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intrigues of his court and seraglio, in Susa, as recorded in the
Death of book of Esther. He was not deficient in generous
impulses, but deficient in all those qualities which
make men victorious in war. He died fifteen years after, the
victim of a conspiracy, in his palace, b. c. 465 — six years after
Themistocles had sought his protection.



With the defeat of the Persian armies, Athens and Sparta
became, respectively, the leaders of two great parties in
Greece. Athens advocated maritime interests and Ej Va irv be-
democratic institutions ; Sparta was the champion Greofan
of the continental and oligarchal powers. The one States -
was Ionian, and organized the league of Delos, under the man-
agement of Aristicles ; the other was Dorian, and chief of the
Peloponnesian confederacy. The rivalries between these lead-
ing States involved a strife between those ideas and interests
of which each was the recognized representative. Those
States which previously had been severed from each other by
geographical position and diversity of interests, now rallied
under the guidance either of Athens or Sparta. The intrigues
of Themistocles and Pausanias had prevented that Panhel-
lenic union, so necessary for the full development of political
power, and which was for a time promoted by the Persian
war. Athens, in particular, gradually came to regard herself
as a pre-eminent power, to which the other States were to be
tributary. Her empire, based on maritime supremacy, became
a tyranny to which it was hard for the old allies to submit.

But the rivalry between Sparta and Athens was still more
marked. Sparta had thus far taken the lead among the Gre-
cian States, and Athens had submitted to it in the p re -eminent-
Persian invasion. But the consciousness of new Athens ^nd
powers, which naval warfare developed, the s P arta -
edat of the battles of Marathon and Salamis, and the con-
federacy of Delos, changed the relative position of the two
States. Moreover, to Athens the highest glory of resisting

234 The Age of Pericles. [Chap. xvih.

tbe Persians was due, while her patriotic and enlarged spirit
favorably contrasted with the narrow and selfish policy of

And this policy was seen in nothing more signally than in
Opposition t ] ie oppositions he made to the new fortifications of

by Sparta to i- r

tnefortm- Athens, so that Themistocles was obliged to go to

cations of ' o o

Athens. Sparta, and cover up by deceit and falsehood the
fact that the Athenians were really repairing their walls,
which they had an undoubted right to do, but which JEgina
beheld with fear and Sparta with jealousy. And this
unreasonable meanness and injustice on the part of Sparta,
again reacted on the Athenians, and created great bitterness
and acrimony.

But in spite of the opposition of Sparta, the new fortifica.
The city ne- tions arose, to which all citizens, rich and poor, lent

vertheless . . .

fortified. their aid, and on a scale which was not unworthy
of the grandeur of a future capital. The circuit of the walls
was fifty stadia or seven miles, and they were of sufficient
strength and height to protect the city against external ene-
mies. And when they were completed Themistocles — a
man of great foresight and genius, persuaded the citizens to
fortify also their harbor, as a means of securing the ascen-
dency of the city in future maritime conflicts. He foresaw
that the political ascendency of Athens was based on those
" wooden walls" which the Delphic oracle had declared to be
her hope in the Persian invasion. The victory at Salamis
had confirmed the wisdom of the prediction, and given to
Athens an imperishable glory. Themistocles persuaded his
countrymen that the open roadstead of Phalerum was in-
secure, and induced them to inclose the more spacious har-
bors of Peireus and Munychia, by a wall as long

The Peireus. . .

as that which encircled Athens itself, — so thick
and high that all assault should be hopeless, while within its
fortifications the combined fleets of Greece could safely be
anchored, and to which the citizens of Athens could also retire
in extreme danger. Peireus accordingly was inclosed at vast
expense and labor by a wall fourteen feet in thickness, which

Chap. XVIII.] Confederacy of Delos. 235

served not merely for a harbor, but a dock-yard and arsenal.
Thither resorted metics or resident foreigners, and much of
the trade of Athens was in their hands, since they were less
frequently employed in foreign service. They became a
thrifty population of traders and handy craftsmen identified
with the prosperity of Athens. These various works, absorbed
much of the Athenian force and capital, yet enough remained
to build annually twenty new triremes — equivalent in Cre aae of
to our modern ships of the line. Athens now be- ie nav> "
came the acknowledged head and leader of the allied States,
instead of Sparta, whose authority as a presiding State was
now openly renunciated by the Athenians. The Pan-
hellenic union under Sparta was now broken forever,
and two rival States disputed the supremacy, — the mari-
time States adhering to Athens, and the land States,
which furnished the larger part of the army at Platsea,
adhering to Sparta. It was then that the confed- Confe(leraC y
eracy of Delos was formed, under the presidency of of Delos -
Athens, which Aristides directed. His assessment was so
just and equitable that no jealousies were excited, and the
four hundred and sixty talents which were collected from the
maritime States were kept at Delos for the common benefit of
the league, managed by a board of Athenian officers. It was
a common fear which led to this great contribution, for the
Phoenician fleet might at any time reappear, and, co-operating
with a Persian land force, destroy the liberties of Greece.
Although Athens reaped the chief benefit of this league, it
was essentially national. It was afterward indeed turned
to aggrandize Athens, but, when it was originally made, was
a means of common defense against a power as yet vmcon-
quered though repulsed.

During all the time that the fortifications of Athens and
the Peireus were being made, Themistocles was the ruling
spirit at Athens, while Aristides commanded the fleet and
organized the confederacy of Delos. It was thus confederacy
several years before he became false to his country- OI Delos-
men, and the change was only gradually wrought in his

236 The Aye of Pericles. [Chap, xviii.

character, owing chiefly to his extravagant habits and the ar-
rogance which so often attends success.

During this period, a change was also made in the civil
Change in constitution of Athens. All citizens were rendered
nian A consti- admissible to office. The State became still more
tution. democratic. The archons were withdrawn from

military duties, and confined to civil functions. The stategi
or generals gained greater power with the extending politi-
cal relations, and upon them was placed the duty of super-
intending foreign affairs. Athens became more democrati-
cal and more military at the same time.

From this time, 479 b. c, we date the commencement of
The political the Athenian empire. It gradually was cemented
Athens. by circumstances rather than a long-sighted and
calculating ambition. At the head of the confederacy of
Delos, opportunities were constantly presented of centraliz-
ing power, while its rapid increase of population and wealth
favored the schemes which political leaders advanced for its
aggrandizement. The first ten years of the Athenian hegom-
ony or headship were years of active warfare against the
Persians. The capture of Eion, on the Strymon, with its
Persian garrison, by Cimonon, led to the settlement of
Amphipolis by the Athenians ; and the fall of the cities
which the Persians had occupied in Thrace and in the vari-
ous islands of the ^Egean increased the power of Athens.

The confederate States at last grew weary of personal mil-
The confcd- itary service, and prevailed upon the Athenians to

erate States. • n -, • 1 ■ ,, • i n ■< • ■,

provide ships and men in their place, for which
they imposed upon themselves a suitable money-payment.
They thus gradually sunk to the condition of tributary
allies, unwarlike and averse to privation, while the Athe-
nians, stimulated by new and expanding ambition, became
more and more enterprising and powerful.

But with the growth of Athens was also the increase of
Unpopular!- jealousies. Athens became unpopular, not only
ty of Athens. k c . cause s i ie made the different maritime States
her tributaries, but because she embarked in war asrainst

Chap. XVIII.] Jealousy of Sparta. 237

them to secure a still greater aggrandizement. Naxos re-
volted, but was conquered, b .c. 467. The confederate
State was stripped of its navy, and its fortifications
were razed to the ground. Next year the island of Thasos
likewise seceded from the alliance, and was subdued with
difficulty, and came near involving Athens in a war with
Sparta. The Thasians invoked the aid of Sparta, which was
promised though not fulfilled, which imbittered the relations
between the two leading Grecian States.

During this period, from the formation of the league at
Delos, and the fall of Thasos, about thirteen vears, Expeditions

..... . . against Per-

-Athens was occupied in maintaining expeditions sia.
against Persia, being left free from embarrassments in Attica.
The towns of Platrea and Thespise were restored and re-
peopled under Athenian influence.

The jealousy of Sparta, in view of the growing power of
Athens, at last s;ave vent in o-ivins; aid to Thebes,

° . ° ' ° Sparta.

against the old policy of the State, to enable that
city to maintain supremacy over the lesser Boeotian towns. The
Spartans even aided in enlarging her circuit and improving
her fortifications, which aid made Thebes a vehement parti-
san of Sparta. Soon after, a terrible earthquake happened
in Sparta, 464 b. c, which calamity was seized upon by the
Helots as a fitting occasion for revolt. Defeated, Rebellion of
but not subdued, the insurgents retreated to theHelots -
Ithome, the ancient citadel of their Messenian ancestors, and
there intrenched themselves. The Spartans spent two years
in an unsuccessful siege, and were forced to appeal to their
allies for assistance. But even the increased force made no
impression on the fortified hill, so ignorant were the Greeks,
at this period, of the art of attacking walls. And when the
Athenians, under Cimon, still numbered among the allies of
Sparta, were not more successful, their impatience degener-
ated to mistrust and suspicion, and -summarily dismissed the
Athenian contingent. This ungracious and jealous treat-
ment exasperated the Athenians, whose feelings were
worked upon by Pericles who had opposed the policy of

238 The Age of Pericles. [Ciiap. xviii.

sending troops at all to Laconia. Cimon here was antago-
nistic to Pericles, and wished to cement the more complete
Cimon op- union of Greece against Persia, and maintain the

posed to . . . _, _..

Pericles. union with bparta. Cimon, moreover, disliked the
democratic policy of Pericles. But the Athenians rallied
under Pericles, and Cimon lost his influence, which had been
paramount since the disgrace of Themistocles. A formal
resolution was passed at Athens to renounce the alliance
with Sparta against the Persians, and to seek alliance with
Argos, which had been neutral during the Persian invasion,
but which had regained something of its ancient prestige
and power by the conquest of Mycenae and other small
towns. The Thessalians became members of this new
alliance which was intended to be antagonistic to Sparta.
Alliance of Megara, shortly after, renounced the protection
state^with °f the Peloponnesian capital, and was enrolled
Athens. among the allies of Athens, — a great acquisition
to Athenian power, since this city secured the passes of
Mount Gerania, so that Attica was protected from im* asion
by the Isthmus of Corinth. But the alliance of Megara and
Athens gave deep umbrage to Corinth as well as Sparta,
and a war with Corinth was the result, in which iEgina was
involved as the ally of Sparta and Corinth.

The Athenians were at first defeated on the land ; but this
Defeat of defeat was more than overbalanced by a naval

Athens on m •in

the land and victory over the Dorian seamen, off the island of

victory on

the sea. yEgina, by which the naval force of JEginw^
hitherto great, was forever prostrated. The Athenians cap-
tured seventy ships and commenced the siege of the city
itself. Sparta would have come to the rescue, but was pre-
occupied in suppressing the insurrection of the Helots.
Corinth sent three hundred hoplites to iEgina and attacked
Megara. But the Athenians prevailed both at iEgina and
Megara, which Avas a great blow to Corinth.

Fearing, however, a renewed attack from Corinth and the

Pericles Peloponnesian States, now full of rivalry and en-
begins his . l » i • i i •
career. mity, the Athenians, under the leadership of

Chap. XYIIL] Hostilities between Sparta and Athens. 239

Pericles, resolved to connect their city with the harbor of
Peireus by a long wall — a stupendous undertaking at that
time. It excited the greatest alarm among the enemies of
Athens, and was a subject of contention among different
parties in the city. The party which Cimon, now C imon
ostracised, had headed, wished to cement the va- banished -
rious Grecian States in a grand alliance against the Persians,
and dreaded to see this lonsr wall arise as a standing: menace
against the united power of the Peloponnesus. Moreover, the
aristocrats of Athens disliked a closer amalgamation with the
maritime people of the Peireus, as well as the burdens and
taxes which this undertaking involved. These fortifications
doubtless increased the power of Athens, but weakened the
unity of Hellenic patriotism ; and increased those jealousies
which ultimately proved the political ruin of Greece.

Under the influence of these rivalries and jealousies the
Lacedaemonians, although the Helots were not sub- Hostilities
dued, undertook a hostile expedition out of the IpaTuand
Peloponnesus, with eleven thousand five hundred Athens -
men, ostensibly to protect Doris against the Phcecians, but
really to prevent the further aggrandizement of Athens, and
this was supposed to be most easily effected by strengthen-
ing Thebes and securing the obedience of the Boeotian cities.
But there was yet another design, to prevent the building
of the long walls, to which the aristocratical party of Athens
was opposed, but which Pericles, with long-sighted views,

This extraordinary man, with whom the glory and great-
ness of Athens are so intimately associated, now Ascend, ney
had the ascendency over all his rivals. He is con- of Pericles -
sidered the ablest of all the statesmen which Greece pro-
duced. He was of illustrious descent, and spent the early
part of his life in retirement and study, and when he emerged
from obscurity his rise was rapid, until he gained the control
of his countrymen, which he retained until his death. He
took the side of the democracy, and, in one sense, was a
demagogue, as well as a statesman, since he appealed to

240 The Age of Pericles. [Chap, xyiii.

popular passions and interests. He was very eloquent, and
was the idol of the party which was dominant in the State.
His rank and fortune enabled him to avail himself of every
Hischarao mode of culture and self-improvement known in
compHshl" his day. He loved music, philosophy, poetry, and
nunts. ar k rp^ e g reat Anaxagoras gave a noble direc-

tion to his studies, so that he became imbued with the sub-
limest ideas of Grecian wisdom. And his eloquence is said to
have been of the most lofty kind. His manners partook of
the same exalted and dignified bearing as his philosophy.
He never lost his temper, and maintained the severest self-
control. His voice was sweet, and his figure was graceful
and commanding. He early distinguished himself as a
soldier, and so gained upon his countrymen that, when
Themistocles and Aristides were dead, and Cimon engaged
in military expeditions, he supplanted all who had gone
before him in popular favor. All his sympathies were with
the democratic party, while his manners and habits and
tastes and associations were those of the aristocracy. His
political career lasted forty years from the year 469 b. c.
He was unremitting in his public duties, and was never seen
in the streets unless on his way to the assembly or senate.
He was not fond of convivial pleasures, and was, though
affable, reserved and dignified. He won the favor of the
people by a series of measures which provided the poor with
amusement and means of subsistence. He caused those who
served in the courts to be paid for their attendance and ser-
vices. He weakened the power of the court of the Areopa-
gus, which was opposed to popular measures. Assured of
his own popularity, he even contrived to secure the pardon
of Cimon, his great rival, when publicly impeached.

Pericles was thus the leading citizen of his country, when
he advocated the junction of the Peireus with Athens by the
The union long walls which have been alluded to, and when
reus with" ^ ne Spartan army in Boeotia threatened to sustain
Athens. the oligarchial party in the city. The Athenians,

in view of this danger, took decisive measures. They took

Chap. XVIII.] Cimon. 241

the field at once against their old allies, the Lacedaemonians.
The unfortunate battle of Tanagra was decided in favor of
the Spartans, chiefly through the desertion of the Thessalian

Cimon, though ostracised, appeared in the field of battle,
and requested permission to fight in the ranks. Magnanim-
Though the request was refused, he used all his Cimon.
influence with his friends to fight with bravery and fidelity
to his country's cause, which noble conduct allayed the exist-
ing jealousies, and through the influence of Pericles, his ban-
ishment of ten years was revoked. He returned to Athens,
reconciled with the party which had defeated him, and so
great was the admiration of his magnanimity that all parties
generously united in the common cause. Another battle
with the enemy was fought in Boeotia, this time attended
with success, the result of which was the complete ascen-
dency of the Athenians over all Boeotia. They became mas-
ters of Thebes and all the neighboring towns, and reversed
all the acts of the Spartans, and established democratic gov-
ernments, and forced the aristocratical leaders into exile.
Phocis and Locris were added to the list of dependent allies,
and the victory cemented their power from the Corinthian
Gulf to the strait of Thermopylae.

Then followed the completion of the long walls, b. c. 455,
and the conquest of iEo-ina. Athens was now Completion

1 ° .of the long

mistress of the sea, and her admiral displayed his wails.
strength by sailing round the Peloponnesus, and taking pos-
session of many cities in the Gulf of Corinth. But the
Athenians were unsuccessful in an expedition into Thessaly,
and sustained many losses in Egypt in the great warfare
with Persia.

After the success of the Lacedaemonians at Tanagra they
made no expeditions out of the Peloponnesus for several
years, and allowed Boeotia and Phocis to be absorbed in the
Athenian empire. They even extended the truce with
Athens for five years longer, and this was promoted by
Cimon, who wished to resume offensive operations against

242 The Age of Pericles. [Chap, xvitl

the Persians. Cimon was allowed to equip a fleet of two
Death of hundred triremes and set sail to Cyprus, where he
Cimon. died. The expedition failed under his successor,

and this closed all further aggressive war with the Persians.

The death of Cimon, whose interest it was to fight the
Pericles Persians, and thus by the spoils and honors of

rivals. war keep up his influence at home, left Pericles

without rivals, and with opportunities to develop his policy
of internal improvements, and the development of national
resources, to enable Athens to maintain her ascendency over
the States of Greece. So he gladly concluded peace with
the Persians, by the terms of which they were excluded from
the coasts of Asia Minor and the islands of the ^Egean ;
while Athens stipulated to make no further aggression on
Cyprus, Phoenicia, Cilicia, and Egypt.

Athens, at peace with all her enemies, with a large empire
Aggrandize- of tributary allies, a great fleet, and large accu-

inent of . 1 ._

Athens. munitions ot treasure, sought now to make herselt

supreme in Greece. The fund o'f the confederacy of Delos
was transferred to the Acropolis. New allies sought her
alliance. It is said the tributary cities amounted to one
thousand. She was not only mistress of the sea, but she was
the equal of Sparta on the land. Beside this political power,
a vast treasure was accumulated in the Acropolis. Such
rapid aggrandizement was bitterly felt by Corinth, Sicyon,
and Sparta, and the feeling of enmity expanded until it
exploded in the Peloponnesian war.

It was w T hile Athens was at this height of power and
renown that further changes were made in the constitution
Change in by Pericles. Great authority was still in the hands
tum C by S rerV- of the court of the Areopagus, which was composed
c!es - exclusively of ex-archons, sitting for life, and

hence of very aristocratic sentiments. It was indeed a judi-
cial body, but its functions were mixed ; it decided all dis-
putes, inquired into crimes, and inflicted punishments. And
it was enabled to enforce its own mandates, which were
without appeal, and led to great injustice and oppression.

Chap. XYIIL] The Dikasts. 243

The magistrates, serving without pay, were generally-
wealthy, and though their offices were eligible to all the citi-
zens, still, practically, only the rich became magistrates, as
is the case with the British House of Commons. Hence,
magistrates possessing large powers, and the senate sitting
for life, all belonging to the wealthy class, were animated by
aristocratic sympathies. But a rapidly increasing democ-
racy succeeded in securing;; the selection of archons increase, of

J m • democratic

by lot, in place of election. This threw more pop- power.
ular elements into the court of Areopagus. The innovations
which Pericles effected, of causing the jury courts, or Dikas-
teries, to be regularly paid, again threw into public life the
poorer citizens. But the great change which he effected was
in transferring to the numerous dikasts, selected from the
citizens, a new judicial power, heretofore exercised by the
magistrates, and the senate of the Areopagus.

The dikasts.

The magistrate, instead of deciding causes and
inflicting punishment beyond the imposition of a small fine,
was constrained to impanel a jury to try the cause. In fact,
the ten dikasts became the leading judicial tribunals, and as
these were composed, each, of five hundred citizens, judg-
ments were virtually made by the people, instead of the old
court. The pay of each man serving as a juror was deter-
mined and punctually paid. The importance of this revolu-
tion will be seen when these dikasts thus became the exclusive
assemblies, of course po]>ular, in which all cases, civil and
criminal, were tried. The magistrates were thus deprived
of the judicial functions which they once enjoyed, and were
confined to purely administrative matters. The commanding
functions of the archon were destroyed, and he only retained
power to hear complaints, and fix the day of trial, and pre-
side over the dikastic assembly. The senate of the Areopa-
gus, which had exercised an inquisitorial power over the
lives and habits of the citizens, and supervised the meetings
of the assembly — a power uncertain but immense, and sus-
tained by ancient customs, — now became a mere nominal tri-
bunal. And this chancre was called for, since the members

244 The Age of Pericles. [Chap, xviii.

of the court were open to bribery and corruption, and bad
abused their powers, little short of paternal despotism. And
Ascendency when the great public improvements, the growth

of the demo- „ to , \ . \ . & _ ,

cratic power, of a new population, the rising importance of the
Pensseus, the introduction of nautical people, and the active
duties of Athens as the head of the Delian confederacy — all,
together, gave force to the democratic elements of society,

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