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Athen^ S ° defense of the city. All citizens sent in their con-
tributions, and every hand was employed on the fortifica-
tions. The temples were stripped of arms, and envoys were
sent to various places for aid.

Thebes was unable to rally, and fell into the hands of the
victors, and a Macedonian garrison was i^laced in
Thebes. the Cadmea, or citadel. From Athens, envoys
were sent to Philip for peace, which was granted on the con-
dition that he should be recognized as the chief of the Hel-
lenic world. It was a great humiliation to Athens to con-
cede this, after having defeated the Persian hosts, and keep-
ing out so long all foreign domination. But times had
changed, and the military spirit had fled.

Athens was not prostrated by the battle of Choeronea.
She still retained her navy, and her civic rights. Thebes
was utterly prostrated, and never rallied again.

Philip, having now subjugated Thebes, and constrained
Athens into submission, next proceeded to carry his arms
into the Peloponnesus. He found but little resistance, except
Philip in- in Laconia. The Corinthians, Argeians, Messen-
Pefopon- i ans > Elians, and Arcadians submitted to his
nesus. power. Even Sparta could make but feeble resist-

ance. He laid waste Laconia, and then convened a congress
of Grecian cities at Corinth, and announced his purpose to
undertake an expedition against the king of Persia, avenge
the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, and liberate the Asiatic
Greeks. A large force of two hundred thousand foot and
fifteen thousand horse was promised him, and all the States

Chap. XXIV.] Death of Philip. 371

of Greece concurred, except Sparta, which held aloof from
the congress. Athens was required to furnish a _ „ ,

& " Collects a

well equipped fleet. All the States, and all the lar ? e for ° e

111 ' against tho

islands, and all the cities of Greece, were now Persians,
subservient to Philip, and no one State could exercise control
over its former territories.

It was in the year b. c. 337, that this great scheme for the
invasion of Persia was concerted, which created no general
enthusiasm, since Persia was no longer a power to be feared.
The only power to be feared now was Macedonia. While
preparations were going on for this foolish and unnecessary
expedition, the prime mover of it was assassinated, and his
career, so disastrous to Grecian liberty, came to an _ „, ,

1 •> ' Death of

end. It seems that he had repudiated his wife, PMUp.
Olympias, disgusted with the savage impulses of her charac-
ter, and married, for his last wife, for he had several, Cleo-
patra, which provoked bitter dissensions among the partisans
of the two queens, and also led to a separation between him-
self and his son Alexander, although a reconciliation after-
ward took place. It was while celebrating the marriage of
his daughter by Olympias, with Alexander, king of Epirus,
and also the birth of a son by Cleopatra, that Pausanias,
one of the royal body-guard, who nourished an implacable
hatred of Philip, chose his opportunity, and stabbed him
with a short sword he had concealed under his garment.

Alexander, the son of Philip by Olympias, was at once
declared king, whose prosecution of the schemes of his father
are to be recounted in the next chapter. Philip perished at
the age of forty-seven, after a most successful reign of
twenty-three years. On his accession he found his
kingdom a narrow territory around Pella, ex-
cluded from the sea-coast. At his death the Macedonian
kingdom was the most powerful in Greece, and all the States
and cities, except Sparta, recognized its ascendency. He
had gained this great power, more from the weakness and
dissensions of the Grecian States, than from his own strength,
great as were his talents. He became the arbiter of Greece

372 Philip of Macedon. [Chap. XXIV".

by unscrupulous perjury and perpetual intrigues. But he
was a great organizer, and created a most efficient army.
Without many accomplishments, he affected to be a patron of
both letters and religion. His private life was stained by
Character of drunkenness, gambling, perfidy, and wantonness.
Philip. His wives and mistresses were as numerous as those

of an Oriental despot. He was a successful man, but it must
be borne in mind that he had no opponents like Epaminondas,
or Agesilaus, or Iphicrates. Demosthenes was his great oppo-
nent, but only in counsels and speech. The generals of Athens,
and Sparta, and Thebes had passed away, and with the decline
of military spirit, it is not remarkable that Philip should
have ascended to a height from which he saw the Grecian
world suppliant at his feet.



We come now to consider briefly the career of Alexander,
the son of Philip — the most successful, fortunate, and bril-
liant hero of antiquity. I do not admire either Alexander
his character or his work. He does not compare the Great
with Caesar or Napoleon in comprehensiveness of genius,
or magnanimity, or variety of attainments, or posthumous
influences. He was a meteor — a star of surprising magni-
tude, which blazed over the whole Oriental world with
unprecedented brilliancy. His military genius was doubt-
less great — even transcendent, and his fame is greater than
his genius. His prestige is wonderful. He conquered the
world more by his name than by his power. Only two men,
among military heroes, dispute his pre-eminence in the his-
tory of nations. After more than two thousand years, his
glory shines with undiminished brightness. His conquests
extended over a period of only twelve years, yet they were
greater and more dazzling than any man ever made before in a
long reign. Had he lived to be fifty, he might have subdued
the whole world, and created a universal empire equal to that
of the Caesars — which was the result of five hundred years'
uninterrupted conquests by the greatest generals of a mil-
itary nation. Though we neither love nor reverence Alex-
ander, we can not withhold our admiration for his almost
superhuman energy, courage, and force of will. He looms
up as one of the prodigies of earth — yet sent by Sent by
Providence as an avenger — an instrument of pun- ^do'a^eat
ishment on those effeminated nations, or rather work -
dynasties, which had triumphed over human misery. I look

374 Alexander the Great. [Chap. xxv.

upon his career, as the Christians of the fifth century looked
\ipon that of Alaric or Attila, whom they called the scourge
of God.

His conquests and dominions were, however, prepared by
winch was one perhaps greater than himself in creative genius,
his lather. aud as unscrupulous and cruel as he. Philip found
his kingdom a little brook ; he left it a river — broad, deep, and
grand. Under Alexander, this river became an irresistible
torrent, sweeping every thing away which impeded its
course. Philip created an army, and a militaiy system, and
generals, all so striking, that Greece succumbed before him,
and yielded up her liberties. Alexander had only to follow
out his policy, which was to subdue the Persians. The
Extent of Persian empire extended over all the East — Asia

the Persian . . .

empire. Minor, byria, Egypt, Parthia, Babylonia, Mesopota-
mia, Armenia, Bactria, and other countries — the one hundred
and twenty provinces of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, from the
Mediterranean to India, from the Euxine and Caspian Seas to
Arabia and the Persian Gulf — a monstrous empire, whose
possession was calculated to inflame the monarchs who
reigned at Susa and Babylon with more than mortal pride
and self-sufficiency. It had been gradually won by success-
ive conquerors, from Nimrod to Darius. It was the gradual
absorption of all the kingdoms of the East in the successive
Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires — for these three
empires were really one under different dynasties, and were
ruled by the same precedents and principles. The various
kingdoms which composed this empire, once independent,
yielded to the conquerors who reigned at Babylon, or
Nineveh, or Persepolis, and formed satrapies paying tribute
to the great king. The satraps of Cyrus were like the
satraps of Nebuchadnezzar, members or friends of the im-
perial house, who ruled the various provinces in the name of
the king of Babylon, or Persia, without much interference with
the manners, or language, or customs, or laws, or religion of
the conquered, contented to receive tribute merely, and
troops in case of war. And so great was the accumulation

Chap. XXV.] Aspirations of Philip. 375

of treasure in the various royal cities where the king resided
part of the year, that Darius left behind him on Theaccumu-
his flight, in Ecbatana alone, one hundred and riches m
eighty thousand talents, or two hundred million cities.
dollars. It was by this treasure that the kings of Persia
lived in such royal magnificence, and with it they were able
to subsidize armies to maintain their power throughout their
vast dominions, and even gain allies like the Greeks, when
they had need of their services. Their treasures were inex-
haustible — and were accumulated with the purpose of main-
taining empire, and hence were not spent, but remained as
a sacred deposit.

It was to overthrow this empire that Philip aspired, after
he had conquered Greece, in part to revenge the Philip had

. . . . „. t -. i •¥-» • ■ • i aspired to

injuries inflicted by the Persian invasions, but overturn
more from personal ambition. And had he lived, pire.
he would have succeeded, and his name would have been
handed down as the great conqueror, rather than that of his
more fortunate son. Philip knew what a rope of sand the
Persian military power was. Xenophon had en- Knowing its
lightened the Greeks as to the inefficiency of the weakness.
Persian armies, if they needed any additional instruction
after the defeat of Xerxes and his generals. The vast armies
of the Persians made a grand show, and looked formidable
when reviewed by the king in his gilded chariot, surrounded
by his nobles, the princes of his family, and the women of
his harem. And these armies were sufficient to keep the
empire together. The mighty prestige attending victories
for one thousand years, and all the pomp of millions in battle
array, was adequate to keep the province together, for the
system of warfare and the character of the forces were
similar in all the provinces. It was external enemies, with
a different system of warfare, that the Persian kings had to
dread — not the revolt of enervated States, and unwarlike
cities. The Orientals were never warlike in the sense that
Greece and Rome were. The armies of Greece and Rome
were small, but efficient. It was seldom that any Grecian

376 Alexander the Great. [Chap. xxv.

or Roman army exceeded fifty thousand men, but they were
veterans, and they had military science and skill and dis-
cipline. The hosts of Xerxes or Darius were undisciplined,
and they were mercenaries, unlike the original troops of

Now it was the mission of Alexander to overturn the dy-
But this nasties which reigned so ingloriously on the banks
Berredfor" °f the Euphrates — to overrun the Persian empire
Alexander. f rom north to south and east to west — to cut it up,
and form new kingdoms of the dismembered provinces, and
"distribute the hoarded treasures of Susa, Persepolis, and
Ecbatana — to introduce Greek satraps instead of Persian —
to favor the spread of the Greek language and institutions —
to found new cities where Greeks might reign, from which
they might diffuse their spirit and culture. Alexander spent
only one year of his reign in Greece, all the rest of his life
was spent in the various provinces of Persia. He was the
Whowasthe conqueror of the Oriental world. He had no hard
the q orientai battles to fight, like Caesar or Napoleon. All he
had to do was to appear with his troops, and the
enemy fled. Cities were surrendered as he approached. The
two great battles which decided the fate of Persia — Issus
and Arbela — were gained at the first shock of his cavalry.
Darius fled from the field, in both instances, at the very
beginning of the battle, and made no real resistance. The
greater the number of Persian soldiers, the more disorderly
was the rout. The Macedonian soldiers fought retreating
armies in headlong flight. The slaughter of the Persians
was mere butchery. It was something like collecting a vast
number of birds in a small space, and shooting them when
collected in a corner, and dignifying the slaughter with a
grand name — not like chasing the deer over rocks and hills.
Whatconsti- The military genius of Alexander was seen in the
military siege of the few towns which did resist, like Tyre


and Gaza ; in his rapid marches ; in the combina-
tion of his forces ; in the system, foresight, and sagacity
he displayed, conquering at the right time, marching upon

Chap. XXV.] Early Life of Alexander. 377

the right place, husbanding his energies, wasting no time in
expeditions which did not bear on the main issue, and con-
centrating his men on points which were vital and import-
ant. Philip, if he had lived, might have conquered the
Persian empire ; but he would not have conquered so rapidly
as Alexander, who knew no rest, and advanced from con-
quering to conquer, in some cases without ulterior objects,
as in the Indian campaigns — simply from the love and
excitement of conquest. He only needed time. He met no
enemies who could oppose him — more, I apprehend, from the
want of discipline among his enemies, than from any irresisti-
ble strength of his soldiers, for he embodied the it was his
conquered soldiers in his own army, and they fought conquer, not
like his own troops, when once disciplined. Nor reconstruct
did he dream of reconstruction, or building up a great central
power. He would, if he had lived, have overrun Arabia,
and then Italy, and Gaul. But he did not live to measure
his strength with the Romans. His mission was ended when
he had subdued the Persian world. And he left no succes-
sor. His empire was divided among his generals, and new
kingdoms arose on the ruins of the Persian empire.

" Alexander was born b. c. 356, and like his father, Philip,
was not Greek, but a Macedonian and Epirot, only His early .
pai'tially imbued with Grecian sentiment and in- lllst01 '> r -
telligence." He inherited the ambition of Philip, and the
violent and headstrong temperament of his furious mother,
Olympias. His education was good, and he was instructed
by his Greek tutors in the learning common to Grecian princes.
His taste inclined him to poetry and literature, rather than to
science and philosophy. At thirteen he was intrusted to
the care of the great Aristotle, and remained under his teach-
ing three years. At sixteen he was left regent of the Mace-
donian kingdom, whose capital was Pella, while his father
was absent in the siege of Byzantium. At eighteen he com-
manded one of the wings of the army at the battle of Chse-
ronea. His prospects were uncertain up to the very day
when Philip was assassinated, on account of family dissen-

378 Alexander the Great. [Chap. XXV.

sions, and the wrath of his father, whom he had displeased.
Bat he was proclaimed king on the death of Philip, b. c, 336
and celebrated his funeral with great magnificence, and slew
many of his murderers. The death of Philip had excited
aspirations of freedom in the Grecian States, but there was
no combination to throw off the Macedonian yoke. Alex-
ander well understood the discontent of Greece, and his first
object Avas to bring it to abject submission. With the army
of his father he marched from State to State, compelling sub-
mission, and punishing with unscrupulous cruelty all who
His con- resisted. After displaying his forces in various
Srecian the P ort i° ns of the Peloponnesus, he repaired to Corinth
states. an( j con vened the deputies from the Grecian cities,

and was chosen to the headship of Greece, as his father,
Philip, had been. He was appointed the keeper of the
peace of Greece. Each Hellenic city was declared free, and
in each the existing institutions were recognized, but no new
despot was to be established, and each city was forbidden to
send armed A^essels to the harbor of any other, or build
vessels, or engage seamen there. Such was the melancholy
degradation of the Grecian world. Its freedom was extin-
guished, and there was no hope of escaping the despotism
of Macedonia, but by invoking aid from the Persian king.
Had he been wise, he would have subsidized the Greeks with
a part of his vast treasures, and raised a force in Greece able
to cope with Alexander. But he was doomed, and the
Macedonian king was left free to complete the conquest of
all the States. He first marched across Mount Hsemus, and
subdued the Illyrians, Paeonians, and Thracians. He even
crossed the Danube, and defeated the Goetae.

Just as he had completed the conquest of the barbarians
north of Macedonia, he heard that theThebans had declared
Heanniw- their independence, being encouraged by his long
Thebaic absence in Thrace, and by reports of his death,
power. -g u |. ne SU( j t i en ]y appeared with his victorious

army, and as the Thebans had no generals equal to Pelopi-
das and Epaminondas, they were easily subdued. Thebes

Chap. XXV.] Severity of Alexander in Thebes. 379

was taken by assault, and the population was massacred —
even women and children, whether in their houses or in
temples. Thirty thousand captives were reserved for sale.
The city was razed to the ground, and the Cadmea alone
was preserved for a Macedonian garrison. TheTheban terri-
tory was partitioned among the reconstructed cities of Or-
chomenus and Plataea. This severity was unparal- Moral effect;

J L of his merci-

leled in the history of Greece, but the remorseless less seventy,
conqueror wished to strike with terror all other cities, and
prevent rebellion. He produced the effect he desired. All
the cities of Greece hastened to make peace with so terrible
an enemy. He threatened a like doom on Athens because
she refused to surrender the anti-Macedonian leaders, includ-
ing Demosthenes, but was finally appeased through the in-
fluence of Phocion, since he did not wish to drive Athens to
desperate courses, which might have impeded his contem-
plated conquest of Persia, for the city was still strong in
naval defenses, and might unite with the Persian king. So
Athens was spared, but the empire of Thebes was utterly
destroyed. He then repaired to Corinth to make arrange-
ments for his Persian campaign, and while in that He is master
city he visited the cynical philosopher, Diogenes, of Greece -
who lived in a tub. It is said that when the philoso-
pher was asked by Alexander if he wished any thing, he
replied : " Nothing, except that you would stand a little
out of my sunshine " — a reply which extorted from the
conqueror the remark : " If I were not Alexander, I would
be Diogenes."

It took Alexander a year and a few months to crush out
what little remained of Grecian freedom, subdue Prepares to

• t f c t • invade Per-

the Thracians, and collect forces for his expedition sia.
into Persia. In the spring of 334 b. c, his army was mustered
between Pella and Amphipolis, while his fleet was at hand
to render assistance. In April he crossed the strait from
Sestos to Abydos, and never returned to his own capital —
Pella — or to Europe. The remainder of his life, eleven years
and two months, was spent in Asia, in continued and increas-

3 SO Alexander the Great. [Chap. xxv.

ing conquests ; and these were on such a gigantic scale that
Greece dwindled into insignificance.

When marshalled on the Asiatic shore, the army of Alex-
He marshals ander presented a total of thirty thousand infantry,

liis forces ill ""

Asia. and four thousand five hundred cavalry — a small

force, apparently, to overthrow the most venerable and
extensive empire in the world. But these troops were
veterans, trained by Philip, and commanded by able gene-
rals. Of these troops twelve thousand were Macedonians,
armed with the sarissa, a long pike, which made the phalanx,
sixteen deep, so formidable. The sarissa was twenty-one
feet in length, and so held by both hands as to project fifteen
His phalanx feet before the body of the pikeman. The soldier
armor of his °f the phalanx was also provided with a short
troops. sword, a circular shield, a breastplate, leggings,

and broad-brimmed hat. But, besides the phalanx of heavy
armed men, there were hoplites lightly armed, hypaspists for
the assault of walled places, and troops with javelins and with
bows. The cavalry was admirable, distributed into squad-
rons, among whom were the body-guards — all promoted out
of royal pages and the picked men of the army, sons of the
chief people in Macedonia, and these were heavily armed.

The generals who served under Alexander were all Mace-
„. , donians, and had been trained bv Philip. Amons;

His generals. . .

these were Hephasstion, the intimate personal
friend of Alexander, Ptolemy, Perdiccas, Antipater, Clitus,
Parmenio, Philotas, Nicanor, Seleucus, Amyntas, Phillipes,
Lysimachus, Antigonas, most of whom reached great power.
Parmenio and Antipater were the highest in rank, the latter
of whom was left as viceroy of Macedonia. Eumenes was
the private secretary of Alexander, the most long-headed
man in his army.

Alexander had landed, unopposed, against the advice of
Memnon and Mentor — two Rhodians, in the service of
Alexander is Darius, the kins; — descendants of one of the bro-

unobslrtict- -»r •

ed in cross- thers of Artaxcrxcs Mnemon — the children of Kin<x

ing the Hel- . . , &

lespont. (Jehus, alter Ins assassination, having all been

Chap. XXV.] Battle of the Granicus. 3S1

murdered by the eunuch Bagoas. As the Persians were
superior by sea to the Macedonians, it was an imprudence to
allow Alexander to cross the Hellespont without opposition ;
but Memnon was overruled by the Persian satraps, who sup-
posed that they were more than a match for Alexander on
the land, and hoped to defeat him. Arsites, the Phrygian
satrap, commanded the Persian forces, assisted by Error of the
other satraps, and Persians of high rank, among Persians,
whom were Spithridates, satrap of Lydia and Ionia. The
cavalry of the Persians greatly outnumbered that of the
Macedonians, but the infantry was inferior. Memnon
advised the satraps to avoid fighting on the land, and
to employ the fleet for aggressive movements in Mace-
donia and Greece, but Arsites rejected his advice. The
Persians took post on the river Granicus, near the town
of Parium, on one of the declivities of Mount Ida. Al-
exander at once resolved to force the passage of the river,
taking the command of the right wing, and giving the
left to Parmenio. The battle was fought by the cavalry, in
which Alexander showed great personal corn-age. Battleoftna
At one time he was in imminent danger of his life, Gramcus.
from the cimeter of Spithridates, but Clitus saved him by
severing the uplifted arm of the satrap from his body with
his sword. The victory was complete, and great numbers of
the satraps were slain. There remained no force in Asia
Minor to resist the conqueror, and the Asiatics submitted in
terror and alarm. Alexander then sent Parmenio to subdue
Dascyleum, the stronghold of the satrap of Phrygia, while he
advanced to Sardis, the capital of Lydia, and the main station of
the Persians in Asia Minor. The citadel was considered im-
pregnable, yet such was the terror of the Persians, that both
city and citadel surrendered without a blow. Phrygia and
Lydia then fell into his hands, with immense treasure, of
which he stood in need. He then marched to Eph- Alexander
esus, and entered the city without resistance, and Jithhis
thus was placed in communication with his fleet, eet "
under the command of Nicanor. He found no opposition

8S2 Alexander the Great. [Chap. xxt.

until he reached Miletus, which was encouraged to resist
him from the approach of the Persian fleet, four hun-
dred sail, chiefly of Phoenician and Cyprian ships, which, a
few weeks earlier, might have prevented his crossing into
Asia. But the Persian fleet did not arrive until the city was
invested, and the Macedonian fleet, of one hundred and sixty
sail, had occupied the harbor. Alexander declined to fight on
the sea, but pressed the siege on the land, so that the Persian
fleet, unable to render assistance, withdrew to Halicarnassus.

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