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Agesiiaus force, for the city had rebuilt its, walls, and resum-

marches into , . „ ,... i • i r

Arcadia. ed its former consolidation, which was a great of-
fense in the eyes of Sparta. The Arcadians, invaded by Spar-
tans, first invoked the aid of Athens, which being refused,
they turned to Thebes, and Epaminondas came to their re-
lief with a great army of auxiliaries — Argeians, Elians, Pho-
cians, Locrians, as well as Thebans, for his fame now drew
adventurers from every quarter to his standard. These
Epaminon- forces urged him to invade Laconia itself, and his

das invades • r> •>• • • -i i

Sparta. great army, m four divisions, penetrated the coun-

try through different passes. He crossed the Eurotas and
advanced to Sparta, which was in the greatest consternation,
not merely from the near presence of Epaminondas with a
powerful army of seventy thousand men, but from the dis-
content of the Helots. But Agesilaus put the city in the
best possible defense, while every means were used to secure
auxiliaries from other cities. Epaminondas dared not to
attempt to take the city by storm, and after ravaging Laco-

Chap. XXIL] Sparta Dismembered. 325

nia, returned into Arcadia. This insult to Sparta was of
great moral force, and was an intense humiliation, greater
even than that felt after the battle of Leuctra.

This expedition, though powerless against Sparta herself,
prepared Epaminondas to execute the real object which led
to the assistance of the Arcadians. This was the Restores the

iTi r-Ti- • i-ii independence

re-establishment of Messenia, which had been con- of Messenia.
quered by Sparta two hundred years before. The new city
of Messenia was built on the site of Mount Ithome, where the
Messenians had defended themselves in their long war against
the Laconians, and the best masons and architects were invit-
ed from all Greece to lay out the streets, and erect the public
edifices, while Epaminondas superintended the fortifications.
All the territory westward and south of Ithome — the south-
western corner of the Peloponnesus, richest on the peninsula,
was now subtracted from Sparta, while the country to the
east was protected by the new city in Arcadia, Megalopolis,
which the Arcadians built. This wide area, the best half of
the Spartan territory, was thus severed from Sparta, and was
settled by Helots, who became free men, with in- The Spartan

■ill! t t-. kingdom dis-

extmguishable hatred of their old masters. But membered.
these Helots were probably the descendants of the old Mes-
senians whom Sparta had conquered. This renovation of
Messenia, and the building of the two cities, Messenia and
Megalopolis, was the work of Epaminondas, and were the
most important events of the day. The latter city was
designed as the centre of a new confederacy, comprising all

Sparta being thus crippled, dismembered, and humbled,
Epaminondas evacuated the Peloponnesus, filled, however,
with undiminished hostility. Sparta condescends to solicit aid
from Athens, so completely was its power broken Sparta forms
by the Theban State, and Athens consents to with Athens,
assist her, in the growing fear and jealousy of Thebes,
thereby showing that the animosities of the Grecian States
grew out of political jealousy rather than from revenge or
injury. To rescue Sparta was a wise policy, if it were

326 The Itepxiblie of Thebes. [Chap. xxii.

necessary to maintain a counterpoise against the ascendency
of Thebes. An army was raised, and Iphicrates was ap-
pointed general. He first marched to Corinth, and from
thence into Arcadia, but made war with no important results.
Such were the great political changes which occurred
within two years under the influence of such a hero as
Epaminondas. Laconia had been invaded and devastated,
the Spartans were confined within their walls, Messenia had
been liberated from Spartan rule, two important cities had
been built, to serve as great fortresses to depress Sparta,
Greece Helots were converted into freemen, and Greece

emancipat- . „ in

ed from the generally had been emancipated from the Spartan

Spartan '

yoke. yoke. Such were the consequences of the battle

of Leuctra.

And this battle, which thus destroyed the prestige of
Sparta, also led to renewed hopes on the part of the Athen-
ians to regain the power they had lost. Athens already had
regained the ascendency on the sea, and looked for increased
maritime aggrandizement. On the land she could only
remain a second class power, and serve as a bulwark against
Theban ascendency.

Athens sought also to recover Amphipolis — a maritime
Athens seeks city, colonized by Athenians, at the head of the

to recover . " . . .

Amphipolis. Strymomcan Gulf, m Macedonia, which was taken
from her in the Peloponnesian war, by Brasidas. Amyntas,
the king of Macedonia, seeking aid against Jason of Pheraj,
whose Thessalian dominion and personal talents and ambi-
tion combined to make him a powerful potentate, consented
to the right of Athens to this city. But Amyntas died not
long after the assassination of Jason, and both Thessaly and
Macedonia were ruled by new kings, and new complications
took place. Many Thessalian cities, hostile to Alexander,
the son of Jason, invoked the aid of Thebes, and Pelopidas
a part of was sent into Thessaly with an army, who took

Thessaly . . J . . , \ .

under the Larissa and various other cities under his protec-

protection . , - „, . ..

of Thebes, tion. A large part of lhessaly thus came under
the protection of Thebes. On the other hand, Alexander,

Chap, xxii.] Theban Supremacy. 327

Avho succeeded Amyntas in Macedonia, found it difficult
to maintain his own dominion without holding Thessalian
towns in garrison. He was also harassed by interior com-
motions, headed by Pausanias, and was slain. Ptolemy, of
Alorus, now became regent, and administered the kingdom
in the name of the minor children of Amyntas — Perdiccas and
Philip. The mother of these children, Eurydice, presented
herself, with her children, to Tphicrates, and invoked pro-
tection. He declared in her favor, and expelled Pausanias,
and secured the sceptre of Amyntas, who had been friendly
to the Athenians, to his children, under Ptolemy as regent.
The younger of these children lived to overthrow the liber-
ties of Greece.

But Iphicrates did not recover Amphipolis, which was a
free city, and had become attached to the Spartans after
Brasiclas had taken it. Iphicrates was afterward sent to
assist Sparta in the desperate contest with Thebes. The
Spartan allied army occupied Corinth, and guarded the
passes which prevented the Thebans from penetrating into
the Peloponnesus. Epaminondas broke through the defenses
of the Spartans, and opened a communication with his
Peloponnesian allies, and with these increased forces was
more than a match for the Spartans and Athenians. He
ravaged the country, induced Sicyon to abandon Sparta,
and visited Arcadia to superintend the building of Megalopo-
lis. Meanwhile Pelopidas, B.C. 368, conducted an expedition
into Thessaly, to protect Larissa against Alexander of
Phera3, and to counterwork the projects of that despot,
who was in league with Athens. He was successful, and
then proceeded to Macedonia, and made peace with
Ptolemy, who was not strong enough to resist him, taking,
amonsj other hostages to Thebes, Philip, the son of The Theban

° ° . supremacy

Amyntas. The Thebans and Macedonians now in Thessaly

mid. Mtico-

united to protect the freedom of Amphipolis against donia.
Athens, Pelopidas returned to Thebes, having extended
her ascendency over both Thessaly and Macedonia.

Thebes, now ambitious for the headship of Greece, sent

328 The Republic of Thebes. [Cuap. xxii.

Pelopidas on a mission to the Persian king at Susa, who
Thebes now obtained a favorable rescript. The States which

aspires to n __, .

the leader- were summoned to J.nebes to hear the rescript
Greece. read refused' to accept it ; and even the Arca-
dian deputies protested against the headship of Thebes.
So powerful were the sentiments of all the Grecian States,
from first to last, against the complete ascendency of any-
one power, either Athens, or Sparta, or Thebes. The rescript
was also rejected at Corinth. Pelopidas was now sent
to Thessaly to secure the recognition of the headship of
Thebes ; but in the execution of his mission he was seized
and detained by Alexander of Pherse.

The Thebans then sent an army into Thessaly to rescue
Pelopidas. Unfortunately, Epaminondas did not command
it. Having given offense to his countrymen, he was not
elected that year as boeotrarch, and served in the ranks as
a private hoplite. Alexander, assisted by the Athenians,
triumphed in his act of treachery, and treated his illustrious
captive with harshness and cruelty, and the Theban army,
unsuccessful, returned home.

The Thebans then sent another army, under Epaminondas,
Thebes res- into Thessaly for the rescue of Pelopidas, and such
das. was the terror of his name, that Alexander surren-

dered his prisoner, and sought to make peace. But the
rescue of Pelopidas disabled Thebes from prosecuting the
war in the Peloponnesus. As soon, however, as this was
effected, Epaminondas was sent as an envoy into Arcadia to
dissuade her from a proposed alliance with Athens, and there
had to contend with the Athenian orator Callistratus. The
Complicated relations of the different Grecian States now bc-

politicalre- . .

lationsof came so complicated, that it is useless, m a book

the Grecian . __ .

states. like this, to attempt to unravel them. .Negotia-

tions between Athens and Persia, the efforts of Corinth and
other cities to secure peace, the ambition of Athens to main-
tain ascendency on the sea, the creation of a Theban navy — ■
these and other events must be passed by.

But we can not omit to notice the death of Pelopidas.

Chap. XXII.] Revolt of Orchomenus. 329

He had been sent with an army into Thessaly against
Alexander of Pherse, who was at the height of his Death of Pe ,
power, holding in dependence a considerable part of lo P ldas -
Thessaly, and having Athens for an ally. In a battle which
took place between Pelopidas and Alexander, near Pharsa-
lus, the Thessalians were routed. Pelopidas, seeing his
enemy apparently within his reach, and remembering only his
injuries, sallied forth, unsupported, like Cyrus, on the field
of Cunaxa, at the sight of his brother, to attack him when
surrounded by his guards, and fell while fighting bravely.
Nothing could exceed the grief of the victorious Grlef of tb
Thebans in view of this disaster, which was the Thi3bans -
result of inexcusable rashness. He was endeared by unin-
terrupted services from the day he slew the Spartan gov-
ernors and recovered the independence of his city. He had
taken a prominent part in all the struggles which had raised
Thebes to unexpected glory, and was second in abilities to
Epaminondas alone, whom he ever cherished with more than
fraternal friendship, without envy and without reproach. All
that Thebes could do was to revenge his death. Alexander
was stripped of all his Thessalian dependencies, and confined
to his own city, with its territory, near the Gulf of Pegasae.

It was while Pelopidas was engaged in his Thessalian
campaign, that a conspiracy against the power of Orchomenus

mi : , , . . \ , . „ i, . revolts from

Ihebes took place m the second city ot ±>oeotia — Thebes.
Orchomenus, on Lake Copais. This city was always disaf-
fected, and in the absence of Pelopidas in Thessaly, and
Epaminondas with a fleet on the Hellespont, some three
hundred of the richest citizens undertook to overthrow the
existing government. The plot was discovered before it
was ripe for execution, the conspirators were executed,
the town itself was destroyed, the male adults Unfortunate

J . fate of the

were killed, and the women and children were city.
sold into slavery. This barbarous act was but the result of
long pent up Theban hatred, but it kindled a great excite-
ment against Thebes throughout Greece. The city, indeed,
sympathized with the Spartan cause, and would have been

330 The Republic of Thebes. [Chap. xxii.

destroyed before but for the intercession of Epaminondas,
whose policy was ever lenient and magnanimous. It -was a
matter of profound grief to this general, now re-elected as
one of the boeotarchs, that Thebes had stained her name by
this cruel vengeance, since he knew it would intensify the
increasing animosity against the power which had arrived
so suddenly to greatness.

Hostilities, as he feared, soon broke out with increased
Renewed bitterness between Sparta and Thebes. And
hostilities. these were precipitated by difficulties in Arcadia,
then at war with Elis, and the appropriation of the treasures
of Olympia by the Arcadians. Sparta, Elis, and Achaia
formed an alliance, and Arcadia invoked the aid of Thebes.
The result was that Epaminondas marched with a large
army into the Peloponnesus, and mustered his forces at
Tegea, which was under the protection of Thebes. His army
comprised, besides Thebans and Boeotians, Euboeans, Thessali-
ans, Locriarjs, and other allies from Northern Greece. The
Spartans, allied with Elians, Achseans, and Athenians, united
at Mantinea, under the command of Agesilaus, now an old
man of eighty, but still vigorous and strong. Tegea lay in
the direct road from Sparta to Mantinea, and while Agesi-
Epaminon- l aus was moving by a more circuitous route to the
tosui- t<? iTse tS westward, Epaminondas resolved to attempt a
Sparta. surprise on Sparta, This movement was unex-

pected, and nothing saved Sparta except the accidental
information which Agesilaus received of the movement
from a runner, in time to turn back to Sparta and
put it in a condition of defense before Epaminondas
arrived, for Tegea was only about thirty miles from
Sparta. The Theban general was in no condition to assault
the city, and his enterprise failed, from no fault of his.
Seeing that Sparta was defended, he marched back immedi-
ately to Tegea, and dispatched his cavalry to surprise Man-
tinea, about fifteen miles distant. The surprise was baffled
by the unexpected arrival of Athenian cavahy. An encoun-
ter took place between these two bodies of cavalry, in which

Chap, xxii.] Death of Epaminondas. 331

the Athenians gained an advantage. Epaminondas saw
then no chance left for striking a blow but by a pitched
battle, with all his forces. He therefore marched from
Tegea toward the enemy, who did not expect to be attacked,
and was unprepared. He adopted the same tactics that
gave him success at Leuctra, and posted himself, with his
Theban phalanx on the left, against the opposing His great

■ i t t t • i • • -i i n ii victory over

right, and bore down with irresistible force, both the Lacedaa-
of infantry and cavalry, while he kept back the Mantinea.
centre and right, composed of his trustworthy troops, until
the battle should be decided. His column, not far from fifty
shields in depth, pressed upon the opposing column of only
eight shields in depth, like the prow of a trireme impelled
against the midships of an antagonist in a sea-fight. This
mode of attack was completely successful. Epaminondas
broke through the Lacedaemonian line, which turned and
fled, but he himself, pressing on to the attack, at the
head of his column, was mortally wounded. He
was pierced with a spear — the handle broke, leaving the
head sticking in his breast. He at once fell, and his own
troops gathered around his bleeding body, giving full ex-
pression to their grief and lamentations.

Thebes gained, by the battle of Mantinea, the preservation
of her Arcadian allies and of her anti-Spartan frontier; while
Sparta lost, beyond hope, her ancient prestige and His great
power. But the victory was dearly purchased by genius.
the death of Epaminondas, who has received, and probably
deserves, more unmingled admiration than any hero whom
Greece ever produced. He Avas a great military genius, and
introduced new tactics into the art of war. He was a true
patriot, thinking more of the glory of his country than his
own exaltation. He was a man of great political insight,
and merits the praise of being a great statesman. He was,
above all, unsullied by vices, generous, devoted, merciful in
war, magnanimous in victory, and laborious in H ischarac-
peace. He was also learned, eloquent, and wise, ter -
ruling by moral wisdom as well as by genius. His death

332 The Bepullio of Thebes. [Chap. xxii.

was an irreparable loss — one of those great men whom his
country could not spare, and whose services no other man
could render. Of modern heroes he most resembles Gusta-
vus Adolphus. And as the Thirty Years in Germany loses
all its interest after the battle of Leutzen, when the Swedish
hero laid down his life in defense of his Protestant brethren,
so the Theban contest with Sparta has no great significance
after the battle of Mantinea. The only great blunder which
Epaminondas made was to encourage his countrymen to
compete with Athens for the sovereignty of the seas. That
sovereignty was the natural empire of Athens, even as the
empire of the land was the glory of Sparta. If these two
powers had been contented with their own peculiar sphere,
and joined in a true alliance with each other, the empire of
Greece might have resisted the encroachments of Philip and
Alexander, and defied the growing ascendency of Rome.

Shortly after the death of Epaminondas, b. c. 362, the
Death of greatest man of Spartan annals disappeared from
Agesiiaus. ^ Q s t a g e f history. Agesilaus died in Egypt,
having gone there to assist the king in his revolt from Persia.
He also possessed all the great qualities of a prince, a soldier,
a statesman and a man. He, too, was ambitious, but only to
perpetuate the power of Sparta. It was his misfortune to
contend with a greater man, but he did all that was in the
Death of power of a king of Sparta to retrieve her fortunes,
and died deeply lamented and honored. Artaxerxes
died b. c. 358, after having subdued the revolt of his satraps
and of Egypt, having reigned forty-five years, and Ochus suc-
ceeded to his throne, taking his father's name.

Athens recovered, during the wars between Sparta and
Thebes, much of her former maritime power, and succeeded
Phiii of ^ n staking the Chersonese. But another great
Macedon. character now arises to our view — Philip of Mace-
don, who succeeded in overturning the liberties of Greece.
But before we present his career, that of Dionysius of Syra-
cuse, demands a brief notice, and the great power of Sicily,
as a Grecian State, during his life.


Dioxrsrus a:nt> sicily.

We have already seen how the Athenian fleet was de-
stroyed at the siege of Syracuse, where Nicias and Demos-
thenes were so lamentably defeated, which defeat resulted
in the humiliation of Athens and the loss of her power as the
leading State of Greece.

The destruction of this great Athenian armament in Sep-
tember, b. c. 413, created an intoxication of triumph in the
Sicilian cities. Nearly all of them had joined Syracuse,
except ISTaxos and Catana, which sided with Athens. Agri-
gentum was neutral.

« The Syracusans were too much exhausted by the contest
to push their victory to the loss of the independence of these
cities, but they assisted their allies, the Lacedre- s yraciise
monians, with twenty triremes against Athens, fonureof
under Hermocrates, while Rhodes furnished a still Nicuis -
further re-enforcement, under Dorieus; But the Peloponne-
sian war was not finished as soon as the S} r racusans anti-
cipated. Even the combined Peloponnesian and Syracusan
fleets sustained two defeats in the Hellespont. The battle
of Cyzicus was even still more calamitous, since the Spartan
admiral Mindarus was slain, and the whole of his fleet was
captured and destroyed. The Syracusans suffered much by
this latter defeat, and all their triremes were burned to pre-
vent them falling into the hands of their enemies, and the
seamen were left destitute on the Propontis, in the satraj)y
of Pharnabazus. These adverse events led to the disgrace
of Hermocrates, who stimulated the movement and promised
what he could not perform. But his conduct had been good,

334 Dionysius and Sicily. [Cha*. xxiii.

and his treatment was unjust and harsh. War recognizes
only success, whatever may be the virtues and talents of
the commanders ; and this is one of the worst phases of war,
when accident and circumstances contribute more to military
rewards than genius itself.

The banishment of Hermocrates was followed by the
triumph of the democratical party, and Diodes, an influential
internal citizen, was named, with a commission of ten, to

condition of . .

the city. revise the constitution and the laws. The laws of
Diocles did not remain in force long, and were exceeding
severe in their penalties. But they were afterward revived,
and copied by other Sicilian cities, and remained in force to
the Grecian conquest of the island.

The Syracusans then prosecuted war with vigor against
Naxos, which sided with Athens, until it was brought to a
The wars of sudden close by an invasion of the Carthaginians,
cusanswith ^ ie an cient foes of Greece. As far back as the
Carthage. vear 43Q B c< — ^ nat y ear w hi cri witnessed the inva-
sion of Greece by Xerxes — the Carthaginians had invaded
Sicily, with a mercenary army under Hamilcar, for the purpose
of reinstating the tyrant of Himera, expelled by Theron of
Agrigentum. The Carthaginian army was routed, and
Hamilcar was slain by Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse. This
defeat was so signal, that it was seventy years before the Car-
thaginians again invaded Sicily, shortly after the destruction
of Athenian power at Syracuse. ISTo sooner was the pro-
tecting naval power of Athens withdrawn from Greece, than
the Persians and the Carthaginians pressed upon the Hel-
lenic world.

It is singular that so little is known of the early his-
tory of Carthage, which became the great rival of Rome.
It was founded by the Phoenicians, and became a

Carthage. • -, -, .

considerable commercial city before Athens had
reached the naval supremacy of Greece. Her possessions
were extensive on the coast of Africa, both east and west,
comprehending Sardinia and the Balearic isles. At the
maximum of her power, before the first Punic war, the popu-

Chap. XXIIL] Carthage. 335

lation was nearly a million of people. It was built on a
fortified peninsula of about twenty miles in circumference,
with the isthmus. Upon this isthmus was the citadel Byrsa,
surrounded with a triple wall, and crowned at its summit
by a magnificent temple of JEsculapius. It possessed three
hundred tributary cities in Libya, which was but a small
part of the great empire which belonged to it in the fourth
century before Christ. All the towns on the coast, even
those founded by the Phoenicians, like Hippo and its maritime
Utica, were tributary, with the exception of Utica. P oWtr -
Although the Carthaginians were averse to land service, yet
no less than forty thousand hoplites, with one thousand
cavalry and two thousand war chariots, marched out from
the gates to resist an enemy. But the Carthaginian armies
were mostly composed of mercenaries — Gauls, Iberians, and
Libyans, and forming a discordant host in language and

The political constitution of Carthage was oligarchial.
Two kings were elected annually, and presided over the
Senate, of three hundred persons, made up from Its po ii t i ca i
the principal families. The great families divided COIlstitution -
between them, as in Rome, the offices and influence of the
State, and maintained an insolent distinction from the
people. It was an aristocracy, based on wealth, and
created by commerce, as in. Venice, in the Middle Ages.
There was a demos, or people, at Carthage, who were
consulted on particular occasions ; but, Avhether numerous
or not, they were kept in dependence to the rich families
by banquets and lucrative employments. The government
was stable and well conducted, both for internal tranquillity
find commercial aggrandizement.

The first eminent historical personage was Mago, b. c. 500,
who greatly extended the dominions of Carthage. Of his
two sons, Hamilcar was defeated and slain by i ts eminent
Gelon of Syracuse. The other son, Hasdrubal, men -
perished in Sardinia. His sons remained the most powerful
citizens of the State, carrying on war against the Moors and

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