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tended. Mommsen thinks these barbarians were Teutonic,
although, among older historians, they were supposed to be
Celts. The Cimbri were a migratory people, who left their
northern homes with their wives and children, goods and
chattels, to seek more congenial settlements than they had
found in the Scandinavian forests. The wagon was their
house. They were tall, fair-haired, with bright blue eyes.
They were well armed with sword, spear, shield, and helmet.

Chap. XXXVI.] Invasion of the Cimbrians. 503

They were brave warriors, careless of danger, and willing to
die. They were accompanied by priestesses, whose warn-
ings were regarded as voices from heaven.

This homeless people of the Cimbri, prevented from ad-
vancing south on the Danube by the barrier raised by the
Celts, advanced to the passes of the Carnian Alps, .

b. c. 113, protected by Gnseus Papirius Carbo, not theoimbrf.
far from Aqnileia. An engagement took place not far from
the modern Corinthia, where Carbo was defeated. Some
years after, they proceeded westward to the left bank of the
Rhine, and over the Jura, and again threatened the Roman
territory. Again was a Roman army defeated under Silanus
in Southern Gaul, and the Cimbri sent envoys to Rome, with
the request that they might be allowed peaceful settlements.
The Helvetii, stimulated by the successes of the Cimbri, also
sought more fertile settlements in Western Gaul, and formed
an alliance with the Cimbri. They crossed the Jura, the
western barrier of Switzerland, succeeded in decoying the
Roman army under Longinus into an ambush, and gained
a victory.

In the year b. c, 105 the Cimbrians, under their king
Boiorix, advanced to the invasion of Italy. They T . ,

' • » Invasion of

were opposed on the right bank of the Rhone by Ita] y-
the proconsul Caspio, and on the left by the consul Gnasus
Mallius Maximus, and the consular Marcus Aurelius Scaurus.
The first attack fell on the latter general, who was taken
prisoner and his corps routed. Maximus then ordered his
colleague to bring his army across the Rhone, where the
Roman force stood confronting the whole Cimbrian army,
but Csepio refused. The mutual jealousy of these generals,
and refusal to co-operate, led to one of the most disastrous
defeats which the Romans ever suffered. No less than
eighty thousand soldiers, and half as many more camp fol-
lowers, perished. The battle of Aransio (Orange) filled
Rome with alarm and fear, and had the Cimbrians imme-
diately advanced through the passes of the Alps to Italy,
overwhelming disasters might have ensued.

504: Jag art/tan and Cinibrian Wars. [Chap. XXXVI.

In this crisis, Marias was called to the supreme command,
Marias hated as he was by the aristocracy, which still

command. ruled, and in defiance of the law which prohibited
the holding of the consulship more than once. He was ac-
companied by a still greater man, Lucius Sulla, destined to
acquire great distinction. Marius maintained a strictly de-
fensive attitude within the Roman territories, training and
disciplining his troops for the contest which was yet to come
with the- most formidable antagonists the Romans had ever
encountered, and who were destined in after times to sub-
vert the empire.

The Cirnbri formed a confederation with the Helvetii and
the Teutons, and after an unsuccessful attempt to sweep
away the Belgae, who resisted them, concluded to invade
Raly, through Roman Gaul and the Western passes of the
Alps. They crossed the Rhone without difficulty, and re-
sumed the struggle with the Romans. Marius awaited them
in a well-chosen camp, well fortified and provisioned, at the
confluence of the Rhone and the Isere, by which he inter-
cepted the passage of the barbarians, either over the Little
St. Bernard — the route Hannibal had taken — or along the
coast. The barbarians attacked the camp, but were repulsed.
They then resolved to pass the camp, leaving an enemy in
the rear, and march to Italy. Marius, for six days, permit-
ted them to defile with their immense baggage, and when
their march was over, followed in the steps of the enemy,
Battle of who took the coast road. At Aquae Sextiae the

Aquae Sex- . .

tite. contending parties came into collision, and the

barbarians were signally defeated; the whole horde was
scattered, killed, or taken prisoners. It would seem that
these barbarians were Teutons or Germans ; but on the
south side of the Alps, the Cimbri and Helvetii crossed the
Alps by the Brenner Pass, and descended upon the plains of
Italy. The passes had been left unguarded, and the Roman
army, under Catulus, on the banks of the Adige, suffered a
defeat, and retreated to the right bank of the Po. The
whole plain between the Po and the Alps was in the hands

Chap, xxxyl] Battle of VercilloB. 505

of the barbarians, who did not press forward, as they should
have done, but retired into winter quarters, where they be-
came demoralized by the warm baths and abundant stores
of that fertile and lovely region. Thus the Romans gained
time, and the victorious Marius, relinquishing all attempts
at the conquest of Gaul, conducted his army to the banks of
the Po, and formed a junction with Catulus.

The two armies met at Vercillas, not far from the place
where Hannibal had fought his first battle on the _ ... ,

o Battle of

Italian soil. The day of the battle was fixed be- Verciiise.
forehand by the barbaric general and Marius, on the 30th
of June, b. c. 101. A complete victory was gained by the
Romans, and the Cimbri were annihilated. The victory of
the rough plebeian farmer was not merely over the barba-
rians, but over the aristocracy. He became, in consequence,
the leading man in Rome. He had fought his way from the
ranks to the consulship, and had distinguished himself in all
the campaigns in which he fought. In Spain, he had arisen to
the grade of an officer. In the Numantine war he attracted, at
twenty-three, the notice of Scipio. On his return to Rome, with
his honorable scars and military eclat, he married a lady of the
great patrician house of the Julii. At forty, he obtained
the praetorship ; at forty-eight, he was made consul, and
terminated the African war, and his victories over the Cimbri
and Teutons enabled him to secure his re-election five con-
secutive years, which was unexampled in the history of the
republic. As consul he administered justice impartially,
organized the military system, and maintained in the army
the strictest discipline. He had but little culture ; his voice
was harsh, and his look wild. But he was simple, econom-
ical, and incorruptible. He stood aloof from society and
from political parties, exposed to the sarcasms of the aristo-
crats into whose ranks he had entered.

He made great military reforms, changing the burgess
levy into a system of enlistments, and allowing Refonns of
every free-born citizen to enlist. He abolished Mariu s-
the aristocratic classification, reduced the infantry of the line

506 lugurthan and Clnibrian Wars. [Chap. XXXVI.

to a level, and raised the number of the legion from four
thousand two hundred to six thousand, to which he gave a
new standard — the silver eagle, which proclaims the advent
of emperors. The army was changed from a militia to a
band of mercenaries.

After effecting these military changes, he sought political
supremacy by taking upon himself the constitutional magis-
tracies. In effecting this he was supported by the popular,
or democratic party, which now regained its political import-
ance. He, therefore, obtained the consulship for the sixth
time, while his friends among the popular party were made
tribunes and prretors. He was also supported at the elec-
tion by his old soldiers who had been discharged.

But the whole aristocracy rallied, and Marius was not
sufficiently a politician to cope with experienced demagogues.
He made numerous blunders, and lost his political influence.
But he accepted his position, and waited for his time. Not
in the field of politics was he to arise to power, but in the
strife and din of arms. An opportunity was soon afforded
in the convulsions which arose from the revolt of the Roman
allies in Italy, soon followed by civil wars. It is these wars
which next claim our notice.



Great discontent had long existed among the Italian sub-
jects of Rome. They wei-e not only oppressed, but they
enjoyed no political privileges. They did not belong to the
class of burgesses.

With the view of extending the Roman franchise, a move-
ment was made by the tribune, M. Livius Drusus, an aristo-
crat of great wealth and popular sympathies. He had, also,
projected other reforms, which made him obnoxious to all
parties ; but this was peculiarly offensive to the order to which
he belonged, and he lost his life while attempting to effect
the same reforms which were fatal to Gracchus.

On his assassination, the allies, who outnumbered the
Roman burgesses, and who had vainly been seeking citizen-
ship, found that they must continue without political rights,
or fight, and they made accordingly vast preparations .for
war. Had all the Italian States been united, they would,
probably, have obtained their desire without a conflict in the
field, but in those parts where the moneyed classes preponder-
ated, the people remained loyal to Rome. But the insurgents
embraced most of the people in Central and Southern Italy,
who were chiefly farmers.

The insurrection broke out in Asculum in Picenum, and
spread rapidly through Samnium, Apulia, and Lucania. All
Southern and Central Italy was soon in arms against Rome.
The Etruscans and Umbrians remained in allegiance as
they had before taken part with the equestrians, now a
most powerful body, against Drusus. Italy was divided into

508 Marias and Sulla. [Chap. XSXYII.

two great military camps. The insurgents sent envoys to
Rome, with the proposal to lay down their arms if citizenship
were granted them, but this was refused. Both sides now
made extensive preparations, and the forces were nearly bal-
anced. One hundred thousand men were in arms, in two
divisions, on either side, the Romans commanded by the con-
sul, Publius Rutilius Lupus, and the Italians by Quint us
Silo and Gaius Papius Mutilus. Gaius Marius served as a
T . . . lieutenant-commander. The war was carried on


war - with various successes, for " Greek met Greek."

The first campaign proved, on the whole, to the disadvantage
of the Romans, who suffered several defeats. In a political
point of view, also, the insurgents w T ere the gainers. Great
despondency reigned in the capital, for the war had become
serious. At length, it was resolved to grant the political
franchise to such Italians as had 1 remained faithful, or who
had submitted. This concession, great as it was, did not
include the actual insurgents, but it operated in strengthen-
ing wavering: communities on the side of Rome. Etruria
and Umbria were tranquilized.

The second campaign, b. c. 89, was opened in Bicenum.
Marius was not in the field. His conduct in the previous
campaign, was not satisfactory, and the conqueror of the
Cirnbri, at sixty-six, was thought to be in his dotage. Ascu-
lum was besieged and taken by the Romans, who had seven-
ty-five thousand troops under the walls. The Sabellians and
Marsians were next subjugated, and all Campania was lost
to the insurgents, as far as Nola. The Southern army was
under the command of the consul, Lucius Sulla,
whose great career had commenced in Africa, under
Marius. Sulla advanced into the Samnite country and took
its capital, Bovianum. Under his able generalship, the posi-
tion of affairs greatly changed. At the close of the cam-
paign, most of the insurgent regions were subdued. The
Samnites were almost the only people which held out.

It was fortunate for Rome that the rebellion was so far
suppressed when the flames of war were rekindled in the

Chap, xxxvii.] The Sulpieian Laws. 509

East. A great reaction against the Roman domination
had taken place, and the eastern nations seemed AsiaUc
determined to rally once more for independent nsin s-
dominion. This was the last great Asiatic rising till the fall
of the Roman empire. The potentate under whom the Ori-
ental forces rallied, was Mithridates, king of Pontus.

The army of Sulla, in Campania, was destined to embark for
Asia as soon as the state of things in Southern Italy should al-
low his departure. So the third campaign of the Social war, as
it is called, began favorably for Rome, when events transpired
in the capital which gave fresh life to the almost extinguished
insurrection. The attack of Drusus on the equestrian courts,
and his sudden downfall, had sown the bitterest discord
between the aristocracy and the burgess class. The Italian
communities, received into Roman citizenship, were fettered
by restrictions which had an odious stigma, which led to
great irritation, for the aristocracy had conferred the
franchise grudgingly. And this franchise was moreover
withheld from the insurgent communities which had again
submitted. A deep indignation also settled in Dig(rast of
the breast of Marius, on his return from the first Marius -
campaign, to find himself neglected and forgotten. To these
discontents were added the distress of debtors, who, amid
the financial troubles of the war, were unable to pay the
interest on their debts, and were yet inexorably pressed by

It was then, in this state of fermentation and demoraliza-
tion, that the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus proposed that
every senator who OAved more than two thousand denarii
(£82) should forfeit his seat in the Senate ; that The Slllploi :
burgesses condemned by non-free jury courts anlaws -
should have liberty to return home; and that the new bur-
gesses should be distributed among all the tribes, in which the
freed men should also have the privilege of voting. These
proposals, although made by a patrician, met with the great-
est opposition from the Senate, but were passed amid riots
and tumults. Sulla was on the best terms with the Senate,

510 Marius and Sulla. [Chap, xxxvir.

and Sulpicius feared that he might return from his camp at
Nola, and take vengeance for these popular measures. The
trihune, therefore, conceived the plan of taking the command
from Sulla, who was then consul, and transfer it upon Mari-
us, who was also to conduct the war against Mithridates, in

Sulla disobeyed the mandate, and marched to Rome with
The sutian n ^ s army — little more than a body of mercenaries
legislation, devoted to him. In his eyes, the sovereign
Roman citizens were a rabble, and Rome itself a city without
a garrison. Sulla had an army of thirty-five thousand men,
and before the Romans could organize resistance he appeared
at the gate, and crossed the sacred boundary which the law
had forbidden war to enter. In a few hours Sulla was the
absolute master of Rome. Marius and Sulpicius fled. It
was the conservative party which exchanged the bludgeon
for the sword. Sulla at once made null the Sulpician laws,
punished their author and his adherents, as Sulpicius had
feared. The gray-haired conqueror of the Cimbri fled, and
found his way to the coast and embarked on a trading-vessel,
but the timid mariners put him ashore, and Marius stole
along the beach with his pursuers in the rear. He was found
in a marsh concealed in reeds and mud, seized and impris-
oned by the people of Minturnae, and a Cimbrian slave was
sent to put him to death. The ax, however, fell from his
hands when the old hero demanded in a stern voice if he
dared to kill Gaius Marius. The magistrates of the town,
ashamed, then loosed his fetters, gave him a vessel, and sent
him to iEnaria (Ischia). There, in those waters, the pro-
scribed met, and escaped to Numidia, and Sulla was spared
the odium of putting to death his old commander, who had
delivered Rome from the Cimbrians.

Sulla, master of Rome, did not destroy her liberties. He
Suiian con- suggested a new series of legislative enactments in
stitution. the i nterests f t h e aristocracy. He created three
hundred new senators, and brought back the old Servian
rule of voting in the Comitia Centuriata. The poorer classes

Chap. XXXVII] The Sullan Constitution. 511

were thus virtually again disfranchised. He also abolished
the power of the tribune to propose laws to the people, and
the initiatory of legislation was submitted to the Senate.
The absurd custom by which a consul, praetor, or tribune,
could propose to the burgesses any measure he pleased, and
carry it without debate, was in itself enough to overturn any

Having settled these difficulties, and made way with his
enemies, Sulla, still consul, embarked with his legion for the
East, where the presence of a Roman army was imperatively
needed. But before he left, he extorted a solemn oath from
Cinna, consul elect, that he would attempt no alteration in
the recent changes which had been made. Cinna took the
oath, but Sulla had scarcely left before he created new



There reigned at this time in Pontus, the northeastern
State of Asia Minor, bordered on the south by Cappadocia, on
the east by Armenia, and the north by the Euxine, a power-
ful prince, Mithridates VI., surnamed Eupator, who traced
an unbroken lineage to Darius, the son of the Hystaspes, and
also to the Seleucidse. He was a great eastern hero, whose
deeds excited the admiration of his age. He could, on foot,
overtake the swiftest deer; he accomplished journeys on
horseback of one hundred and twenty miles a day; he drove
sixteen horses in hand at the chariot races ; he never missed
his aim in hunting ; he drank his boon companions under
the table ; he had as many mistresses as Solomon ; he was
fond of music and poetry ; he collected precious works of
art ; he had philosophers and poets in his train ; he was the
greatest jester and wit of his court. His activity was
boundless ; he learned the antidotes for all poisons ; he
administered justice in twenty-two languages; .and yet he
was coarse, tyrannical, cruel, superstitious, and unscrupulous.
Such was this extraordinary man who led the great reaction
of the Asiatics against the Occidentals.

The resources of this Oriental king were immense, since
he bore rule over the shores of the Euxine to the interior of
Asia Minor. His field for recruits to his armies
stretched from the mouth of the Danube to the
Caspian Sea. Thracians, Scythians, Colchians, Iberians,
crowded under his banners. When he marched into Cappa-
docia, he had six hundred scythed chariots, ten thousand
horse, and eighty thousand foot. A series of aggressions and

Chap. XXXVIII.] Miihridates. 513

conquests made this monarch the greatest and most formida-
ble Eastern foe the Romans ever encountered. The Romans,
engrossed with the war with the Cimbri and the insurrection
of their Italian subjects, allowed his empire to be silently-

The Roman Senate, at last, disturbed and jealous, sent
Lucius Sulla to Cappadocia with a handful of troops to
defend its interests. On his return, Mithridates continued
his aggressions, and formed an alliance with his
father-in-law, Tigranes, king of Armenia, but
avoided a direct encounter with the great Occidental power
which had conquered the world. Things continued for
awhile between war and peace, but, at last, it was evident
that only war could prevent the aggrandizement of Mithri-
dates, and it was resolved upon by the Romans.

The king of Pontus made immense preparations to resist
his powerful enemies. He strengthened his alii- Preparations

r ° ofMithri-

ance with Tigranes. He made overtures to the dates.
Greek cities. He attempted to excite a revolt in Thrace, in
Numidia, and in Syria. He encouraged pirates on the Med-
iterranean. He organized a foreign corps after the Roman
fashion, and took the field with two hundred and fifty thou-
sand infantry and forty thousand cavalry — the largest army
seen since the Persian wars. He then occupied Asia Minor,
and the Roman generals retreated as he advanced. He made
Ephesus his head-quarters, and issued orders to all the gov-
ernors dependent upon him to massacre, on the same day,
all Italians, free or enslaved — men, women, and children,
found in their cities. One hundred and fifty thousand were
thus barbarously slaughtered in one day. The States of
Cappadocia, Sinope, Phrygia, and Bithynia were organized
as Pontic satrapies. The confiscation of the property of the
murdered Italians replenished his treasury, as well as the
contributions of Asia Minor. He not only occupied the
Asiatic provinces of the Romans, but meditated the Power of
invasion of Europe. Thrace and Macedonia were Mltbr i dates -
occupied by his armies, and his fleet appeared in the ^Egean


514 Mithridatic and Civil Wars. [Chap, xxxyiii.

Sea. Delos, the emporium of Roman commerce, was taken,
and twenty thousand Italians massacred. Most of the small
free States of Greece entered into alliance with him — the
Achaaans, Laconians, and Boeotians. So commanding was
his position, that an embassy of Italian insurgents invited him
to land in Italy.

The position of the Roman government was critical. Asia
Minor, Hellas, and Macedonia were in the hands of Mithri-
dates, while his fleet sailed without a rival. The Italian
insurrection was not subdued, and political parties divided
the capital.

At this crisis Sulla landed on the coast of Epirus, but with
Bulla lmds an arm y of only thirty thousand men, and without
in Epirus. a s i n gi e vessel of war. He landed with an empty
military chest. But he was a second Alexander — the greatest
general that Rome had yet produced. He soon made him-
self master of Greece, with the exception of the fortresses of
Athens and the Piraeus, into which the generals of Mithri-
dates had thrown themselves. He intrenched himself at
sie^eof Eleusis and Megara, from which he commanded
Athens. Greece and the Peloponnesus, and commenced the
siege of Athens. This was attended with great difficulties,
and the city only fell, after a protracted defense, when pro-
visions w T ere exhausted. The conqueror, after allowing his
soldiers to pillage the city, gave back her liberties, in honor
of her illustrious dead.

But a year was wasted, and without ships it was impossi-
Buiiade- ^le for Sulla to secure his communications. He
posed. sen j. one f j^g k egt o: fl3 cergj Lucullus, to Alexan-

dria, to raise a fleet, but the Egyptian court evaded the
request. To add to his embarrassments, the Roman general
was without money, although he had rifled the treasures
which still remained in the Grecian temples. Moreover,
what was still more serious, a revolution at Rome overturned
his work, and he had been deposed, and his Asiatic command
given to M. Valerius Flaccus.

Sulla was unexpectedly relieved by the resolution of

Chap, xxxviii.] Successes of Sulla. 515

Mithridates to carry on the offensive in Greece. Taxiles,
one of the lieutenants of the Pontic king, was sent to com-
bat Sulla with an army of one hundred thousand infantry
and ten thousand cavalry.

Then was foxight the battle of Chseronea, b. c. 85, against
the advice of Archelaus, in which the Romans Battleof
were the victors. But Sulla could not reap the Chiiei ' onea -
fruits of victory without a fleet, since the sea was covered
with Pontic ships. In the following year a second army was
sent into Greece by Mithridates, and the Romans and
Asiatics met once more in the plain of the Cephissus, near
Orchomenus. The Romans were the victors, who speedily
cleared the European continent of its eastern invaders. At
the end of the third year of the war, Sulla took up his
winter quarters in Thessaly, and commenced to build ships.

Meanwhile a reaction against Mithridates took place in
Asia Minor. His rule was found to be more Revolt of

i i f i t-> mi Asia against •

oppressive than that of the Romans. lhe great Mithridates.
mercantile cities of Smyrna, Colophon, Ephesus, and Sardis
were in revolt, and closed their gates against his governors.
The Hellenic cities of Asia Minor had hoped to gain civil
independence and a remission of taxes, and were disap-
pointed. And those cities which were supposed to be
secretly in favor of the Romans were heavily fined. The
Chians were compelled to pay two thousand talents. Great
cruelties were also added to fines and confiscations. Lucul-
lus, unable to obtain the help of an Alexandrian fleet, was

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