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gether with Lechseum. This success alarmed Thebes, which
unsuccessfully sued for peace. The war continued, with the
loss, to the Corinthians, of Piraeum, an important island
port, which induced the Thebans again to open negotiations
for peace, which were contemptuously rejected.

In the midst of these successes, tidings came to Agesilaus
of a disaster which was attended with important conse-
Great dis- qucnces, and which spoiled his triumph. This was
Sparta. the destruction of a detachment of six hundred

Lacedaemonian hoplites by the light troops of Iphicrates — an
unprecedented victory — for the hoplites, in their heavy de-
fensive armor, held in contempt the peltarts with their darts
and arrows, even as the knights of mediaeval Europe despised
an encounter with the peasantry. This event revived the
courage of the anti-Spartan allies, and intensely humiliated

Chap. XXL] Death of Thrasybulus. 313

the Lacedaemonians. It was not only the loss of the aris-
tocratic hoplites, but the disgrace of being beaten by peltarts.
Iphicrates recovered the places which Agesilaus had taken,
and Corinth remained undisturbed.

Sparta, in view of these great disasters, now sought to
detach Persia from Athens. She sent Antalcidas to Ionia,
offering to surrender the Asiatic Greeks, and pro- Sparta in-

. . . , , , i /-i vokes the

mismg a universal autonomy throughout the (ire- aid of Persia.
cian world. These overtures were disliked by the allies,
who sent Conon to counteract them. But Antalcidas gained
the favor of the Persian satrap Tiribasus, who had succeeded
Tissaphernes, and he privately espoused the cause of Sparta,
and seized Conon and caused his death. Tiribasus, how-
ever, was not sustained by the Persian court, which remained
hostile to Sparta. Struthas, a Persian general, was sent into
Ionia, to act more vigorously against the Lacedaemonians.
He gained a victory, b. c. 390, over the Spartan forces,
commanded by Thimbron, who was slain.

The Lacedaemonians succeeded, after the death of Conon,
in concentrating a considerable fleet near Rhodes. Against
this, Thrasybulus was sent from Athens with a still larger
one, and was gaining advantages, when he was Death of
slain near Aspendus, in Pamphylia, in a mutiny, buius.
and Athens lost the restorer of her renovated democracy, and
an able general and honest citizen, without the vindictive ani-
mosities which characterized the great men of his day.

Rhodes still held out against the Lacedaemonians, who
were now commanded by Anaxibius, in the place of Dercyl-
lidas. He was surprised by Iphicrates, and was T

r J l Investment

slain, and the Athenians, under this gallant of Ellodes -
leader, again became masters of the Hellespont. But this
success Avas balanced by the defection of iEgina, which
island was constrained by the Lacedaemonians into war with
Athens. I need not detail the various enterprises on both
sides, until Antalcidas returned from Susa with the treaty
confirmed between the Spartans and the court of Persia,
which closed the war between the various contending parties,

314 The Lacedaemonian Empire. [Chap. XXI.

b. c. 387. This treaty was of great importance, but it indi-
cates the loss of all Hellenic dignity when Sparta, too, descends
so far as to comply with the demands of a Persian satrap.
Evil conse- Athens and Sparta, both, at different times, in-

quences of . _ . ....

the rivalries voked the aid oi Persia against each other — the
clan states, most mournful fact in tbe whole history of Greece,
showing how much more powerful were the rivalries of States
than the sentiment of patriotism, which should have united
them against their common enemy. The sacrifice of Ionia
was the price which was paid by Sparta, in order to retain
her supremacy over the rest of Greece, and Persia ruled
over all the Greeks on the Asiatic coast. Sparta became
mistress of Corinth and of the Corinthian Isthmus. She or-
ganized anti-Theban oligarchies in the Boeotian cities, with
a Spartan harmost. She decomposed the Grecian world
into small fragments. She crushed Olythus, and formed a
confederacy between the Persian king and the Dionysius of
Syracuse. In short, she ruled with despotic sway over all
the different States.

We have now to show how Sparta lost the ascendency
she had gained, and became involved in a war with Thebes,
and how Thebes became, under Pelopidas and Epaminondas,
for a time the dominant State of Greece.



After Sparta and Athens, no State of Greece arrived at
pre-eminence, until the Macedonian empire arose,

1 ' . l ' Thebes.

except Thebes, the capital of Bceotia ; and the

empire of this city was short, though memorable, from the

extraordinary military genius of Epaminondas.

In the year b. c. 379, Sparta was the ascendant power of
Greece, and was feared, even as Athens was in the time of
Pericles. She had formed an alliance with the Persian king
and with Dionysius of Syracuse. All Greece, within and
without the Peloponnesus, except Argos and Attica and
some Thessalian cities, was enrolled in a confederacy under
the lead of Sparta, and Spartan governors and garrisons
occupied the principal cities.

Thebes especially was completely under Spartan influence
and control, and was apparently powerless. Her citadel,
the Cadmea, was filled with Spartan soldiers, Under the

1 dominion of

and the independence of Greece was at an end. Sparta.
Confederated with Macedonians, Persians, and Syracusans,
nobody dared to call in question the headship of Sparta, or
to provoke her displeasure.

This destruction of Grecian liberties, with the aid of the
old enemies of Greece, kindled great indignation. The
orator Lysias, at Athens, gave vent to the general invectives
feeling, in which he veils his displeasure under the orators

• against

form of surprise, that Sparta, as the chief of syarta.
Greece, should permit the Persians, under Artaxerxes, and
the Syracusans, under Dionysius, to enslave Greece. The
orator Isocrates spoke still more plainly, and denounced the

316 The Republic of Thebes. [Chap, xxil

Lacedaemonians as " traitors to the general security and free-
dom of Greece, and seconding foreign kin^s to aggrandize
themselves at the cost of autonomous Grecian cities — all in
the interest of their own selfish ambition." Even Xeno-
phon, Avith all his partiality for Sparta, was still more em-
phatic, and accused the Laced aenionians with the violation
of their oaths.

In Thebes the discontent was most apparent, for their
leading citizens were exiled, and the oligarchal party, headed
Discontent by Leontiades and the Spartan garrison, was op-
in Thebes, passive and tyrannical. The Theban exiles found
at Athens sympathy and shelter. Among these was Pelopi-
das, who resolved to free his country from the Spartan yoke.
Holding intimate correspondence with his friends in Thebes,
he looked forward patiently for the means of effecting de-
liverance, which could only be effected by the destruction
of Leontiades and his colleagues, who ruled the city. Phili-
das, secretary of the polemarchs, entered into the conspiracy,
and, being sent in an embassy to Athens, concocted the
way for Pelopidas and his friends to return to Thebes and
effect a revolution. Charon, an eminent patriot, agreed to
shelter the conspirators in his house until they struck the
blow. Epaminondas, then living at Thebes, dissuaded the
enterprise as too hazardous, although all his sympathies were
with the conspirators.

When all was ready, Philidas gave a banquet at his house
to the polemarchs, agreeing to introduce into the company
Rebellion some women of the first families of Thebes, dis-

under , ,

piniidas. tinguished for their beauty. In concert with the
Theban exiles at Athens, Pelopidas, with six companions,
crossed Cithoeron and arrived at Thebes, in December, b. c.
379, disguised as hunters, with no other arms than concealed
daggers. By a fortunate accident they entered the gates
and sought shelter in the house of Charon until the night of
the banquet. They were introduced into the banqueting
chamber when the polemarchs were full of wine, disguised
in female attire, and, with the aid of their Theban conspira-

Chap. XXII.] Rebellion of Thebes. 317

tors, dispatched three of the polemarchs with their daggers.
Leontiades was not present, but the conspirators were con-
ducted secretly to his house, and effected their purpose.
Leontiades was slain, in the presence of his wife. The con-
spirators then proceeded to the prison, slew the jailor, and
liberated the prisoners, and then proclaimed, by

Its success

heralds, in the streets, at midnight, that the des-
pots were slain and Thebes was free. But the Spartans still
held possession of the citadel, and, apprised of the coup
cPetat, sent home for re-enforcements. But before they could
arrive Pelopidas and the enfranchised citizens stormed the
Cadmea, dispersed the garrison, put to death the oligarchal
Thebans, and took full possession of the city.

This unlooked-for revolution was felt throughout Greece like
an electric shock, and had a powerful moral effect. But the
Spartans, although it was the depth of winter, The Theban

j, , ,. . n t^- m i revolution

sent forth an expedition, under King Cleombrotus — produces a

... . . , . , , , rm i great sensa-

Agesilaus being disabled — to reconquer lhebes. uon.
He conducted his army along the Isthmus of Corinth, through
Megara, but did nothing, and returned, leaving his lieutenant,
Sphodrias, to prosecute hostilities. Sphodrias, learning that
the Pirseus was undefended, undertook to seize it, but
foiled, which outrage so incensed the Athenians, that they
dismissed the Lacedaemonian envoys, and declared war
against Sparta. Athens now exerted herself to Thebes
form a second maritime confederacy, like that of anoe with 111 "
Delos, and Thebes enrolled herself a member. Athens -
As the Athenian envoys, sent to the islands of the JSgeau,
promised the most liberal principles, a new confederacy was
formed. The confederates assembled at Athens and threat-
ened war on an extensive scale. A resolution was passed to
equip twenty thousand hopiites, five hundred horsemen, and
two hundred triremes. A new property-tax was imposed at
Athens to carry on the war.

At Thebes there was great enthusiasm, and Pelopidas,
with Charon and Melon, were named the first boeo- Theban eov-
trarchs. The Theban government became demo- ernment -

318 The Republic of Thebes. [Chap. xxn.

cratic in form and spirit, and the military force was put upon
a severe training. A new brigade of three hundred hoplites,
called the Sacred Band, was organized for the special defense
of the citadel, composed of young men from the best families,
distinguished for strength and courage. The Thebans had
always been good soldiers, but the popular enthusiasm raised
up the best army for its size in Greece.

Epaminondas now stands forth as a leader of rare excel-
Epamiuon- lence, destined to achieve the greatest military rep-
utation of any Greek, before or since his time, with
the exception of Alexander the Great — a kind of Gustavus
Adolphus, introducing new tactics into Grecian warfare.
He was in the prime of life, belonging to a poor but honor-
able family, younger than Pelopidas, who was rich. He had
His accom- acquired great reputation for his gymnastic exer-
piishments. c [ ses ^ an( j was t ] ie most cultivated man in Thebes,
a good musician, and a still greater orator. He learned to
play on both the lyre and flute from the teachings of the
best masters, sought the conversation of the learned, but
was especially eloquent in speech, and effective, even against
the best Athenian opponents. He was modest, unambitious,
patriotic, intellectual, contented with poverty, generous, and
disinterested. When the Cadmea was taken, he was undis-
tinguished, and his rare merits were only known to Pelopidas
and his friends. He was among the first to join the revolu-
tionists, and was placed by Pelopidas among the organizers
of the military force.

The Spartans now made renewed exertions, and King
Agesilaus, the greatest military man of whom Sparta can
boast, marched with a large army, in the spring of b. c. 378,
Sparta to attack Thebes. He established his head-quar-

attacks . . l

Thebes. tors in Thespia?, from which he issued to devastate
the Theban territory.

The Thebans and Athenians, unequal in force, still kept
the field against him, acting on the defensive, declining
battle, and occupying strong positions. After a month of
desultory warfare, Agesilaus retired, leaving Phosbidas

Chap. XXII.] Naval Victory. 319

in command at Thespise, who was slain in an incautious
pursuit of the enemy.

In the ensuing summer Agesilaus undertook a second expe-
dition into Boeotia, but gained no decided advantage, while
the Thebans acquired experience, courage, and strength.
Agesilaus having strained his lame leg, was inca- Second un _
pacitated for active operation, and returned to expedition
Sparta, leaving Cleombrotus to command the of Agesilaus.
Spartan forces. He was unable to enter Bceotia, since the
passes over Mount Cithaaron were held by the Thebans, and
he made an inglorious retreat, without even reaching Boeotia.

The Spartans now resolved to fit out a large naval force
to operate against Athens, by whose assistance the Thebans
had maintained their ground for two years. The Athenians,
on their part, also fitted out a fleet, assisted by their allies,
under the command of Chabrias, which defeated the Lace-
daemonian fleet near ISTaxos, b. c. 376. This was the Naval vie-
first great victory which Athens had gained since Athenians. '
the Peloponnesian war, and filled her citizens with joy and
confidence, and led to a material enlargement of their mari-
time confederacy. Phocion, who had charge of a squadron
detached from the fleet of Chabrias, also sailed victorious
round the -ZEgean, took twenty triremes, three thousand
prisoners, with one hundred and ten talents in money, and
annexed seventeen cities to the confederacy. Timotheus,
the son of Conon, was sent with the fleet of Chabrias, to
circumnavigate the Peloponnesus, and alarm the coast of
Laconia. The important island of Corcyra entered into the
confederation, and another Spartan fleet, under Nicolochus,
was defeated, so that the Athenians became once again the
masters of the sea. But having regained their ascendency,
Athens became jealous of the growing power of Thebes, now
mistress of Boeotia, and this jealousy, inexcusable after such
reverses, was increased when Pelopidas gained a great vic-
tory over the Lacedaemonians near Tegyra, which victory of
led to the expulsion of their enemies from all parts Polol ' ldas -
of Boeotia, except Orchomenus, on the borders of Phocis.

320 The Republic of Thebes. [Chap. xxii.

That territory was now attacked by the victorious Thebans,
upon which Athens made peace with the Lacedaemonians.

It would thus seem that the ancient Grecian States were
Thejeaiousy perpetually jealous of any ascendant power, and
cLn'repub- tne i r policy was not dissimilar from that which
'hcs. was inaugurated in modern Europe since the treaty

of Westphalia — called the balance of power. Greece, thus
far, was not ambitious to extend her rule over foreign na-
tions, but sought an autonomous independence of the several
States of which she was composed. Had Greece united
under the leadership of Sparta or Athens, her foreign con-
quests might have been considerable, and her power, cen-
tralized and formidable, might have been a match even for
the Romans. But in the anxiety of each State to secure its
independence, there were perpetual and unworthy jealousies
of each rising State, when it had reached a certain point of
prosperity and glory. Hence the various States united under
Sparta, in the Peloponnesian war, to subvert the ascendency
of Athens. And when Sparta became the dominant power
of Greece, Athens unites with Thebes to break her domina-
tion. And now Athens becomes jealous of Thebes, and
makes peace with Sparta, in the same way that England in
the eighteenth century united with Holland and other
States, to prevent the aggrandizement of France, as different
powers of Europe had previously united to prevent the
ascendency of Austria.

The Spartan power was now obviously humbled, and one
Humiliation °f the greatest evidences of this was the decline
of Sparta. f gp ar t a to give aid to the cities of Thessaly, in
danger of being conquered by Jason, the despot of Pherae,
whose formidable strength was now alarming Northern

The peace which Sparta had concluded with Athens was
of very short duration. The Lacedaemonians resolved to
attack Corcyra, which had joined the Athenian confederation.
An armament collected from the allies, under Mnasippus,
in the spring of b. c. 373, proceeded against Corcyra. The

Chap, xxii.] Athens and Sparta at Peace. 321

inhabitants, driven within the walls of the city, were in
danger of famine, and invoked Athenian aid. Before it
arrived, however, the Corcyraeans made a successful sally
upon the Spartan troops, over-confident of victory, in which
Mnasippus was slain, and the city became supplied with
provisions. After the victory, Iphicrates, in com- Hostilities
mand of the Athenian fleet, which had been ^hlnsand
delayed, arrived and captured the ships which s P- ai ' ta -
Dionysius of Syracuse had sent to the aid of the Lacedae-
monians. These reverses induced the Spartans to send
Antalcidas again to Persia to sue for fresh intervention, but
the satraps, having nothing more to gain from Spartn,
refused aid. But Athens was not averse to peace, since she
no longer was jealous of Sparta, and was jealous of Thebes.
In the mean time Thebes seized Plataea, a town of Boeotia,
unfriendty to her ascendency, and expelled the inhabitants
who sought shelter in Athens, and increased the feeling of
disaffection toward the rising power. This event led to
renewed negotiations for peace between Athens Peacebe .
and Sparta, which was effected at a congress held Athens and
in the latter city. The Athenian orator Calli- 8parta -
stratus, one of the envoys, proposed that Sparta and Athens
should divide the headship of Greece between them, the
former having the supremacy on land, the latter on the sea.
Peace was concluded on the basis of the autonomy of
each city.

Epaminondas was the Theban deputy to this congress.
He insisted on taking the oath in behalf of the Epaminon _
Boeotian confederation, even as Sparta had done crasresstf
for herself and allies. But Agesilaus required he s P arta -
should take the oath for Thebes alone, as Athens had done
for herself alone. He refused, and made himself memorable
for his eloquent speeches, in which he protested against the
pretensions of Sparta. " Why," he maintained, " should not
Thebes respond for Boeotia, as well as Sparta for Laconia,
since Thebes had the same ascendency in Boeotia that Sparta
had in Laconia?" Agesilaus, at last, indignantly started

322 The BepubUe of Thebes. [Chap. xxn.

from his seat, and said to Epaminondas : " Speak plainly.
Will you, or will you not, leave to each of the Ba?otian cities
its separate autonomy?" To which the other replied:
" Will you leave each of the Laconian towns autonomous ?''
Without saying a word, Agesilaus struck the name of theThe-
bans out of the roll, and they were excluded from the treaty.
The war now is to be prosecuted between Sparta and
Thebes, since peace was sworn between all the other States.
Renewal of The deputies of Thebes returned home discour-

hostilities , .

between aged, knowing that their city must now encounter,

Sparta and » > O J

Thebes. single-handed, the whole power of the dominant
State of Greece. " The Athenians — friendly w T ith both, yet
allies with neither — suffered the dispute to be fought out
without interfering." The point of it was, whether Thebes
was in the same relation to the Boeotian towns that Sparta
was to the Laconian cities. Agesilaus contended that the
relations between Thebes and other Boeotian cities was the
same as what subsisted between Sparta and her allies. This
was opposed by Epaminondas.

After the congress of b. c. 371, both Sparta and Athens
fulfilled the conditions to which their deputies had sworn.
The latter gave orders to Iphicrates to return home with his
fleet, which had threatened the Lacedaemonian coast; the
Great prepa- former recalled her harmosts and garrisons from

rations of . . . . *-

Sparta. all the cities which she occupied, while she made

preparations, with all her energies, to subdue Thebes. It
was anticipated that so powerful a State as Sparta would
soon accomplish her object, and few out of Boeotia doubted
her success.

King Cleombrotus was accordingly ordered to march out
of Phocis, where he was with a powerful force, into Boeotia.
Epaminondas, with a body of Thebans, occupied a narrow
pass near Coronea, between a spur of Mount Helicon and
the Lake Copais. But instead of forcing this pass, the Spar-
Defeat of a tan king turned southward bv a mountain road,

Theban . .

force. over Helicon, deemed scarcely practicable, and de-

feated a Theban division which guarded it, and marched to

Chap. XXII] Tactics of Epaminondas. 323

Creusis, on the Gulf of Alcyonis, and captured twelve The-
ban triremes in the harbor. He then left a garrison to occupy
the post, and proceeded over a mountainous road in the
territory of Thespise, on the eastern declivity of Helicon, to
Leuctra, where he encamped. He was now near Thebes,
having a communication with Sparta through the port of
Creusis. The Thebans were dismayed, and it required all
the tact and eloquence of Epaminondas and Pelopidas to
rally them. They marched out at length from Thebes, under
their seven boeotrarchs, and posted themselves opposite the
Spartan camp. Epaminondas was one of these generals,
and urged immediate battle, although the Theban forces
were inferior.

It was through him that a change took place in the ordi-
narv Grecian tactics. It was customary to fisjht Military tac-

J .... ticsof'Epam-

simultaneously along the whole line, in which the inondas.
opposing armies were drawn up. Departing from this cus-
tom, he disposed his troops obliquely, or in echelon, placing
on his left chosen Theban hoplites to the depth of fifty, so as
to bear with impetuous force on the Spartan right, while his
centre and right were kept back for awhile from action.
Such a combination, so unexpected, was completely successful.
The Spartans could not resist the concentrated and impetuous
assault made on their right, led by the Sacred Band, with
fifty shields propelling behind. Cleombrotus, the Spartan
king, was killed, with the most distinguished of his staff, and
the Spartans were driven back to their camp. The allies,
who fought without spirit or heart, could not be rallied.
The victory was decisive, and made an immense Great vieto-

„ n • , T 7 obtained

impression throughout Greece; for it was only by Thebes.
twenty days since Epaminondas had departed from Sparta,
excluded from the general peace. The Spartans bore the de-
feat with their characteristic fortitude, but their prestige was
destroyed. A new general had arisen in Boeotia, who carried
every thing before him. The Athenians heard of the victory
with ill-concealed jealousy of the rising power.

Jason, the tyrant of Pheraa, now joined the Theban camp

324 The Republic of Thebes. [Chap. xxii.

and the Spartan army was obliged to evacuate Boeotia.
The Spartans The great victory of Leuctra gave immense ex-
Boeotia. tension to the Theban power, and broke the Spartan

rule north of the Peloponnesus. All the cities of Boeotia
acknowledged the Theban supremacy, while the harmosts
which Sparta had placed in the Grecian cities were forced to
return home. Sparta was now discouraged and helpless, and
even many Peloponnesian cities put themselves under the
presidency of Athens. None were more affected by the
Spartan overthrow than the Arcadians, whose principal
cities had been governed by an oligarchy in the interest
of Sparta, such as Tegea and Orchomenus, while Mantinea
was broken up into villages. The Arcadians, free from
Spartan governors, and ceasing to look henceforth for vic-
tory and plunder in the service of Sparta, became hostile,
and sought their political independence. A Pan-Arcadian
union was formed.

Sparta undertook to recover her supremacy over Arcadia,
and Agesilaus was sent to Mantinea with a considerable

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