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replant the semi-barbarian Hellenic cities. He also endeav-
ored to reform the life of Dionysius as well as Syracuse, and
actually wrought a signal change in his royal pupil, so that
he desired to see and converse with the great sage who had
so completely changed the life of Dion, and inspired him
with patriotic enthusiasm. Accordingly, Plato Plat0 visits
was sent for, who reluctantly consented to visit s >' racuse -
Syracuse. He had no great faith in the despot who sought
his wisdom, and he did not wish, at sixty-one, to leave his
favorite grove, with admiring disciples from every part of
Greece, where he reigned as monarch of the mind. He
went to Syracuse, not with the hope so much of converting
a weak tyrant, as from unwillingness to desert his friend,
and be taunted with the impotence of his philosophy. He
was received with great distinction at court, and a royal
carriage conveyed him to his lodgings. The banquets of the
Acropolis became distinguished for simplicity, and the royal
pupil commenced at once in taking lessons in geometry.
The old courtiers were alarmed, and disgusted. " A single
Athenian sophist," they said, " with no force but his tongue
and reputation, has achieved the conquest of Syracuse."
Dionysius seemed to have abdicated in favor of Plato, and
the noble objects for which Dion labored seemed to be on
the way of fulfillment. But Plato acted injudi- His injudi-
ciously, and spoiled his influence by unreasonable ings.
vigor. It was absurd to expect that the despot would go



348 Dionysius and Sicily. [Chap, xxiii.

to school like a boy, and insist upon a mental regeneration
before he gave him lessons of practical wisdom in politics.
All the necessary reforms were postponed on the ground
that the royal pupil was not yet ripe for them, and every
influence was exerted to show him his own un worthiness
— that his whole past life had been vicious — delicate ground
for any teacher to assume, since he irritated rather than re-
formed. He was even averse to any political changes until
Dionysius had gone through his schooling. Plato also
maintained a proud, philosophical dignity, showing no
respect to persons, and refusing to the defects of his pupil
any more indulgence than he granted to those who listened
to his teachings at home.

Snch a mistake was attended soon with difficulties. The old
courtiers recovered their influence. Dion was calumniated
and slandered, as seeking to usurp the sovereign powers, and
that Plato was brought to Syracuse as an agent in the con-
spiracy. Plato tried to counterwork this mischief, but in
vain. Dionysius lost all inclination to reform, and Dion was
hated, for he was superior to his nephew in dignity and
ability, and was haughty and austere in his manners. He
Banishment was accordingly banished from Syracuse, and
of Di<m. Plato was retained in the Acropolis, but was other-
wise well treated, and entreated to remain. The tyrant,
however, refused to recall Dion, but consented to the depar-
Becond visit ture °f Plato. Another visit to Syracuse, which
ofpiuto. j ie mac | e with the hope of securing the recall of
Dion, was a splendid captivity, and although he was treated
with extraordinary deference, he was not at rest until he
obtained permission to depart. He had failed in his mission
of benevolence and friendship. All the vast possessions of
Dion were confiscated, and Plato had the mortification to
hear of this injury in the very palace to which he went as a
reformer.

Incensed at the seizure of his property, and hopeless of
Dion in permission to return, and of all those reforms which

exile. ] le k a( i projected, Dion now meditated the over-



Chap. XXIII.] Dion in Exile. 349

throw of the power of Dionysius, and his own restoration at
the point of the swo I'd. During his exile he had Meditates
chiefly resided in Athens, enjoying the teaching throw of"
of his friend Plato, and dispensing his vast wealth lon y sius -
in generous charities. Nor did Plato fully approve of his
plans for the overthrow of Dionysius, anticipating little good
from such violence, although he fully admitted his wrongs.
But other friends, less judicious and moi'e interested, warmly
seconded his pi-ojects. With aid from various sources, he
at last could muster eight hundred veterans, with which he
ventured to attack the most j)owerful despot in Greece, and
in his own stronghold. And so enthusiastic was Dion, all
disparity of forces was a matter of indifference. Moreover,
he accounted it glory and honor to perish in so just and
noble a cause as the liberation of Sicily from a weak and
cruel despot, every way inferior to his father in character,
though as strong in resources.

But the friends of Dion did not dream of throwing away
their lives. They calculated on a rising of the Syracusans
to throw off an insupj:>ortable yoke, and they had utter con-
tempt for the tyrant himself, knowing his drunken habits,
and effeminate character, and personal incompetency. So,
after ten years' exile, Dion, with his followers, H e lands in
landed in Sicily, at Heracleia, also in the absence Sicil >'-
of Dionysius, who had quitted Syracuse for Italy, with
'eighty triremes, so that the city was easy of access.

This unaccountable mistake of the tyrant in leaving his
capital at such a crisis, was regarded with great joy by the
small army of Dion, which marched out at once from Hera-
cleia, and was joined in the Agrigentian territory with two
hundred horsemen. As he approached Syracuse, other bands
joined him, so that he had five thousand men as he approached
the capital. Timocrates, the husband of Dion's late wife,
for his wife was taken away from him, was left in command
at Syracuse with a large force of mercenaries. But as Dion
advanced to the city, there was a general rising of the citi-
zens, and Timocrates was obliged to return, leaving the fort-



350 Dionysius in Sicily. [Chap. xxni.

resses garrisoned. Dion entered the city by the principal
Enters Syra- street, which was decorated as on a day of iubilee,

cuse in tri- . J d '

umph. and proclaimed liberty to all. He was also chosen

general, with his brother Megacles, and approached Ortygia,
and challenged the garrison to come out and fight. He then
succeeded in capturing Epipolse and Eurylse, those fortified
quarters, and erected a cross wall from sea to sea to block
up Ortygia.

At the end of seven days, when all these results had been
accomplished, Dionysius returned to Syracuse, but Orty-
gia was the only place which remained to him, and that,
too, shut up on the land side by a blockading wall. The rest
of the city was in possession of his enemies, though those
Demands enemies were subjects. His abdication was irnper-
tionof ,c ' atively demanded by Dion, who refused all concil-
lonysms. j a tj on anc i promises of reform. Rallying, then, his
soldiers, he made a sally to surprise the blockading wall,
and was nearly successful, but Dion, at length, repulsed his
forces, and recovered the wall. Ortygia was again block-
aded, but as Dionysius was still master of the sea, he ravaged
the coasts for provisions, and maintained his position, until
the arrival of Heraclides, with a Peloponnesian fleet, gave
the Syracusans a tolerable naval force. Philistus commanded
the fleet of Dionysius, but in a battle with Heraclides, he
lost his life.

Dionysius now lost all hope of recovering his power by
Dionysius force, and resorted to intrigues, stimulating: the

resoi'ts to _ .

intrigues. rivalry of Heraclides, and exposing the defects
of Dion, whose arrogance and severity were far from making
him popular. Calumnies now began to assail Dion, and he
was mistrusted by the Syracusans, who feared only an
exchange of tyrants. There was also an unhappy dissension
between Dion and Heraclides, which resulted in the deposi-
TT , tion of Dion, and he was forced to retreat from

Unpopular-
ity of Dion. Syracuse, and seek shelter with the people of Leon-

tini, who stood by him. Dionysius again had left Ortygia

for Italy, leaving his son in command, and succeeded in



Chap, xxiii.] Dion's Mistakes. 351

sending- re-enforcements from Locri, under Nypsius, so that
the garrison of Ortygia was increased to ten thousand men,
with ample stores. Nypsius sallied from the fortress, mas-
tered the blockading wall, and entered Neapolis and Achra-
dina, fortified quarters of the city. The Syracusans, in dis-
tress, then sent to Leontini to invoke the aid of Dion, who
returned as victor, drove Nypsius into his fortress, and saved
Syracuse. He also magnanimously pardoned Heraclides,
and prosecuted the blockade of Ortygia, and was again
named general. Still Heraclides, who was allowed to com-
mand the fleet, continued his intrigues, and frustrated the
operations against Dionysius. At last, Ortygia surrendered
to Dion, Avho entered the fortress, where he found But 0rty£d3

•/»=!• n l-i-ii surrenders

his wife and sister, from whom he had been sepa- to him.
rated twelve years. At first, Arete, his wife, who had con-
sented to marry Timocrates, was afraid to approach him, but
he received her with the tenderest emotion and affection.
His son, however, soon after died, having fallen into the
drunken habits of Dionysius.

Dion was now master of Syracuse, and on the pinnacle of
power. His enterprise had succeeded against all Dion master
probabilities. But prosperity, which the Greeks of Syracuse-
were never able to bear, poisoned all his good qualities and
exaggerated his bad ones. He did not fall into the luxury
of his predecessors. He still wore the habit of a philosopher,
and lived with simplicity, but he made public mis- His mis .
takes. His manners, always haughty, became takes -
repulsive. He despised popularity. He conferred no real
liberty. He retained his dictatorial power. He preserved
the fortifications of Ortygia. He did not meditate a per-
manent despotism, but meant to make himself king, with a
modified constitution, like that of Sparta. He had no popular
sympathies, and sought to make Syracuse, like Corinth, com-
pletely oligarchal. He took no step to realize any measure
of popular freedom, and, above all, refused to demolish the
fortress, behind whose fortifications the tyrants of Syracuse
had intrenched themselves in danger. He also caused Hera-



352 Dionysius and Sicily. [Chap. XXIIT.

elides to be privately assassinated, so that the Syracusans
began to hate him as cordially as they had hated Dionysius.
This unpopularity made him irritable, and suspicions and dis-
quieted. A conspiracy, headed by Callippus, put an end to

his reign. He was slain by the daggers of assassins.

Thus perished one of the noblest of the Greeks, but
without sufficient virtue to bear success. His great defect
■was inexperience in government, and it may be doubted
whether Plato himself could have preserved liberty in so
His charac- corrupt a city as Syracuse. The character of Dion
ter - also changed greatly by his banishment, since vin-

dictive sentiments were paramount in his soul. He had a
splendid opportunity of becoming a benefactor to his country,
but this was thrown away, and instead of giving liberty he
only ruled by force, and moved from bad to worse, until he
made a martyr of the man whom once he magnanimously
forgave. Had he lived longer, he probably would have
proved a remorseless tyrant like Tiberius. So rare is it
for men to be temperate in the use of power, and so much
easier is it to give expression to grand sentiments than prac-
tice the self-restraint which has immortalized the few Wash-
ingtons of the world.

The Athenian Callippus, who overturned Dion, remained
master of Syracuse for more than a year, but its condition
was miserable and deplorable, convulsed by passions and
Dionysius hostile interests. In the midst of the anarchy

recovers

Ortygia. which prevailed, Dionysius contrived to recover
Ortygia, and establish himself as despot. The Syracusans
endured more evil than before, for the returned tyrant had
animosities to gratify. There was also fresh danger from
Carthage, so that the Syracusans appealed to their mother
Syracuse ^Y-> Corinth, for aid. Timoleon was chosen as the
tbealdof general of the forces to be sent — an illustrious citi-
Corinth. zen f Corinth, then fifty years of age, devoted to
the cause of liberty, with hatred of tyrants and wrongs, who
Timoieou had even slain his brother when he trampled on the
general. liberties of Corinth — and a brother whom he loved.



Chap, xxiii.] Timoleon 353

But he was forced to choose between him and his coun-
try, and he chose his country, securing the gratitude of
Corinth, but the curses of his mother and the agonies of self-
reproach, so that he left for years the haunts of men, and
buried himself in the severest solitude. Twenty years
elapsed from the fratricide to his command of a force to re-
lieve the Syracusans from their tyrant Dionysius.

Timoleon commenced his preparations of ships and soldiers
with alacrity, but his means were scanty, not equal even to
those of Dion when he embarked on his expedition. He was
prevented with his small force from reaching Sicily by a Car-
thaginian fleet of superior force, but he effected his His wonder .
purpose by stratagem, and landed at Taurominiun ful successes.
under great discouragements. He defeated Hicetas, who
had invoked the aid of Carthage, at Adranum, and marched
unimpeded to the walls of Syracuse. Dionysius, blocked
up at' Ortygia, despaired of his position, and resolved to sur-
render the fortress, stipulating for a safe conveyance and
shelter at Corinth, This tyrant, broken by his drunken
habits, did not care to fight, as his father did, for a sceptre
so difficult to be maintained, and only sought his ease and
self-indulgence. So he passed into the camp of Timoleon
with what money he could raise, and the fortress was sur-
rendered. A re-enforcement from Corinth enabled Timoleon
to maintain his ground.

The appearance of the fallen tyrant in Corinth produced a
great sensation. Some from curiosity, others from Dionysius

, ■ , J .,. „ , . . an exile in

sympathy, and still more from derision, went to Corinth,
see a man who had enjoyed so long despotic power, now
suing only for a humble domicile. But his conduct, consid-
ering his drunken habits, was marked by more dignity than
was to be expected from so weak a man. He is said to have
even opened a school to teach boys to read, and to have in-
structed the public singers in reciting poetry. His career, at
least, was an impressive commentary on the mutability of
fortune, to which the Greeks were fully alive.

Timoleon, in possession of Ortygia, with its numerous

23



354 Dionysius and Sicily. [Chap. XXIII.

stores, found himself able to organize a considerable force to
oppose the Carthaginians who sought to get possession of
the fortress. Hicetas, now assisted by a Carthaginian force
under Magon, attacked Ortygia, but was defeated by the
Corinthian Neon, who acquired Achradina, and joined it by
a wall to Ortygia. But Magon now distrusted Hicetas, and
Timoieonde- suddenly withdrew his army. Timoleon thus be-
stron"hoid b or came master of Syracuse, and Hicetas was obliged
tyranny. to re tj re to Leontini. Timoleon ascribed his good
fortune to the gods, but purchased a greater hold on men's
minds than fortune gave him by his moderation in the hour
of success — a striking contrast to Dion and the elder Dionys-
ius. He invited the Syracusans to demolish the stronghold
of tyranny, where the despots had so long intrenched them-
His noble selves. He erected courts of justice on its site. He

adrniuistra- , . . , . .

tion. recalled the exiles, and invited new colonists to

the impoverished city, so that sixty thousand immigrants
arrived. He relieved the poverty and distress of the people
by selling the public lands, and employed his forces to expel
remaining despots from the island.

But Hicetas again invited the Carthaginians to Sicily.
They came, with a vast army of seventy thousand men and
twelve hundred ships, under Hasdrubal and Hamilcar, b. c.
340. Timoleon could only assemble twelve thousand to meet
this overwhelming force, but with these he marched against
His great tne Carthaginians, and gained a great victory, by
the'caitba- 1 " tne a ^ OI " a terrible storm which pelted the Car-
gmians. thagiiiians in the face. ~No victory was ever more

complete than this at Crimisus. Ten thousand of the invad-
ers were slain, and fifteen thousand made prisoners, together
with an enormous spoil.

Timoleon had now to deal with two Grecian enemies —
Hicetas and Mamercus — tyrants of Leontini and Catana.
Over these he gained a complete victory, and put them
He lays to death. He then, after having delivered Syra-
power. cuse, and defeated his enemies, laid down his
power, and became a private citizen. But his influence re-



Chap. XXIII.] Death of Timoleon. 355

mained, as it ought to have been, as great as ever, for he was
a patriot of most exalted virtue, a counselor whom all could
trust — a friend who sacrificed his own interests. And he
exerted his influence for the restoration of Syracuse, for the
introduction of colonists, and the enforcement of wise laws.
The city was born anew, and the gratitude and admiration
of the citizens were unbounded. In his latter years he be-
came blind, but his presence could not then even be spared
when any serious difficulty arose — ruling by the moral power
of wisdom and sanctity — one of the best and loftiest charac-
ters of all antiquity. And nothing was more remarkable than
his patience under contradiction, and his eagerness to insure
freedom of speech, even against himself.

Thus, by the virtues and wisdom of this remarkable man,
were freedom and comfort diffused throughout Sicily for
twenty-four years, until the despotism of Asrath- nis death

r m. i -i • -■ n i i and charac-

ocles. innoleon died b. c. 337 — a father and ter.
benefactor — and the Syracusans solemnized his funeral with
lavish honors, which was attended by a countless procession,
and passed a vote to honor him for all future time with fes-
tive matches, in music and chariot-races, and such gymnas-
tics as were practiced at the Grecian games. A magnificent
monument was erected to his memory. " The mournful let-
ters written by Plato after the death of Dion contrasts
strikingly with the enviable end of Timoleon, and with the
grateful inscription of the Syracusans on his tomb."



CHAPTER XXIV.

PHILIP OF MACEDON.

No one would have supposed, b. c. 400, that the destruc-
tion of Grecian liberties would come from Macedonia — a
Unexpected semi-barbarous kingdom which, during the ascend-
donia. ' ency of Sparta, had so little political importance.
And if any new power threatened to rise over the ruins of the
Spartan State, and become paramount in Greece, it was
Thebes. The successes of Pelopidas and Epaminondas had
effectually weakened the power of Sparta. She no longer
enjoyed the headship of Greece. She no longer was the
leader of dependent allies, submitting to her dictation in all
external politics, serving under the officers she appointed,
administering their internal affairs by oligarchies devoted to
her purposes, and even submitting to be ruled by governors
whom she put over them. She had lost her foreign auxiliary
force and dignity, and even half of her territory in Laconia.
The Peloponnesians, who once rallied around her were
disunited, and Megalopolis and Messene were hostile.
Corinth, Sicyon, Epidaurus, and other cities, formerly allies,
stood aloof, and the grand forces of Hellas now resided out-
side of the Peloponnesus. Athens and Thebes were the new
seats of power. Athens had regained her maritime supre-
macy, and Thebes was formidable on the land, having
absorbed one-third of the Boeotian territory, and destroyed
three or four autonomous cities, and secured powerful allies
in Thessaly.

When the battle of Mantinea was fought, at which Epami-
nondas lost his life, Perdiccas, son of Amyntas, was the king
of Macedonia. He was slain, in the flower of his life, in a



Chap, xxiy.] Revolt of Lesbos. 357

battle with the Illyrians, b. c. 359. On the advice of Plato,
who had been his teacher, he was induced to be- PMn of
stow upon his brother Philip a portion of territory Macedon.
in Macedonia, who for three years preceding had been living
in Thebes as a hostage, carried there by Pelopidas at fifteen
years of age, when he had reduced Macedonia to partial sub-
mission.

At Thebes the young prince was treated with courtesy,
and resided with one of the principal citizens, and Philip at
received a good education. He was also favored Thebes -
with the society of Pelopidas and Epaminondas, and wit-
nessed with great interest the training of the Theban forces
by these two remarkable men — one the greatest organizer,
and the other the greatest tactician of the age. When trans-
ferred from Thebes to a subordinate government of a district
in his brother's kingdom, he organized a military force on
the principles he had learned in Thebes. The unexpected
death of Perdiccas, leaving an infant son, opened to him the
prospect of succeeding to the throne. He first assumed the
government as guardian of his young nephew Arnyntas, but
the difficulties with which he was surrounded, having many
competitors from other princes of the family of Arnyntas, his
father, that he assumed the crown, putting to death one of
his half-brothers, while the other two fled into exile.

His first proceeding as king was to buy the Thracians, his
enemies, by presents and promises, so that only the Athenians
and the Illyrians remained formidable. But he Surrenf i ei . f
made peace with Athens by yielding up Amphipo- Am P hl P ohs -
lis, for the possession of which the Athenians had made war
in Macedonia.

The Athenians, however, neglected to take possession of
Amphipolis, being engaged in a struggle to regain the island
of Euboea, then under the dominion of Thebes. It also hap-
pened that a revolt of a large number of the islands Eevoit from

. Athens of

oi the ^Egean, which belonged to the confederacy Lesbos, om-
of which Athens was chief, took place — Lesbos, &c.
Chios, Samos, Cos, and Rhodes, including Byzantium. This



358 Philip of Maced'on. [Chap. XXTV.

revolt is called the social war, caused by the selfishness of
Athens in acting more for her own interest than that of her
allies, and neglecting to pay the mercenaries in her service.
The revolt was also stimulated by the intrigues of the Carian
prince, Mausolus. But it was a serious blow to the foreign
ascendency of Athens, and in a battle to recover these islands,
the Athenians, under Chabrias, were defeated at Chios.
They were also unsuccessful on the Hellespont from quar-
rels among their generals — Timotheus, Iphicrates, and Chares.
The popular voice at Athens laid the blame of defeat on the
two former unjustly, in consequence of which Timotheus was
fined one hundred talents, the largest fine ever imposed at
Death of Athens, and shortly after died in exile— a distin-
TimoUieus. gashed ma n, who had signally maintained the
honor and glory of his country. Iphicrates also was never
employed again. The loss of these two generals could scarcely
be repaired. Soon after, peace was made with the revolted
cities, by which their independence and autonomy were
guaranteed. This was an inglorious result of the war to
Athens, and fatally impaired her power and dignity, so that
she was unable to make a stand against the aggressions of
Philip.

One of the first things he did after defeating the Illyrians
Philip lays was to lay siege to Amphipolis, although he had
phfpoiis. ceded the city to Athens. For this treachery there
was no other reason than ambition and the weakened power
of Athens. Amphipolis had long remained free, and was
not disposed to give up its liberties, and sent to Athens for
aid. Philip, an arch politician, contrived by his intrigues to
prevent Athens from ■ giving assistance. The neglect of
Athens was a great mistake, for Amphipolis commanded the
passage over the Strymon, and shut up Macedonia from the
east, and was, moreover, easily defensible by sea. Deprived
Fail of the of aid from Athens, the city fell into the hands of
pIty " Philip, and was an acquisition of great importance.

It was the most convenient maritime station in Thrace, and
threw open to him all the country east of the Strymon, and



Chap, xxiv.] The Sacred War. 359

especially the gold region near Mount Pangneus. This place
henceforward became one of the bulwarks of Macedonia,



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