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Despair of inspired by the instinct of self-preservation, and
ginians. aside from all calculation of success or failure. As
the fall of the city was inevitable, wisdom might have coun-
seled an unreserved submission. Resistance should have
been thought of before. In fact, Carthage should not have
yielded to the first Africanus. And when she had again
become rich and populous, she should have defied the Ro-
mans when their spirit was perceived — should have made a
more gallant defense against Masinissa, and concentrated
all her energies for a last stand upon her own territories.
But why should we thus speculate ? The doom of Carthage
had been pronounced by the decrees of fate. The fall has all
the mystery and solemnitj r of a providential event, like the
fall of all empires, like the defeat of Darius by Alexander,



Chap, xxxii.] The Defenses of Carthage. 467

like the ruin of Jerusalem, like the melting away of North.
American Indians, like the final overthrow of the " Eternal
City " itself.

The desperation of the city in her last conflict proves,
however, that, with proper foresight and patriot- The cit
ism, her fall might have been delayed, for it took ™ e gp^: ate
the Romans three years to subdue her. The dis- efforts -
armed city withstood the attack of the Romans for a period
five times as long as it required Vespasian and Titus to cap-
ture Jerusalem. The city resounded day and night with the
labors of men and women on arms and catapults. One hun-
dred and forty shields, three hundred swords, five hundred
spears, and one thousand missiles were manufactured daily,
and even a fleet of one hundred and fifty ships was built
during the siege. The land side of the city was protected
by a triple wall, and the rocks of Cape Camast and Cape
Carthage sheltered it from all attacks by sea, except one
side protected by fortified harbors and quays.
Hasdrubal, with the remnant of his army, was still
in the field, and took up his station at Nephesis, on the
opposite side of the lake of Tunis, to harass the besiegers.
Masinissa died at the age of ninety, soon after hostilities
began.

The first attack on Carthage was a failure, and the army of
the Consuls Censorinus and Manius Manilius would Fai]nreof
have been cut to pieces, had it not been for the theiiomans.
reserve led by Scipio iEmilianus, a grandson of Africanus,
who was then serving as military tribune. He also per-
formed many gallant actions when Censorinus retired to
Rome, leaving the army in the hands of his incompetent
colleague.

The second campaign was equally unsuccessful, under L.
Calpurnius Piso and L. Mancinus. The slow pro- Pome di8 .
gress of the war excited astonishment throughout s usted -
the world. The suspense of the campaign was intolerable
to the proud spirit of the Romans, who had never dreamed
of such resistance. The eyes of the Romans were then turned



468 The Third Punic War. [Cuap. xxxir.

to the young hero who alone had thus far distinguished
himself. Although he had not reached the proper age, he
was chosen consul, and the province of Africa was assigned
to him. He sailed with his friends Polybius and Lselius.
lie was by no means equal to the elder Scipio, although he
was an able general and an accomplished man. He was
ostentatious, envious, and proud, and had cultivation rather
than genius.

When he arrived at Utica, he found the campaign of b. c.
Mistake of 147 opened in such a way that his arrival saved
Mancinus. a g rea ^ disaster. The admiral Mancinus had at-
tempted an attack on an undefended quarter, but a desperate
sally of the besieged had exposed him to imminent danger,
and he was only relieved by the timely arrival of Scipio.

The new general then continued the siege with new vigor,
sie-'eof car- ^ s headquarters were fixed on an isthmus uniting
thage. j^g p en i nsu i a C) f Carthage with the main-land,

from which he attacked the suburb called Megara, and took
it, and shut up the Carthaginians in the old town and ports.
The garrison of the suburb and the army of Hasdrubal re-
treated within the fortifications of the city. The Cartha-
ginian leader, to cut off all retreat, inflicted inhuman bar-
barities and tortures on all the Roman prisoners they took.
Scipio, meanwhile, intrenched and fortified in the suburb,
cut off all communication between the city and main-land
by parallel trenches, three miles in length, drawn across the
whole isthmus. The communication with the sea being still
open, from which the besieged received supplies, the port was
blocked up by a mole of stone ninety-six feet wide. The
besieged worked night and day, and cut a new channel to
the sea, and, had they known how to improve their oppor-
tunity, might, with the new fleet they had constructed,
have destroyed that of their enemies, unprepared for action.

Scipio now resolved to make himself master of the ports,
Scipio master "W"liicli were separated from the sea by quays and
of the ports. a wea k wa ]l p His battering-rams were at once
destroyed by the Carthaginians. He then built a wall or



Chap, xxxii.] Fall of Carthage. 469

rampart upon the quay, to the height of the city wall, and
placed upon it four thousand men to harass the besieged.
As the winter rains then set in, making his camp unhealthy,
and the city was now closely invested by sea and land, he
turned his attention to the fortified camp of the enemy at
Nephesis, which was taken by storm, and seventy thousand
persons put to the sword. The Carthaginian army was an-
nihilated.

Meanwhile famine pressed within the besieged city, and
Hasdrubal would not surrender. An attack, led Attacko f t he
by Lajlius, on the market-place, gave the Romans citadel -
a foothold within the city, and a great quantity of spoil.
One thousand talents were taken from the temple of Apollo.
Preparations were then made for the attack of the citadel,
and for six days there was a hand-to-hand fight between the
combatants amid the narrow streets which led to the Byrsa.
The tall Oriental houses were only taken one by one and
burned, and the streets were cumbered with the dead. The
miserable people, crowded within the citadel, certain now of
destruction, then sent a deputation to Scipio to beg the lives
of those who had sought a retreat in the Byrsa. The request
was granted to all but Roman deserters. But out of the
great population of seven hundred thousand, only thirty
thousand men and twenty-five thousand women marched
from the burning ruins. Hasdrubal and the three hundred
Roman deserters, certain of no mercy, retired to the temple
of iEsculapius, the heart of the citadel. But the Carthaginian,
uniting pusillanimity with cruelty, no sooner found Capture and

. , „ , , ln .„.., destruction

the temple on nre, than he rushed out in Scipio s of Carthago.
presence, with an olive-branch in his hands, and abjectly
begged for his life, which Scipio granted, after he had pros-
trated himself at his feet in sight of his followers, who loaded
him with the bitterest execrations. The wife of Hasdrubal,
deserted by the abject wretch, called down the curses of the
gods on the man who had betrayed his country and deserted
at last his family. She then cut the throats of her children
and threw them into the flames, and then leaped into them



470 The Third Punic War. [Chap, xxxii.

herself. The Roman deserters in the same manner perished.
The city was given up to plunder, the inhabitants whose
lives were spared were sold as slaves, and the gold and
works of art were carried to Rome and deposited in the
temples.

Such was the fate of Carthage — a doom so awful, that we
„ „ , can not but feel that it was sent as a chastisement

Her awtul

fate. f or crimes which had long cried to Heaven for

vengeance. Carthage always was supremely a wicked city.
All the luxurious and wealthy capitals of ancient times were
wicked, especially Oriental cities, as Carthage properly,
though not technically, was — founded by Phoenicians, and a
worshiper of the gods of Tyre and Sidon. The Roman Sen-
ate decreed that not only the city, but even the villas of the
nobles in the suburb of Megara, should be leveled with the
Carthage ground, and the plowshare driven over the soil

utterly de- ° ' r

etroyed. devoted to perpetual desolation, and a curse to the
man who should dare to cultivate it or build upon it. For
fourteen days, the fires raged in this once populous and
wealthy city, and the destruction was complete, b. c. 146.
So deep-seated was the Roman hatred of rivals, or States that
had been rivals ; so dreadful was the punishment of a wicked
city, of which Scipio was made the instrument, not merely
of the Romans, but of Divine providence.

All the great cities of antiquity, which had been seats of
luxury and pride, had now been utterly destroyed — Nineveh,
The fete of Babylon, Tyre, and Carthage. Corinth was already
merciai°(M,p- sacked by Mummius, and Jerusalem was to be
itais. by Titus, and Rome herself was finally to receive

a still direr chastisement at the hands of Goths and Van-
dals. So Providence moves on in his mysterious power
to bring to naught the grandeur and power of rebellious
nations — i-ebellious to those mighty moral laws which are as
inexorable as the laws of nature.

The territory on the coast of Zeugitana and Byzantium,
which formed the last possession of Carthage, was erected
into the province of Africa, and the rich plain of that fertile



Chap, xxxii.] Change in Roman Manners. 471

province became more important to Rome for supplies of corn
than even Sicily, which had been the granary of Rome.

Scipio returned to Rome, and enjoyed a triumph more gor-
geous than the great Africanus. He also lived to scipio tii-
enjoy another triumph for brilliant successes in m "i )hs -
Spain, yet to be enumerated, but was also doomed to lose his
popularity, and to perish by the dagger of assassins.

Rome had now acquired the undisputed dominion of the
civilized world, and with it, the vices of the nations she sub-
dued. A great decline in Roman morals succeeded these
brilliant conquests. Great internal changes took place. The
old distinction of patricians and plebeians had van- Change in
ished, and a new nobility had arisen, composed of manners.
rich men and of those whose ancestors had enjoyed curule
magistracies. They possessed the Senate, and had control of
the Comitia Centuriata, by the prerogative vote of the eques-
trian centuries. A base rabble had grown up, fed Avith corn
and oil, by the government, and amused by games and spec-
tacles. The old republican aristocracy was supplanted by a
family oligarchy. The vast wealth which poured into Rome
from the conquered countries created disproportionate for-
tunes. The votes of the people were bought by the rich can-
didates for popular favor. The superstitions of the East
were transferred to the capitol of the world, and the decay
in faith was as marked as the decay in virtue. Chaldsean
astrologers were scattered over Italy, and the gods of all the
conquered peoples of the earth were worshiped at Rome.
The bonds of society were loosed, and a state was prepared
for the civil wars which proved even more destructive than
the foreign.



CHAPTER XXXID

ROMAN CONQUESTS FROM THE FALL OF CARTHAGE TO THE
TIMES OF THE GRACCHI.

Although the Roman domination now extended in some
form or other over most of the countries around the Medi-
terranean, still several States remained to be subdued, in the
East and in the West.

The subjugation of Spain first deserves attention, com-
menced before the close of the third Punic war, and which I
have omitted to notice for the sake of clearness of connection.

After the Hannibalic war, we have seen how Rome planted
her armies in Spain, and added two provinces to her empire.
But the various tribes were far from being subdued, and
Spain was inhabited by different races.

This great peninsula, bounded on the north by the ocean
Cantabricus, now called the Bay of Biscay, and the Pyrenees,
on the east and south by the Mediterranean, and on the west
The Spanish ^J the Atlantic Ocean, was called Iberia, by the
peninsula. Greeks, from the river Iberus, or Ebro. The term
Hispania was derived from the Phoenicians, who planted
colonies on the southern shores. The Carthaginians invaded
it next, and founded several cities, the chief of which was
New Carthage. At the end of the second Punic war, it was
wrested from them by the Romans, who divided it into two
provinces, Citerior and Ulterior. In the time of Augustus,
Ulterior Spain was divided into two provinces, called Lusi-
tania and Baetica, while the Citerior pi - ovince, by far the
larger, occupying the whole northern country from the
Atlantic to the Mediterranean, was called Tanagona. It
included three-fifths of the peninsula, or about one hun-



Chap. XXXIII.] Spanish States and Cities. 473

dred and seven thousand three hundred square miles. It
embraced the modern provinces of Catalonia, Aragon, Na-
varre, Biscay, Asturias, Galicia, Northern Leon, old and
new Castile, Murcia, and Valentia, and a part of Por-
tugal. Baetica nearly corresponded with Andalusia, and
embraced Granada, Jaen, Cordova, Seville, and half of
Spanish Estremadura. Lusitania corresponds nearly with
Portugal.

The Tanaconneusis was inhabited by numerous tribes, and
the chief ancient cities were Barcelona, Tanagona Ge0Kraph y
the metropolis, Pampeluna, Oporto, Numantia, Sa- ol Spain -
guntum, Saragossa, and Cartagena. In Bsetica were Cor-
dova, Castile, Gades, and Seville. In Lusitania were Olisipo
(Lisbon), and Salamanca.

Among the inhabitants of these various provinces were
Iberians, Celts, Phosnicians, and Hellenes. In the year 154
b. c, the Lusitanians, under a chieftain called Punicus, in-
vaded the Roman territory which the elder Scipio had
conquered, and defeated two Roman governors. The Ro-
mans then sent a consular army, under Q. Fulvius Nobilior,
which was ultimately defeated by the Lusitanians under
Caesarus. This success kindled the flames of war far and
near, and the Celtiberians joined in the warfare against the
Roman invaders. Again the Romans were defeated with

heavy loss. The Senate then sent considerable re- War with
J the Span-

enforcements, under Claudius Marcellus, who soon iai-ds.

changed the aspect of affairs. The nation of the Arevacse
surrendered to the Romans — a people living on the branches
of the Durius, near Numantia — and their western neighbors,
the Vaccsei, were also subdued, and barbarously dealt with.
On the outbreak of the third Punic Avar the affairs of Spain
were left to the ordinary governors, and a new insurrection
of the Lusitanians took place. Viriathus, a Spanish chief-
tain, signally defeated the Romans, and was recognized as
king of all the Lusitanians. He was distinguished, not only
for bravery, but for temperance and art, and was a sort of
Homeric hero, whose name and exploits were sounded



474 Roman Conquests. [Chap. XXXIII.

throughout the peninsula. He gained great victories over
the Roman generals, and destroyed their armies. General
after general was successively defeated. For five years this
gallant Spaniard kept the whole Roman power at hay, and
he was only destroyed by treachery.

While the Lusitanians at the South were thus prevailing
over the Roman armies on the banks of the Tagus, another
war broke out in the North among the Celtiberian natives.
Against these people Quintus Crecilius Metellus, the consul,
was sent. He showed great ability, and in two years re-
duced the whole northern province, except the two cities of
Termantia and Numantia. These cities, wearied at last with
war, agreed to submit to the Romans, and delivered up
inglorious hostages and deserters, with a sum of money. But
war - the Senate, with its usual policy, refused to confirm

the treaty of its general, which perfectly aroused the Nu-
mantines to resentment and despair. These brave people
obtained successes against the Roman general Lamas and his
successors, Mancinus and M. iEniilius Lepides, as well as
Philus and Piso.

The Romans, aroused at last to this inglorious war, which

had lasted nearly ten years, resolved to take the city of the

Numantines at any cost, and intrusted the work to

Scipio. . . „-,.,. i-i i tt

Scipio iEnnlianus, their best general. He spent
the summer (b. c. 134) in extensive preparations, and it was
not till winter that he drew his army round the walls
of Numantia, defended by only eight thousand citizens.
Scipio even declined a battle, and fought with mattock and
spade. A double wall of circumvallation, surmounted with
towers, was built around the city, and closed the access to
it by the Douro, by which the besieged relied upon for pro-
visions. The city sustained a memorable siege of nearly a
year, and was only reduced by famine. The inhabitants
were sold as slaves, and the city was leveled with the
ground. The fall of this fortress, struck at the root of oppo-
sition to Rome, and a senatorial commission was sent to
Spain, in order to organize with Scipio the newly-won terri-



Chap. XXXIIL] Africa. 475

tories, and became henceforth the best-regulated country of
all the provinces of Rome.

But a graver difficulty existed with the African, Greek,
and Asiatic States that had been brought under Difficulties
the influence of the Roman hegemony, which was provinces.
neither formal sovereignty nor actual subjection. The client
States had neither independence nor peace. The Senate,
nevertheless, perpetually interfered with the course of Afri-
can, Hellenic, Asiatic, and Egyptian affairs. Commissioners
were constantly going to Alexandria, to the Achaean diet,
and to the courts of the Asiatic princes, and the government
of Rome deprived the nations of the blessings of freedom and
the blessings of order.

It was time to put a stop to this state of things, and the
only way to do so was to convert the client States province of
into Roman provinces. After the destruction of Afnca -
Carthage, the children of Masinissa retained in substance
their former territories, but were not allowed to make Car-
thage their capital. Her territories became a Roman pro-
vince, whose capital was Utica.

Macedonia also disappeared, like Carthage, from the ranks
of nations. But the four small States into which the king-
dom was parceled could not live in peace. Neither Roman
commissioners nor foreign arbiters could restore order. At
this crisis a young man appeared in Thrace, who called him-
self the son of Perseus. This pseudo-Philip, for such was his
name, strikingly resembled the son of Perseus. Unable to
obtain recognition in his native country, he went to Deme-
trius Sotor, king of Syria. By him he was sent to Rome.
The Senate attached so little importance to the man, that he
was left, imperfectly guarded, in an Italian town, and fled to
Miletus. Again arrested, and again contriving to escape, he
went to Thrace, and obtained a recognition from Teres, the
chief of the Thracian barbarians. With his sup- The Mace .
port he invaded Macedonia, and obtained several dollliU1 war -
successes over the Macedonian militia. The Roman com-
missioner ISTasica, without troops, was obliged to call to bis



476 Roman Conquests. [Chap, xxxill.

aid the Achaean and Pergainene soldiers, until defended by a
Roman legion under the prretor Juventius. Juventius was
slain by the pretender, and his army cut to pieces. And it
was not until a stronger Roman army, under Quintus Cseci-
lius Metellus, appeared, that he was subdued. The four
States into which Macedonia had been divided were now
converted into a Roman province, b. c. 148, and Macedonia
became, not a united kingdom, but a united province, with
nearly the former limits.

The defense of the Hellenic civilization now devolved on
the Romans, but was not conducted with adequate forces or
befitting energy, and the petty States were therefore exposed
to social disorganization, and the Greeks evidently sought to
pick a quarrel with Rome.

Hence the Acluean war, b. c. 149. It is not of much his-
Fnii of torieal importance. It was commenced under Me-

tellus, and continued under Mummius, who reduced
the noisy belligerents to terms, and entered Corinth, the seat
of rebellion, and the first commercial city of Greece. By
order of the Senate, the Corinthian citizens were sold into
slavery, the fortifications of the city leveled with the ground,
and the city itself was sacked. The mock sovereignty of
leagues was abolished, and all remains of Grecian liberty
fled.

In Asia Minor, after the Seleucidas were driven away, Per-
gamus became the first power. But even this
State did not escape the jealousy of the Romans,
and with Attalus III. the house of Attalids became extinct.

He, however, had bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans,
and his testament kindled a civil war. Aristonicus, a natural
son of Eumenes II., made his appearance at Lecua?, a small
sea-port near Smyrna, as a pretender to the crowm. He was
defeated by the Ephesians, who saw the necessity of the pro-
tection and friendship of the Roman government. But he
again appeared with new troops, and the struggle was serious,
since there were no Roman troops in Asia. But, b. c. 131,
a Roman army was sent under the consul Publius Licinius



Chap XXXIII.] Syria. 477

Crassus Mucianus, one of the wealthiest men of Rome, dis-
tinguished as an orator and jurist. This distinguished gen-
eral was about to lay siege to Leuere, when he was

, . _ . TT . War in Asia,

surprised and taken captive, and put to death. His
successor, Marcus Perpentia, was fortunate in his warfare,
and the pretender was taken prisoner, and executed at Rome.
The remaining cities yielded to the conqueror, and Asia Minor
became a Roman province.

In other States the Romans set up kings as they chose.
In Syria, Antiochus Eupater was recognized over
the claims of Demetrius Sotor, then a hostage in
Rome. But he contrived to escape, and seized the govern-
ment of his ancestral kingdom. But it would seem that the
Romans, at this period, did not take a very lively interest in
the affairs of remote Asiatic States, and the decrees of the
Senate were often disregarded with impunity. A great re-
action of the East took place against the West, and, under
Milhridates, a renewed struggle again gave dignity to the
Eastern kingdoms, which had not raised their heads since
the conquests of Alexander. That memorable struggle will
be alluded to in the proper place. It was a difficult problem
which Rome undertook when she undertook to govern the
Asiatic world. It was easy to conquer ; it was difficult to
rule, when degeneracy and luxury became the vices of the
Romans themselves. We are now to trace those domestic
dissensions and civil wars which indicate the decline of the
Roman republic. But before we describe those wars, we
will take a brief survey of the social and political changes in
Rome at this period.



CHAPTER XXXIV.

ROMAN CIVILIZATION AT THE CLOSE OF THE THIRD PUNIC
WAR, AND THE FALL OF GREECE.

Rome was now the unrivaled mistress of the world. She
Dominion of na ^ conquered all the civilized States around the
Rome. Mediterranean, or had established a protectorate

over them. She had no fears of foreign enemies. Her em-
pire was established.

Before we proceed to present subsequent conquests or
domestic revolutions, it would be well to glance at the
political and social structure of the State, as it was two hun-
dred years before the Christian era, and also at the progress
which had been made in literature and art.

One of the most noticeable features of the Roman State
The rise of a at ^is period was the rise of a new nobility. The
newnobihty. patricians, when they lost the exclusive control of
the government, did not cease to be a powerful aristocracy.
But another class of nobles arose in the fifth century of the
city, and shared their power — those who had held curule
offices and were members of the Senate. Their descendants,
plebeian as well as patrician, had the privilege of placing the
wax images, of their ancestors in the family hall, and to have
them carried in funeral processions. They also wore a stripe
of purple on the tunic, and a gold ring on the finger. These
were trifling insignia of rank, still they were emblems and
signs by which the nobility were distinguished. The plebeian
families, ennobled by their curule ancestors, were united into
Roman one body with the patrician families, and became

nobility - a sort of hereditary nobility. This body of exclu-
sive families really possessed the political power of the



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