry, then, became, on the expulsion from Eden, one
industry— of the final laws of human happiness on earth,

one of the

fnndamen- while the sacrifice held out hopes of eternal life by
tions of life, the substitution which the sacrifice typified — the
SaAdour who was in due time to appear.

With the expulsion from Eden came the sad conflicts of
the race — conflicts with external wickedness — conflicts with
the earth — conflicts with evil passions in a man's own soul.

The first conflict was between Cain, the husbandman, and
c . . Abel, the shepherd ; the representatives of two
Abel. great divisions of the human family in the early

ages. Cain killed Abel because the offering of the latter
was preferred to that of the former. The virtue of Abel was
faith : the sin of Cain was jealousy, pride, resentment, and
despair. The punishment of Cain Avas expulsion from his
father's house, the further curse of the land for him, and the
hatred of the human family. He relinquished his occupation,
became a wanderer, and gained a precarious support, while
his descendants invented arts and built cities.



Chap. I.] The Deluge. 17

Eve bear another son — Seth, among whose descendants
the worship of God was preserved for a long time ; hut the
descendants of Seth intermarried finally with the descendants
of Cain, from whom sprung a race of lawless men, Thedescen(t .
so that the earth was filled with violence. The ants of Cain,
material civilization which the descendants of Cain intro-
duced did not preserve them from moral degeneracy. So
great was the increasing wickedness, with the growth of the
race, that " it repented the Lord that he had made man," and
he resolved to destroy the whole race, with the exception
of one religious family, and change the whole surface of the
earth by a mighty flood, which should involve in destruction
all animals and fowls of the air — all the antediluvian works
of man.

It is of no consequence to inquire whether the Deluge was
universal or partial — whether it covered the whole

The delude.

earth or the existing habitations of men. All were

destroyed by it, except Noah, and his wife, and his three

sons, with their wives. The authenticity of the fact rests

with Moses, and with him we are willing to leave it.

This dreadful catastrophe took place in the 600th year of



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