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effected four years later, b. c. 445. These then attempted to
secure the higher magistracies, but this was prevented for a
time, although they acquired the right of plebeians to be-
come military tribunes, or chief officer of the legions, but
none of the plebeians arose to that rank for several years.

A new office of great dignity was now created, that of
censors, who were chosen from men who had been
consuls, and therefore had higher rank than they.
It was their duty to superintend the public morals, take the
census, and administer the finances. They could brand with
ignominy the highest officers of the State, could elect to the
Senate, and control, with the aediles, the public buildings and
works. There were two elected to this high office, and were
chosen from the patrician ranks till the year b. c. 421, when
plebeians were admitted. They were even held in great
reverence, and enjoyed a larger term of office than the con-
suls, even of five years.

418 The Roman R&publio. [Chap, xxvil

The commons gained additional importance by the open-
ing of the qusestorship to the plebeians, which

Quiestors. ° . . .

took place about this time. The quaestors virtually
had charge of the public money, and were the paymasters of
the army. As these were curule officers, they had, by their
office, admission to the Senate. Another great increase of
power among the plebeians, about twenty years after the
decemviral legislature, was the right, transferred from the
curiae to the centuries, of determining peace and war.

While these internal changes were in progress, the State
was in almost constant war with the Volscians and Acquians,
and also with the Etruscans. The former were kept at bay
by the aid of the Latin and Hernican allies. The latter were
more formidable foes, and especially the inhabitants of Veii
— a powerful city in the plain of Southern Etruria, and the
largest of the confederated Etruscan cities, equal in size to
Athens, defended by a strong citadel on a hill. The Veien-
tines, not willing to contend with the Romans in the field,
shut themselves up in their strong city, to which the Romans
Thft siege laid sicffe. They drew around it a double line of

and fall of . & . J

Veii. circumvallation, the inner one to prevent egress

from the city, the outer one to defend themselves against
external attacks. The siege lasted ten years, as long as that
of Troy, but Avas finally taken by the great Camillus, by
means of a mine under the citadel. The fall of this strong
place was followed by the submission of all the Etruscan
cities south of the Ciminian forest, and the lands of the peo-
ple of Veii were distributed among the whole Roman people,
at the rate of seven jugei-a to each landholder, b. c. 396.

But this event was soon followed by a great calamity to
invasion of R° me — the greatest she had ever suffered. The
the Gauis. c ity f e \\ j nt0 t ] ie } iail( ^ s f the Gauls — a Celtic race.
They were rather pastoral than agricultural, and reared great
Habits and numbers of swine. They had little attachment to

manners of . . T _ _.

the Gauis. the soil, like the Italians ana (aermans, and de-
lighted in towns. Their chief qualities were personal bravery,
an impetuous temper, boundless vanity, and want of perse-

Chap, xxvii.] Rome taken "by the Gauls. 419

verance. They were good soldiers and bad citizens. They
were fond of a roving life, and given to pillage. They loved
ornaments and splendid dresses, and wore a gold collar round
the neck. After an expedition, they abandoned themselves
to carousals. They sprung from the same cradle as the Hel-
lenic, Italian, and German people. Their first great migra-
tion flowed past the Alps, and we find them in Gaul, Britain,
and Spain. From these settlements, they proceeded westward
across the Alps. In successive waves they invaded Italy.
It was at the height of Etruscan power, that they assumed
a hostile attitude. From Etruria they proceeded to the
Roman territories.

The first battle with these terrible foes resulted disastrously
to the Romans, who regarded them as half-disci- Disastrous

. ° . battle with

plined barbarians, and underrated their strength, the Gauls.
Their defeat was complete, and their losses immense. The
flower of the Roman youth perished, b. c. 390.

The victors entered Rome without resistance, while the
Romans retreated to their citadel, such as were The f n f
capable of bearing arms. The rest of the popula- Eom&
tion dispersed. The fathers of the city, aged citizens, and
priests, seated themselves in the porches of their patrician
houses, and awaited the enemy. At first, they were mistaken
for gods, so venerable and calm their appearance; but the
profanation of the sacred person of Papirius dissolved the
charm, and they Were massacred.

The Gauls then attempted to assault the capitol, but failed.
But a youth, Pontius Cominius, having climbed the hill in the
night with safety, and opened communication with the
Romans at Veii, the marks of his passage suggested to the
Gauls the means of taking the citadel. In the dead of the
following night a party of Gauls scaled the cliff, and were
about to surprise the citadel, when some geese, sacred to Juno,
cried out and flapped their wings, which noise awakened M.
Manlius, who rushed to the cliff and overpowered

_. r M. Manlius.

the foremost Gaul. A panic seized the rest, and

the capitol was saved. At length, when the siege had lasted

420 The Roman Republic. [Chap. XXVII.

seven months, and famine pressed, the invaders were bought
off by a ransom of one thousand pounds weight of gold.
" The iron of the barbarians had conquered ; but they sold
their victory, and by selling, lost it." They were subse-
quently defeated by Camillus, and Manlius, surnamed Tor-
quatus, from the gold collar he took from a gigantic Gaul,
and also by other generals.

The destruction of Rome was not a permanent calamity ;
it was a misfortune. The period which followed was one of
distress, but the energy of Camillus reorganized the military
force, and new alliances were made with the Latin cities.
Etruria, humbled and restricted within narrower limits, and
moreover enervated by luxury, was in no condition to oppose
a people inured to danger and sobered by adversity.

The subsequent fate of Manlius, who saved the city, sug-
His services g es ts the fickleness and ingratitude of a republican
and tail. State. The distress of the lower classes, in conse-
quence of the Gaulish invasion, became intolerable. They
became involved in debt, and thus were in the power of their
creditors. Manlius undertook to be their defender, but the
envy of the patricians caused him to be accused of aspiring
to the supreme power, and he was, in spite of his great ser-
vices, sentenced to death and hurled from the Tarpeian rock.
His error was in premature reform. But, in the year 367
b. c, the tribunes Licinius and L. Sextius secured the pas-
sage of three memorable laws in the Curiata Tributa — the
abolition of the military tribunate, which had increased the
power of the patricians, and the restoration of the consulate,
on the condition that one of the consuls should be a plebeian ;
the second, that no citizen should possess more than five
hundred jugera of the public lands ; and the third, that all
interest thus paid on loans should be deducted from the prin-
TheLicinian c h y ^' These were called the Licinian Rogations.
rogation. g ut a new curu i e magistracy was created, as a sort
of compensation to the patricians, that of praetors, to be h<?ld
by them exclusively. These political changes were made
peaceably, and with them the old gentile aristocracy ceased

Chap, xxvii.] The Licinian Laws. 421

to be a political institution. The remaining patrician offices
were not long withheld from the plebeians. But these politi-
cal changes did not much ameliorate the social condition of
the poorer classes. The strictness of the Licinian laws, the
oppression of the rich, the high rate of interest, and the
existence of slavery, made the poor poorer, and the rich
richer, and prevented the expansion of industry. The
plebeians had gained political privileges, but not till great
plebeian families had arisen. Power was virtually in the
hands of nobles, whether patrician or plebeian, and aristo-
cratic distinctions still remained. The plebeian noble sympa-
thized with patricians rather than with the poorer classes.
Debt, usury, and slavery began to bear fruits before the con-
quest of Italy.



Hitherto, tlie Romans, after the expulsion of the kings,
were involved in wars with their immediate neighbors, and
exposed to great calamities. All they could do for one hun-
dred and fifty years was to recover the possessions they had
lost. During this period great prodigies of valor were per-
formed, and great virtues were generated. It was the heroic
period of their history, when adversity taught them patience,
endurance, and public virtue.

But a new period opens, when the plebeians had obtained
The period political power, and the immediate enemies were

of conquest .. .__, . • -i e- ^

begins. subdued. Ihis was a period of conquest over the

various Italian States. The period is still heroic, but historical.
Great men arose, of talent and patriotism. The ambition of
the Romans now prominently appears. They had been
struggling for existence — they now fought for conquest.
" The great achievement of the regal period was the estab-
lishment," says Momm sen, "of the sovereignty of Rome over
Latium." That was shaken by the expulsion of Tarquin, but
was re-established in the wars which subsequently followed.
After the fall of Veii, all the Latin cities became subject to
the Romans. On the overthrow of the Volscians, the Roman
armies reached the Samnite territory.

The next memorable struggle of Rome was with Samnium,
for the supremacy of Italy. Samnium was a hilly

Samnium. - 1 J . . . .

country on the east of the Volscians, and its people
were brave and hardy. The Samnites had, at the fall of
Veii, an ascendency over Lower Italy, with the exception of
the Grecian colonies. Tarentum, Croton, Metapontum,

Chap. XXVIII.] Revolt of the Latins. 423

Heraclea, Neapolis, and other Grecian cities, maintained a
precarious independence, but were weakened by the suc-
cesses of the Samnites. Capua, the capital of Campania,
where the Etruscan influence predominated, was taken by
them, and Cumse was wrested from the Greeks.

But in the year b. c. 343, the Samnites came in collision
with Rome, from an application of Capua to Rome for assist-
ance against them. The victories of Valerius Corvus, and
Cornelius Cossus gave Campania to the Romans.

In the mean time the Latins had recovered strength, and
determined to shake off the Roman voke, and the The Latins

-r* -, • i i n • -i /• -, throw off the

Romans made peace with the bamnites and formed Komanyoke.
a close alliance, b. c. 341. The Romans and Samnites were
ranged against the Latins and Campanians. The hostile
forces came in sight of each other before Capua, and the first
great battle was fought at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. It was
here that Titus Manlius, the son of the consul, was beheaded
by him for disobedience of orders, for the consuls issued
strict injunctions against all skirmishing, and Manlius, disre-
garding them, slew an enemy in single combat. " The
consul's cruelty was execrated, but the discipline of the
army was saved."

This engagement furnishes another legend of the heroic
and patriotic self-devotion of those early Romans. The
consuls, before the battle, dreamed that the general on the
one side should fall, and the army on the other side should
be beaten. Decius, the plebeian consul, when he found his
troops wavering, called the chief pontiff, and after invoking
the. gods to assist his cause, rushed into the thickest of the
Latin armies, and was slain. The other consul, Torquatus,
by a masterly use of his reserve, gained the battle. Three-
fourths of the Latin army were slain. The Latin Eenonquest

„ ..,..*. , . , of the Latin

cities, after this decisive victory, lost their mde- cities.
pendence, and the Latin confederacy was dissolved, and
Latin nationality was fused into one powerful State, and all
Latium became Roman. Roman citizens settled on the for-
feited lands of the conquered cities.

424 The Conquest of Italy. [Chap. XXVIII.

The subjugation of Latium and the progress of Rome in
jealousy of Campania filled the Samnites with jealousy, and it
nites. is surprising that they should have formed an alli-

ance with Rome, when Rome was conquering Campania.
They were the most considerable power in Italy, next to
Rome, and to them fell the burden of maintaining the inde-
pendence of the Italian States against the encroachments of
the Romans.

The Greek cities of Palreapolis and Neapolis, the only
communities in Campania not yet reduced by the
Romans, gave occasion to the outbreak of the in-
evitable war between the Samnites and Romans. The Tar-
entines and Samnites, informed of the intention of the
Romans to seize these cities, anticipated the seizure, upon
which the Romans declared war, and commenced the siege
of Palseapolis, which soon submitted, on the oifer of favora-
ble terms. An alliance of the Romans with the Lucanians,
left the Samnites unsupported, except by tribes on the east-
TheSamnite ern mountain district. The Romans invaded the
war " Samnite territories, pillaging - and destroying as

far as Apulia, on which the Samnites sent back the Roman
prisoners and sought for peace. But peace was refused by
the inexorable enemy* and the Samnites prepared for des-
perate resistance. They posted themselves in ambush at an
important pass in the mountains, and shut up the Romans,
who offered to capitulate. Instead of accepting the capitu-
lation and making prisoners of the whole army, the Samnite
general, Gaius Pontius, granted an equitable peace. But the
Roman Senate, regardless of the oaths of their generals, and
regardless of the six hundred equites who were left as
hostages, canceled the agreement, and the war was renewed
with increased exasperation on the part of the Samnites,
who, however, were sufficiently magnanimous not to sacrifice
the hostages they held. Rome sent a new army, under
Sie^eof Bucius Papirius Cursor, and laid siege to Bucania,
Lucania. where the Roman equites lay in captivity. The
city surrendered, and Papirius liberated his comrades, and

Chap. XXVIIL] Samnite War. 425

retaliated on the Samnite garrison. The war continued, like
all wars at that period between people of equal courage and
resources, with various success — sometimes gained by one
party and sometimes by another, until, in the fifteenth year
of the war, the Romans established themselves in Apulia, on
one sea, and Campania, on the other.

The people of Northern and Central Italy, perceiving that
the Romans aimed at the complete subjugation of the whole
peninsula, now turned to the assistance of the Samnites.
The Etruscans joined their coalition, but were at length sub-
dued by Papirius Cursor. The Samnites found allies in the
Umbrians of Northern, and the Marsi and Pgeligni of Central
Italy. But these people were easily subdued, and a peace
was made with Samnium, after twenty-two years' war,
when Bovianum, its strongest city, was taken by storm, b. c.

The defeated nations would not, however, submit to Rome
without One more final struggle, and the third Samnite war
was renewed the following year, for which the Samnites
called to their aid the Gauls. This war lasted nine years,
and was virtually closed by the great victory of y ictf>ry of
Seutinum — a fiercely contested battle, where the St!Utlilum -
Romans, though victorious, lost nine thousand men. ITm-
bria submitted, the Gauls dispersed, and the Etruscans made
a truce for four hundred months. The Samnites still made
desperate resistance, but were finally subdued in a decisive
battle, where twenty thousand were slain, and their great gen-
eral, Pontius, was taken prisoner, with four thousand Sam-
nites. This misfortune closed the war, but the Samnites
were not subjected to humiliating terms. The Romans,
however, sullied their victories by the execution of C. Pon-
tius, the Samnite general, who had once spared the lives of
two Roman armies, n. c. 291. Rome now became the ruling-
State of Italy, but there were still two great nations unsub-
dued — the Etruscans in the north, and the Lucanians in the

A new coalition arose against Rome, soon after the Sam-

426 The Conquest of Italy. [Chap, xxviii.

nites were subdued, composed of Etruscans, Bruttians,
New coaii- and Lucanians. The war began in Etruria, b. c.

turn against . .. . , , ._

Rome. 283, and continued with alternate successes, until

the decisive victory at the Vadimonian Lake, gained by
G. Domitius Calvinus, destroyed forever the power of the
Etruscans. The attention of Rome was now given to Taren-
tum, a Greek city, at the bottom of the gulf of
that name, adjacent to the fertile plain ol Luca-
nia. This city, which was pre-eminent among the States of
Magna Grecia, had grown rich by commerce, and was suffi-
ciently powerful to defend herself against the Etruscans and
the Syracusans. It was a Dorian colony, but had aban-
doned the Lacedemonian simplicity, and was given over to
pleasure and luxury ; but, luxurious as it was, it was the only
obstacle to the supremacy of Rome over Italy.

This thoughtless and enervated, but great city, ruled by
demagogues, had insulted Rome — burning and destroying
some of her ships. It was a reckless insult which Rome
could not forget, prompted by fear as well as hatred. When
the Samuite war closed, the Tarentines, fearing the ven-
geance of the most powerful State in Italy, sent to Pyrrhus,
kino- of Epirus, a soldier of fortune, for aid. They

Pyrrhus. .

offered the supreme command of their forces, with
the right to keep a garrison in their city, till the inde-
pendence of Italy was secured.

Pyrrhus, who was compared with Alexander of Macedon,
aspired to found an Hellenic empire in the West, as Alexan-
der did in the East, and responded to the call of the Taren-
tines. Rome was not now to contend with barbarians, but
with Hellenes — with phalanxes and cohorts instead of a mili-
tia — with a military monarchy and sustained by military
Marches to science. He landed, b. c. 281, on the Italian shores,
theahsist- w ith an army of twenty thousand veterans in pha-

ancc oi cue j j ±

Tarentines. ] an x, two thousand archers, three thousand caval-
ry, and twenty elephants. The Tarentine allies promised
three hundred and fifty thousand infantry and twenty thou-
sand cavalry to support him. The Romans strained every

Chap. XXVIIL] Pyrrhus. 427

nerve to meet him before these forces could be collected and
organized. They marched with a force of fifty thousand
men, larger than a consular army, under Lpevinius and .JGmi-
lius. They met the enemy on the plain of Herac- Battle of
lea. Seven times did the legion and phalanx drive eraclea -
one or the other back. But the reserves of Pyrrhus, with liis
elephants, to which the Romans were unaccustomed, decided
the battle. Seven thousand Romans were left dead on the
field, and an immense number were wounded or taken prison-
ers. But the battle cost Pyrrhus four thousand of his vete-
rans, which led him to say that another such victory would
be his ruin. The Romans retreated into Apulia, but the
whole south of Italy, Lucania, Samnium, the Bruttii, and
the Greek cities were the prizes which the conqueror won.

Pyrrhus then offered peace, since he only aimed to estab-
lish a Greek power in Southern Italy. The Senate Pyrrhus of _
was disposed, to accept it, but the old and blind fers 1>eace -
Appius Claudius was carried in his litter through the crowd-
ed forum — as Chatham, in after times, bowed with infirmities
and age, was carried to the parliament — and in a vehement
speech denounced the peace, and infused a new spirit into
the Senate. The Romans refused to treat with a foreign
enemy on the soil of Italy. The embassador of Pyrrhus, the
orator Cineas, returned to tell the conqueror that to fight
the Romans was to fight a hydra — that their city was a tem-
ple, and their senators were kings.

Two new legions were forthwith raised to re-enforce La3vi-
nius, while Pyrrhus marched direct to Rome. But when he
arrived within eighteen miles, he found an enemy in his
front, while Lsevinius harassed his rear. He was obliged
to retreat, and retired to Tarentum with an im- Eetl . eat of
mense booty. The next year he opened the cam- p y nhus -
paign in Apulia ; but he found an enemy of seventy thou-
sand infantry and eight thousand horse — a force equal to
his oAvn. The first battle was lost by the Romans, who
could not penetrate the Grecian phalanx, and were trodden
down by the elephants. But he could not prosecute his vie-

428 The Conquest of Italy. [Chap. XXYIII.

tory, his troops melted away, and he again retired to Taren-
tum for winter quarters.

Like a military adventurer, he then, for two years, turned
his forces against the Carthaginians, and relieved Syracuse.
But he did not avail himself of his victories, being led by a
generous nature into political mistakes. He then returned
to Italy to renew his warfare with the Romans. The battle
Battle of of Beneventum, gained by Curius, the Roman gen-
tum. eral, decided the fate of Pyrrhus. The flower of

his Epirot troops was destroyed, and his camp fell, with
all its riches, into the hands of the Romans. The king
of Epirus retired to his own country, and was assassinated
by a woman at Argos, after he had wrested the crown of
Macedonia from Antigonus, b. c. 2*72. He had left, however,
to garrison, under Milo, at Tarentum. The city fell into the
hands of the Romans the year that Pyrrhus died.

With the fall of Tarentum, the conquest of Italy was com-
Compieto plete. The Romans found no longer any enemies to
of Italy. resist them on the peninsula. A gi*eat State was
organized for the future subjection of the world. The
conquest of Italy greatly enriched the Romans. Both rich
and poor became possessed of large grants of land from
the conquered territories. The conquered cities were incor-
porated with the Roman State, and their inhabitants became
Roman citizens or allies. The growth of great plebeian
families re-enforced the aristocracy, which was based on
wealth. Italy became Latinized, and Rome was now ac-
knowledged as one of the great powers of the world.

The great man at Rome during the period of the Samnite
Appius wars was Appius Claudius — great grandson of the

Claudius. decemvir, and the proudest aristocrat that had yet
appeared. He enjoyed all the great offices of State. To
him we date many improvements in the city, also the high-
way which bears his name. He was the patron of art, of
eloquence, and poetry. But, at this period, all individual
irreatness was lost in the State.



A contest greater than with Pyrrhus and the Greek
cities, more memorable in its incidents, and more important
in its consequences, now awaited the Romans. This was
with Carthage, the greatest power, next to Rome, in the
world at that time — a commercial State which had been
gradually aggrandized for three hundred years. It was a
rich and powerful city at the close of the Persian wars. It
had succeeded Tyre as the mistress of the sea.

We have seen, in the second book, how the Carthagin-
ians were involved in wars with Syracuse, when that city
had reached the acme of its power under Dionysius. We
have also alluded to the early history and power causes of the
of Carthage. At the time Pyrrhus landed in Punic W14r -
Sicily, it contained nearly a million of people, and controlled
the northern coast of Africa, and the western part of
the Mediterranean. Carthage was strictly a naval power,
although her colonies were numerous, and her dependencies
large. The land forces were not proportionate to the naval ;
but large armies were necessary to protect her dependencies
in the constant wars in which she was engaged. These
armies were chiefly mercenaries, and their main strength
consisted in light cavalry.

The territories of Carthage lay chiefly in the islands which
were protected by her navy and enriched by her Territories
commerce. Among these insular possessions, Sar- of Cartha s e -
dinia was the largest and most important, and was the com-
mercial depot of Southern Europe. A part of Sicily, also, as

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