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more fortunate in the Syrian ports, and soon was able to
commence offensive operations. Flaccus, too, had arrived
with a Roman army, but this incapable general was put to
death by a mob-orator, Fimbria, more able than he, who
defeated a Pontic army at Miletopolis. The situation of
Mithridates then became perilous. Europe was lost ; Asia
Minor was in rebellion ; and Roman armies were pressing
upon him.

He therefore negotiated for peace. Sulla required the
restoration of all the conquests he had made : Cappadocia,



516 Mithridatic and Civil Wars. [Chap. XXXVIII.

Paphlagonia, Galatia, Bithynia, the Hellenic cities, the
islands of the sea, and a contribution of three thou-

Negotialions '

for peace. sand talents. These conditions were not accepted,
and Sulla proceeded to Asia, upon which Mithridates re-
luctantly acceded to his terms.

Sulla then turned against Fimbria, who commanded the
Roman army sent to supplant him, which, as was to be
expected, deserted to his standard. Fimbria fled to Perga-
mus, and fell on his own sword. Sulla intrusted the two
legions which had been sent from Rome under Flaccus to the
command of his best officer, Murena, and turned his attention
to arrange the affairs of Asia. He levied contributions to
Suite the amount of twenty thousand talents, reduced

returns to ■, . -, ■, -, n ■>• i ■ • t l

Italy. Mithridates to the rank ot a client king, richly

compensated his soldiers, and embarked for Italy, leaving
Lucullus behind to collect the contributions.

Thus was the Mithridatic war ended by the genius of a
Roman general, who had no equal in Roman history, with the
exception of Pompey and Julius Csesar. He had distin-
guished himself in Africa, in Spain, in Italy, and
ness - in Greece. He had defeated the barbarians of the

West, the old Italian foes of Rome, and the armies of the
most powerful Oriental monarch since the fall of Persia. He
had triumphed over Roman factions, and supplanted the
great Marius himself. He was now to contend with one
more able foe, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who represented
the revolutionary forces which had rallied under

Cinna. . J , .

the Gracchi and Marius — the democratic elements
of Roman society.

When Sulla embarked for the Mithridatic war, Cinna,
supported by a majority of the College of Tribunes, concerted
a reaction against the rule which Sulla had re-established — ■
the rule of the aristocracy. But Cinna, a mere tool of the
• revolutionary party, — a man without ability, — was driven out
of the city by the aristocratic party, and outlawed, and L.
Cornelia Mesula Avas made consul in his stead. The outlaws
fled to the camp before Kola. The Campanian army, demo-



Chap, xxxviil] Cinna and Sulla. 517

cratic and revolutionary, recognized Cinna as the leader of
the republic. Gaius Marius, then an exile in ^Tumidia,
brought six thousand men, whom he had rallied to his stand-
ard, to the disposal of the consul, and was placed by Cinna
in supreme command at Etruria. A storm gathered around
the capitol. Cinna was overshadowed by the greatness of
that plebeian general who had defeated the Cimbrians, and
who was bent upon revenge for the mortification and insults
he had received from the Roman aristocracy. Famine and
desertion soon made the city indefensible, and Rome capitu-
lated to an army of her own citizens.

Marius, now master of Rome, entered the city, and a reign
of terror commenced. The gates were closed, and the
slaughter of the aristocratic party commenced.
The consul Octavius was the first victim, and with
him the most illustrious of his party. The executioners of
Marius fulfilled his orders, and his revenge was complete.
He entered upon a new consulate, execrated by all the lead-
ing citizens. But in the midst of his victories he was seized
with a burning fever, and died in agonies, at the age of seventy,
in the full possession of honor and power. Cinna succeeded
him in the consulship, and Rome was under the „

x ' ^ Success of

government of a detested tyrant. For four years Cinna.
his reign was absolute, and was a reign of terror, during
which the senators were struck down, as the French nobles
were in the time of Robespierre. Cinna, like Robespierre,
reigned with the mightiest plenitude of power, united with
incapacity.

In this state of anarchy Sulla's wife and children escaped
with difficulty, and Sulla himself was deprived of his com-
mand against Mithridates. But Cinna, b. c. 84, was killed
in a mutiny, and the command of the revolutionists devolved
on Carbo. The situation of Sulla was critical, even at the
head of his veteran forces. In the spring of the year follow-
ing the death of Cinna, he landed in Brundusium, where he
was re-enforced by partisans and deserters. The Senate made
advances to Sulla, and many patricians joined his ranks,



518 Mithridatic and Civil Wars. [Chap, xxxviii.

including Cneius Pompeius, then twenty-three years of
age.

Civil war was now inaugurated between Sulla and the
revolutionary party, at the head of which were now the con-
„ , sul Carbo and the younger Marius. Carbo was

Sulla ends J °

the war. charged with Upper Italy, while Marius guarded
Rome at the fortress of Prseneste. At Sacriportus Sulla de-
feated Marius, and entered Rome. But the insurgent
Italians united with the revolutionary forces of Rome, and
seventy thousand Samnites and Lucanians approached the
capital. At the Colline gate a battle was fought, in which
Sulla was victorious. This ended the Social war, and the
subjugation of the revolutionists soon followed.

Sulla was now made dictator, and the ten years of revolu-
tion and insurrection were at an end in both West and East.
Absolute The first use which Sulla made of his absolute
lulia! ° power was to outlaw all his enemies. Lists of the

proscribed were posted at Rome and in the Italian cities.
It was a fearful visitation. A second reign of terror took
place, more fearful and systematic than that of Marius.
Four thousand seven hundred persons were slaughtered,
among whom were forty senators, and one thousand six hun-
dred equites.

The next year Sulla celebrated his magnificent triumph

over Mithridates, and was saluted by the name of Felix.

The despotism at which the Gracchi were accused

His r

triumphs. f aiming was introduced by a military conqueror,
aided by the aristocracy.

Sulla then devoted himself to the reorganization of the
State. He conferred citizenship upon all the Ital-
ians but freedmen, and bestowed the sequestered
estates of those who had taken side against him or his sol-
diers. The office of judices was restored to the Senate, and
the equites were deprived of their separate seats at festivals.
The Senate was restored to its ancient dignity and power,
and three hundred new members appointed. The number of
praetors was increased to eight. The government still rested



Chap. XXXVIII.] The Cornelian Laws. 519

on the basis of popular election, but was made more aristo-
cratic than before. The Comitia Centuriata was left in pos-
session of the nominal power of legislation, but it _,,

i ... ™ " e reforms

could only be exercised upon the initiation of a of.Suiia.
decree of the Senate. The Comitia Tributa was stripped of
the powers by which it had so long controlled the Senate
and the State. Tribunes of the people were selected from
the Senate. The College of Pontiffs was no longer filled by
popular election, but by the choice of their own members.
A new criminal code was made, and the several courts were
presided over by the praetors. Such, in substance, were the
Cornelian laws to restore the old powers of the aristocracy.

Having effected this labor, Sulla, in the plenitude of
power, retired into private life. He retired, not like Charles
V., wearied of the toils of war, and disgusted with , T .

' 5 o His retire-

the vanity of glory and fame, nor like Washington, ment -
from lofty patriotic motives, but to bury himself in epicurean
pleasures. In the luxury of his Cumsenon villa he divided his
time between hunting and fishing, and the enjoyments of
literature, until, worn out with sensuality, he died in his six-
tieth year, b. c. 78. A grand procession of the Senate he had
saved, the equites, the magistrates, the vestal virgins, and
his disbanded soldiers, bore his body to the funeral pyre, and
his ashes were deposited beside the tombs of the kings. A
splendid monument was raised to his memory, on which was
inscribed his own epitaph, that no friend ever did him a
kindness, and no enemy a wrong, without receiving a full
requital.



CHAPTER XXXIX.

ROME FROM THE DEATH OF SULLA TO THE GREAT CIVIL
WARS OF CAESAR AND POMPEY. — CICERO, POMPET, AND

CESAR.

On the death of Sulla, the Roman government was once
more in the hands of the aristocracy, and for several years
the consuls were elected from the great ruling families.
But, in spite of all the conquests of Sulla and all his laws,
the State was tumbling into anarchy, and was convulsed with
fresh wars.

Sulla was alive when M. Lepidus came forward as the
Reaction in leader of the democratic party against C. Lutatius

favor of the . i i -i-x i

aristocracy. Catulus — a man without character or ability, who
had deserted from the optimates to the popular party, to
escape prosecution for the plunder of Sicily. The fortune
he acquired in his government of that province enabled
Lepidus to secure his election as consul, b. c. 78, and he even
attempted to deprive Sulla of his funeral honors. A con-
spiracy was organized in Etruria, where the Sullan confisca-
tion had been most severe. Lepidus came forward as ah
avenger of the old Romans whose fortunes had been ruined.
The Senate, fearing convulsions, made Lepidus and Catulus,
the consuls, swear not to take up arms against each
other ; but at the expiration of the consulship of Lepidus,
went, as was usual, to the province assigned to him.
This was Gaul, and here the war first broke out. An
attempt on Rome was frustrated by Catulus, who defeated
Lepidus, and the latter soon died in Sardinia, whither he
had retired.

Sertorius was then in command of the army in Spain, — a



Chap. XXXIX.] Pompey. 521

man who had risen from an obscure position, but who pos-
sessed the hardy virtues of the old Sabine farmers. He
served under Marius in Gaul, and was praetor when

., _ _ Sertorms.

Sulla returned to Italy. When the cause ot Marius
was lost in Africa, he organized a resistance to Sulla in
Spain. His army was re-enforced by Marian refugees, and he
was aided by the Iberian tribes, among whom he was a
favorite. For eight years this celebrated hero baffled the
armies which Rome, under the lead of the aristocracy, sent
against him, for he undertook to restore the cause of the
democracy.

Against Sertorius was sent the man who, next to Caesar,
was destined to play the most important part in the history
of those times — Cn. Pompeius, born the same

™ i i -i t -i • i Pompey.

year as Cicero, b. c. 106, who had enlisted m the
cause of Sulla, and early distinguished himself against the
generals of Marius. He gained great successes in Sicily and
Africa, and was, on his return to Rome, saluted by the dic-
tator Sulla himself with the name of Magnus, which title he
ever afterward bore. He was then a simple equestrian, and
had not risen to the rank of quaestor, or praetor, or consul.
Yet he had, at the early age of twenty-four, without en-
joying any curule office, the honor of a triumph, even
against the opposition of Sulla.

Pompey was sent to Spain with the title of proconsul, and
with an army of thirty thousand men. He crossed the Alps
between the sources of the Rhone and Po, and advanced to
the southern coast of Spain. Here he was met by Sertorius,
and at first was worsted. I need not detail the varied events
of this war in Spain. The Spaniards at length grew weary
of a contest which was not to their benefit, but which was
carried on in behalf of rival factions at the capital. Dissen-
sions broke out among the officers of Sertorius, and he was
killed at a banquet by Perpenna, his lieutenant.
On the death of the only man capable of resisting Sertorius.
the aristocracy of Rome, and whose virtues were worthy of
the ancient heroes, the progress of Pompey was easy. Per-



522 Cicero, Pompey, and Ccesar. [Chap, xxxix.

penna was taken prisoner and his army was dispersed, and
Spain was reduced to obedience.

In the mean time, while Pompey was fighting Sertorius in
Spain, a servile war broke out in Italy, produced

Servile war. . . J ' r

in part by the immense demand of slaves for the
gladiatorial shows. One of these slaves, Spartacus, once a
Thracian captain of banditti, escaped with seventy comrades
to the crater of Vesuvius, and organized an insurrection,
and he was soon at the head of one hundred thousand of
those wretched captives whose condition was unendurable.
Italy was ravaged from the Alps to the Straits of Messina.
No Roman general, then in Italy, was equal to the task of
subduing them. But, in the second year of the war, Crassus,
who was a great proprietor of slaves, and who had ably
served under Sulla, undertook the task of subduing the
insurrectionary slaves. With six legions he drove them to
the extremity of the Bruttian peninsula, and shut them up in
Rhegium by strong lines of circumvallation. Spartacus was
killed, after having broken through the lines, and most of his
followers were destroyed; but six thousand escaped into
Cisalpine Gaul, as the northern part of Italy was then called,
and met Pompey on his victorious return from Spain, by
whom they were utterly annihilated. Pompey claimed the
merit of ending the servile war, and sought the honor of
the consulship, although ineligible. Crassus, also ineligible,
also demanded the consulship, and both these lieutenants of
Sulla obtained their ends. But both, in order to obtain the
consulship, made great promises. Pompey, in
particular, promised to restore the tribunitian
power. Pompey now broke with the aristocracy, whose
champion he had been, and even carried another law by
which the judices were taken from the equites as well as
the Senate. Thus was the constitution of Sulla subverted
within ten years. In this movement Pompey was supported
by Julius Caesar, who was a young man of thirty years
of age.

On the expiration of his consulship, Pompey remained



Chap. XXXIX.] The Pirates. 523

inactive, refusing a province, until the troubles with the
Mediterranean pirates acrain called him into active

■ . mi • • t The pirates.

military service. Ihese pirates swarmed on every
coast, plundering cities, and cutting off communication be-
tween Rome and the provinces. They especially attacked
the corn vessels, so that the price of provisions rose inordi-
nately. The people, in distress, turned their eyes to Pom-
pey ; but he was not willing to accept any ordinary command,
and through his intrigues, his tool, the tribune Gabinius,
proposed that the people should elect a man for this service
of consular rank, who should have absolute power for three
years over the whole of the Mediterranean, and to a distance
of fifty miles inward from the coast, and who should com-
mand a fleet of two hundred ships. He did not name Poni-
pey, but everybody knew who was meant. The people,
furious at the price of corn, and full of admiration for the
victories of Pompey, were ready to appoint him; the Senate,
alarmed and jealous, was equally determined to prevent his
appointment. Tumults and riots were the consequence.
Pompey affected to desire some other person for the com-
mand but himself; but the law passed, in spite of Great power
the opposition of the Senate, and Pompey was 1'umpey.
commissioned to prepare five hundred ships, enlist one hun-
dred and twenty thousand sailors and soldiers, and also to
take from the public treasury whatever sum he needed.

In the following spring his preparations were made, and in
forty days he cleared the western half of the Mediterranean
from the pirates, and drove them to the Cilician coast. Here
he gained a great victory over their united fleets, and took
twenty thousand prisoners, whom he settled at various points
on the coasts, and returned home in forty-nine days after
he had sailed from Bruudusium. In less than three months
he had ended the war.

This great success led to his command against Mithridates,
who had again rallied his forces for one more de- Eenewai of

, , i • i , x-> hostilities in

cisive and desperate struggle with the .Romans, the East.
Asia rallied against Europe, as Europe rallied against Asia



524 Cicero, Pomjyey, and Ccesa? 1 . [Chap, xxxtx.

in the crusades. Mithridates, after his defeat by Sulla, had
retired to Armenia to the court of his son-in-law, Tigranes,
whose power was greater than that of any other Oriental
potentate. Tigranes was not at first inclined to break with
Rome, but (b. c. 70) he consented to the war, which continued
for seven years without decisive results. The Romans were
commanded by Lucullus, the old lieutenant of
Sulla, and although his labors were not appreciated
at Rome, he broke really the power of Mithridates. But,
through the intrigues of Pompey and his friends, he was re-
called, and Pompey was commissioned, with the extraordi-
nary power of unlimited control of the Eastern army and fleet,
and the rights of proconsul over the whole of Asia. He
already had the dominion of the Mediterranean. The Senate
opposed this dangerous precedent, but it was carried by the
people, who could not heap too many honors on their favor-
ite. Cicero, then forty years of age, with Caesar, supported
the measure, which was opposed by Hortensius and Catulus.
Lucullus retired to his luxurious villa to squander the
riches he had accumulated in Asia, and to study

His victories. , -..., . i • 1 t-» i

the academic philosophy, while jrompey pursued
his conquests in the East over foes already broken and hu-
miliated. He showed considerable ability, and drove Mithri-
dates from post to post in the heart of his dominion. The
Eastern monarch made overtures of peace, which were re-
jected. Nothing but unconditional surrender would be
accepted. His army was finally cut to pieces, and the old
man escaped only with a few horsemen. Rejected by Ti-
granes, he made his way to the Cimmerian Bosphorus, which
was his last retreat. Pompey then turned his attention to
Armenia, and Tigranes threw himself upon his mercy, at the
cost of all his territories but Armenia Proper. Pompey then
Defeat of resumed the pursuit of Mithridates, fighting his
Mithridates. wa y through the mountains of Iberia and Albania,
but he did not pursue his foe over the Caucasus. Mithri-
dates, secure in the Crimea, then planned a daring attempt
on Rome herself, which was to march round the Euxine and



Chap. XXXIX.] Victories of Pompey. 525

up the Danube, collecting in his train the Sarmatians, Gseta3,
and other barbarians, cross the Alps, and descend upon Italy.
His kingdom of Pontus was already lost, and had been made
a Roman province. His followers, however, became disaf-
fected, his son Pharnaces rebelled, and he had no other rem-
edy than suicide to escape capture. He died b. c.

„ . „ <*n , .-, • His death.

63, after a reign of fifty-three years, in the sixty-
ninth year of his age — the greatest Eastern prince since
Cyrus. Racine has painted him in one of his dramas as one
of the most heroic men of the world. But it, was his misfor-
tune to contend with Rome in the plenitude of her power.

Pompey, before the death of Mithridates, went to Syria
to regulate its affairs, it being ceded to Rome by p om pey in
Tigranes. After the defeat of Tigranes by Lucullus, Syna-
that kingdom, however, had been recovered by Antiochus
XIII., the last of the Seleucida?, who held a doubtful sove-
reignty. He was, however, reduced by a legate of Pompey,
and Syria became a Roman province. The next year, Pom-
pey advanced south, and established the Roman supremacy
in Phoenicia and Palestine, the latter country being the seat
of civil war between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. It was
then that Jerusalem was taken by the Roman general, after
a siege of three months, and the conqueror entered the most
sacred precincts of the temple, to the horror of the priest-
hood. He established Hyrcanus as high priest, as has been
already related, and then retired to Pontus, settled its affairs,
and departed with his army for Italy, having won

His victories

a succession of victories never equaled in the East,

except by Alexander. And never did victories receive such

great eclat, which, however, were easily won, as those of

Alexander had been. No Asiatic foe was a match for either

Greeks or Romans in the field. The real difficulties were in

marches, in penetrating mountain passes, in crossing arid

plains.

But before the conqueror of Asia received the reward of his
great services to the State — the most splendid
triumph which had as yet been seen on the Via



526 Cicero, jPomjpey, and Ccesar. [Chap, xxxix.

Sacra — Rome was brought to the verge of ruin by the con-
spiracy of Catiline. The departure of Porapey to punish the
pirates of the Mediterranean and conquer Mithridates, left
the field clear to the two greatest men of their age, Cicero
and Cajsar. It was while Cicero was consul that the con-
spiracy was detected.

Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most accomplished man, on the
whole, in Roman annals, and as immortal as Csesar

Cicero. , . .

himself, was born b. c. 106, near Arpmum, of an
equestrian, but not senatorial family. He received a good
education, received the manly gown at sixteen, and entered
the forum to hear the debates, but pursued his studies with
great assiduity. He was intrusted by his wealthy father to
the care of the augur, Q. Mucius Scasvola, an old lawyer
deeply read in the constitution of his country and the princi-
ples of jurisprudence. At eighteen he served his first and
only campaign under the father of the great Pompey, in the
social war. He was twenty-four before he made a figure in
the eye of the public, keeping aloof from the fierce struggles
of Marius and Sulla, identifying himself with neither party,
and devoted only to the cultivation of his mind, studying
philosophy and rhetoric as well as law, traveling over Sicily
and Greece, and preparing himself for a forensic orator. At
twenty-five he appeared in the forum as a public pleader,
and boldly defended the oppressed and injured, and even
braved the anger of Sulla, then all-powerful as dictator. At
twenty-seven he again repaired to Athens for greater culture
and extensively ti'aveled in Asia Minor, holding converse
with the most eminent scholars and philosophers in the
Grecian cities. At twenty-nine he returned to Rome, im-
proved in health as well as in those arts which contributed
to his unrivaled fame as an orator — a rival with Hortensins
and Cotta, the leaders of the Roman bar. At thirty he was
elected qimestor, not, as was usually the case, by family in-
terest, but from his great reputation as a lawyer. The duties
of his office called him to Sicily, under the prnetor of Lily-
bffium, which he admirably discharged, showing not only



Chap, xxxix. Trial of Verres. 527

executive ability, but rare virtue and impartiality. The
vanity which dimmed the lustre of his glorious name, and
which he never exorcised, received a severe wound on his
return to Italy. He imagined he was the observed of all
observers, but soon discovered that his gay and fashionable
friends were ignorant, not only of what he had done in Sicily
but of his administration at all.

For the next four years he was absorbed in private stud-
ies, and in the courts of law, at the end of which he became
sedile, the year that Verres was impeached for
misgovernment in Sicily. This was the most
celebrated State trial for impeachment on record, with the
exception, perhaps, of that of Warren Hastings. But Cicero,
who was the public accuser and prosecutor, was more fortu-
nate than Burke. He collected such an overwhelming mass
of evidence against this corrupt governor, that he went into
exile without making a defense, although defended by Hor-
tensius, consul elect. The speech which the orator was to
have made at the trial was subsequently published by Cicero,
and is one of the most eloquent tirades against public cor-
ruption ever composed or uttered.

Nothing of especial interest marked the career of this great
man for three more years, until b. c. 67 he was PuWic career
elected first praetor, or supreme judge, an office for of Olcero -



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