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was encamped. He sent a messenger to the king, with the
request that he might be sheltered in Alexandria. To grant
it would compromise Ptolemy with Caesar ; to refuse it would
send Pompey to the camp of Cleopatra in Syria. He was
invited to a conference, and his minister Achillus was sent
out in a boat to bring him on shore. Pompey, infatuated,
imprudently trusted himself in the boat, in which p om peyas-
he recognized an old comrade, Septimius, who, sassu,aten -
however, did not return his salutation. On landing, he was
stabbed by Septimius, who had persuaded Ptolemy to take
his life, in order to propitiate Caesar and gain the Egyptian
crown. Thus ingloriously fell the conqueror of Asia, and
the second man in the empire, by treachery.

On the flight of Pompey from the fatal battle-field, Caesar
pressed in pursuit, with only one legion and a troop
of cavalry. Fearing a new war in Asia, Caesar Egypt-
waited to collect his forces, and then embarked for Egypt.

540 Wa?'s "between Ccesar and Pompey. [Chap. xl.

He arrived at Alexandria only a few clays after the murder
of his rival, and was met by an officer bearing bis head. He
ordered it to be burned with costly spices, and placed the
ashes in a shrine, dedicated to Nemesis. He then demanded
ten million drachmas, promised by the late king, and sum-
moned the contending sovereigns to his camp. Cleopatra
captivated him, and he decided that both should share the
throne, but that the ministers of Ptolemy should be deposed,
which was reducing the king to a cipher. But the fanaticism
Eastern con- °f * ne Alexandrians being excited, and a collision
quests. having taken place between them and his troops,

Caesar burned the Egyptian fleet, and fortified himself at
Pharos, awaiting re-enforcements. Ptolemy, however, turned
against him, when he had obtained his release, and perished
in an action on the banks of the Nile. Cleopatra was re-
stored to the throne, under the protection of Rome.

Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, rewarded by Pompey with
the throne of the Bosphorus for the desertion of his
father, now made war against Rome. Galvinus,
sent against him, sustained a defeat, and Caesar rapidly
marched to Asia to restore affairs. It was then he wrote to
the Senate that brief, but vaunting letter : " Veni, vidi, viciP
He already meditated those conquests in the East which had
inflamed the ambition of his rival. He caught the spirit of
Oriental despotism. He was not proof against the flatteries
of the Asiatics. But his love for Cleopatra worked a still
greater change in his character, even as it undermined the
respect of his countrymen. History brands with infamy that
unfortunate connection, which led to ostentation, arrogance,
harshness, impatience, and contempt of mankind — the same
qualities which characterized Napoleon on his return from

In September, b. c. 47, CaBsar returned to Italy, having
Dictatorship been already named dictator by a defeated and
of Caesar. obsequious Senate. Cicero was among the first to
meet him, and was graciously pardoned. The only severe
measure which he would allow was the confiscation of the

Ciiap. XL.] Death of Cato. 541

property of Pompey and his sons, whose statues, however,
he replaced. He now ruled absolutely, but under the old
forms, and was made tribune for life. The Senate nominated
him consul for five years, and he was also named dictator.

The only foes who now seriously stood out against him
were the adherents of Pompey, who had time, during his
absence in the East, to reorganize their forces, and it was in
Africa that the last conflict was to be fought. The Pompeians
were commanded by Scipio, who fixed his head-quarters at
Hadrumentum, with an army often legions, a large force of
Numidian cavalry, and one hundred and twenty elephants.
But Caesar defeated this large army with a vastly inferior
force, and the rout was complete. Scipio took ship for Spain,
but was driven back, as Marius had been on the Italian coasts
when pursued by the generals of Sulla, and ended his life by
suicide. Cato, the noblest Roman of his day, whose

. „ . ., n , Cat0 -

march across the African desert was one of the
great feats of his age, might have escaped, and would proba-
bly have been pardoned : but the lofty stoic could not en-
dure the sight of the prostration of Roman liberties, and,
fortifying his courage with the Phcedon of Plato, also fell upon
his sword. The Roman republic ended with his death.

After reducing Numidia to a Roman province, Caesar re-
turned to Italy with immense treasures, and was Triun . of
everywhere received with unexampled honors. c * sar -
At Rome he celebrated a fourfold triumph— for victories in
Gaul, Egypt, Africa, and the East — and the Senate decreed
that his image in ivory should be carried in procession with
those of the gods. His bronze statue was set upon a globe
in the capitol, as the emblem of universal sovereignty. All
the extravagant enthusiasm which marked the French people
for the victories of Napoleon, and all the servility which
unbounded power everywhere commands, were The vast

, _ , . power of

bestowed upon the greatest conqueror the ancient c»sar.
world ever saw. A thanksgiving was decreed for forty days ;
the number of the lictors was doubled ; he was made dictator
for ten years, Avith the command of all the armies of the State,

542 Wars between Caesar and Pompey. [Chap. XL

and the presidency of the public festivals. He also was made
censor for three years, by which he regulated the Senate
according to his sovereign will. His triumphs were followed
by profuse largesses to the soldiers and people, and he also
instituted magnificent games under an awning of silk, at the
close of which the Forum Jul'mm was dedicated.

Such were his unparalleled honors and powers. All the
great offices of the State were invested and united in him,
and nothing was wanted to complete his aggrandizement but
the name of emperor. But we turn from these, the usual
rewards of conquerors, to glance at the services he rendered
to civilization, which constitute his truest claim to immor-
tality. One of the greatest was the reform of the calendar,
for the Roman year was ninety days in advance of the true
meaning of that word. The old year had been determined
by lunar months rather than by the apparent path of the sun
among the fixed stars which had been determined by the
ancient astronomers, and was one of the greatest discoveries
of ancient science. The Roman year consisted of three hun-
The Julian dred and fifty-five days, so that January was an
caendar. autumn month. Caesar inserted the regular inter-
calary month of twenty-three days, and two additional ones
of sixty-seven days. These were added to the three hundred
and sixty-five days, making a year of transition of four hun-
dred and forty-five days, by which January was brought
back to the first month of the year, after the winter solstace.
And to prevent the repetition of the error, he directed that
in future the year should consist of three hundred and sixty-
five days and one quarter of a day, which he effected by add-
ing one day to the months of April, June, September, and
November, and two days to the months of January, Sextilis,
and December, making an addition of ten days to the old
year of three hundred and fifty-five, and he provided for a
uniform intercalation of one day in every fourth year. Cresar
was a student of astronomy, and always found time for its
contemplation. He even wrote an essay on the motion of
the stars, assisted in his observation by Sosigenes, an Alex

Chap. XL.] Battle of Munda. 543

andrian astronomer. He took astronomy out of the bands of
priests, and made it a matter of civil legislation. He was
drawn away from legislation to draw the sword once more
against the relics of the Pompeian party, which had been
collected in Spain. On the field of Munda was Last battle
fought his last great battle, contested with unusual of CsBSar -
fury, and attended with savage cruelties. Thirty thousand
of his opponents fell in this battle, and Sextus Pompey alone,
of all the marked men, escaped to the mountains, and defied
pursuit. On this victory he celebrated his last triumph, and
the supple Senate decreed to him the title of Imperator. He
was made consul for ten years, dictator for life, his person was
decreed inviolable, and he was surrounded by a guard of
nobles and senators. He also received the insignia of royalty,
a golden chair and a diadem set with gems, and was allowed
to wear the triumphal robe of purple whenever he appeared
in public. The coins were stamped with his image, his statue
was placed in the temples, and his friends obtained all the
offices of the State. He adopted Octavius, his nephew, for
his heir, and paved the way for an absolute despotism under
his successors. The measure of his glory and ambition was
full. He was the undisputed master of the world.

He then continued his reforms and improvements, as
Napoleon did after his coronation as emperor. He gave the
Roman franchise to various States and cities out of Italy,
and colonized new cities. He excluded judices from all ranks
but those of senators and knights, and enacted new laws for
the security of persons and property. He gave unbounded
religious toleration, and meditated a complete codification of
the Roman law. He founded a magnificent public library,
appointed commissioners to make a map of the whole empire,
and contemplated the draining of the Pontine marshes.

After these works of legislation and public improvement,
he prepared for an expedition to Parthia, in which he hoped
to surpass the conquests of Alexander in the East. But his
career was suddenly cut off by his premature death. The
nobles whom he humiliated, and the Oriental despotism he

544 Wars between Ctesar and Pompey. [Chap. XL.

contemplated, caused a secret hostility which he did not sus-
pect amid the universal subserviency to his will. Above all,
the title of king, the symbol of legitimate sovereignty, to
which he aspired, sharpened the daggers of the few remain-
ing friends of the liberty which had passed away for ever.
All the old party of the State concocted the conspiracy, some
eighty nobles, at the head of which were Brutus and Cassias.
Death of On the fifteenth day of March, b. c. 44, the Ides of
Caesar. March, the day for which the Senate was convened

for his final departure for the East, he was stabbed in the
senate-house, and he fell, pierced with wounds, at the foot of
Pompey's statue, in his fifty-sixth year, and anarchy, and new
wars again commenced.

The concurrent voices of all historians and critics unite to
give Csesar the most august name of all antiquity. He was
great in every thing,-— as orator, as historian, as statesman,
as general, and as lawgiver. He had genius, understanding,
memory, taste, industry, and energy. lie could write, read,
and dictate at the same time. He united the bravery of Alex-
ander with the military resources of Hannibal. He had a
marvelous faculty of winning both friends and enemies. He
character of was generous, magnanimous, and courteous. Not
Casar. even his love for Cleopatra impaired the energies

of his mind and body. He was not cruel or sanguinary, ex-
cept when urged by reasons of State. He pardoned Cicero,
and received Brutus into intimate friendship. His successes
were transcendent, and his fortune never failed him. He
reached the utmost limit of human ambition, and was only
hurled from his pedestal of power by the secret daggers of
fanatics, who saw in his elevation the utter extinction of Ro-
man liberty. But liberty had already fled, and a degenerate
age could only be ruled by a despot. It might have been
better for Rome had his lite been prolonged when all consti-
tutional freedom had become impossible. But he took the
sword, and Nemesis demanded that he should perish by it, as
a warning to all future usurpers who would accomplish even
good ends by infamous means. Vulgar pity compassionates

Chap. XL.] Death of CcBsar. 545

the sad fate of the great Julius ; but we can not forget that it
was he who gave the last blow to the constitution and liber-
ties of his country. The greatness of his gifts and services
pale before the gigantic crime of which he stands accused at
the bar of all the ages, and the understanding of the world is
mocked when his usurpation is justified.




The assassination of Caesar was not immediately followed
with the convulsions which we should naturally expect. The
people were weary of war, and sighed for repose, and, more-
over, were comparatively indifferent on whom the govern-
ment fell, since their liberties were hopelessly prostrated.
Only one thing was certain, that power would he usurped by
some one, and most probably by the great chieftains who
represented Caesar's interests.

The most powerful men in Rome at this time, were Marcus
Great men of Antonius, the most able of Caesar's lieutenants,

Rome at this . ,

time. the most constant of his friends, and the near-

est of his relatives, although a man utterly unprincipled ;
Octavius, grandson of Julius, whom Caesar adopted as his
heir, a young man of nineteen ; Lepidus, colleague consul
with Caesar, the head of the ancient family of the Lepidi,
thirteen of whom had been honored with curule magis-
tracies; Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey; Brutus and Cas-
sius, chief conspirators ; Dolabella, a man of consular rank,
and one of the profligate nobles of his time ; Hirtia and
Pansa, consuls; Piso, father in-law of Caesar, of a powerful
family, which boasted of several consuls ; and Cicero — still
influential from his great weight of character. All these
men were great nobles, and had filled the highest offices.

The man who, to all appearance, had the fairest chance
for supreme command in those troubled times, was Antony,
whose mother was Julia, Caesar's sister. He was grandson
to the great orator M. Antonius, who flourished during the

Chap. XLL] Funeral of Ccesar. 547

civil wars "between Marius and Sulla, and was distinguished
for every vice, folly, and extravagance which characterized
the Roman nobles. Bat he was a man of consummate abil-
ity as a general, was master of the horse, and was consul with
Caesar, when he was killed, b. c. 44. fie was also eloquent,
and 'pronounced the funeral oration of the murdered Impera-
tor, as nearest of kin. He had possession of Caesar's papers,
and was the governor of Cisalpine Gaul. He formed a union
with Lepidus, to whom he offered the office of Pontifex Max-
imus, the second office in the State. As consul, he could
unlock the public treasury, which he rifled to the extent of
seven hundred million of sesterces — the vast sum left by
Caesar. One of his brothers was praetor, and another, a
tribune. He convened the Senate, and employed, by the
treasure he had at command, the people to overawe the Sen-
ate, as the Jacobin clubs of the French revolution overawed
the Assembly. He urged the Senate to ratify Caesar's acts
and confirm his appointments, and in this was Autonius

takes the lead

supported by Cicero and a majority of the mem- atKome.
bers. Now that the deed was done, he wished to have the
past forgotten. This act of amnesty confirmed his fearful
pre-eminence, and the inheritance of the mighty dead seem-
ingly devolved upon him. The conspirators came to terms
with him, and were even entertained by him, and received
the provinces which he assigned to them. Brutus received
Macedonia; Cassius, Syria ; Trebonius, Asia ; Cimber, By-
thinia ; and Decimus, Cisalpine Gaul. Dolabella was his col-
league in the consulship, — a personal enemy, yet committed
to his policy.

Caesar had left three hundred sesterces to every citizen,
(about £3,) and his gardens beyond the Tiber to the use
of the people. Such gifts operated in producing an intense
gratitude for the memory of a man who had proved so great
a benefactor, and his public funeral was of unprecedented
splendor. Antony, as his nearest heir, and the first mag- .
istrate, pronounced the oration, which was a consummate
piece of dramatic art, in which he inflamed the passions of the

548 Wars after the Death of Ccesar. t CliAP - XLI -

people, and stimulated them to frenzy, so that they turned
upon the assassins with fury. But he assured the Senate of
his moderation, abolished the dictatorship forever, and
secured his own personal safety by a body-guard.

He had, however, a powerful rival in the young Octavius,

who had been declared by Cresar's will his principal heir,

then absent in Apollonia, He resolved to return at

Octavius. ...

once and claim his inheritance, and was warmly
received at Brundusium by the veteran troops, and especially
by Cicero, who saw in him a rival to Antony. Octavius
flattered the old orator, and ingratiated himself in the favor
of everybody by his unassuming manners, and his specious
language. He entered Rome under favorable omens, paid
his court to the senators, and promised to fulfill his uncle's
requests. He was received by Antony in the gardens of
Pompeius, and claimed at once his inheritance. Antony
replied that it was not private property but the public treasure,
and was, moreover, spent. Octavius was not to be put off",
and boldly declared that he would and could pay the lega-
cies, and contrived to borrow the money. Such an act
secured unrivaled popularity. He gave magnificent shows,
and then claimed that the jeweled crown of Coesar should be
exhibited on the festival which he instituted to Venus, and
to whose honor Csesar had vowed to build a temple, on the
morning of his victor}'- at Pharsalia. The tribunes, instigated
by Antonius, refused to sanction this mark of honor, but for-
tune favored Octavius, and, in the enthusiasm of the festival,
which lasted eleven days, the month Quintilus was changed
to Julius — the first demigod whom the Senate had translated
to Olympus.

Meanwhile Brutus and Cassius retired from public affairs,
lingering in the neighborhood of Rome, and the provinces
Brutus and promised to them were lost. At Antium they had
OivBsius. an interview with Cicero, who advised them to
keep quiet, and not venture to the capital, where the people
were inflamed against them. Their only encouragement was
the successes of Sextus Pompeius in Spain, who had six

Chap, xll] The Philippics of Cicero. 549

legions at his command. Cicero foresaw that another civil
war was at hand, and had the gloomiest forebodings, for one
«or the other of the two great chieftains of the partisans of
Caesar was sure of ultimately obtaining the supreme power.
The humiliating conviction that the murder of Caesar was a
mistake, was now deeply impressed upon his mind, since it
would necessarily inaugurate another bloody war. Self-ban-
ished from Rome, this great and true patriot wandered from
place to place to divert his mind. But neither the fascina-
tions of literature, nor the attractions of Tusculum, Puteoli,
Pompeii, and Neapolis, where he had luxurious villas, could
soothe his anxious and troubled soul. Religious, old, and
experienced, he could only ponder on the corning and final
prostration of that cause of constitutional liberty to which
he was devoted.

Antonius, also aware of the struggle which was impending,
sought to obtain the government of Cisalpine Gaul, and of
the six legions destined for the Parthian war. But he was
baffled by the Senate, and by the intrigues of Octavius, who
sheltered himself behind the august name of the man by
whom he had been adopted. He therefore- made a hollow
reconciliation with Octavius, and by his means, obtained the
Gaulish provinces. Cicero, now only desirous to die honor-
ablv, returned to Rome to accept whatever fate


was in store for him, and defend to the last his
broken cause. It was then, in the Senate, that he launched
forth those indignant philippics against Antonius, as a pub-
lic enemy, which are among his greatest efforts, and which
most triumphantly attest his moral courage.

The hollow reconciliation between Antonius and Octavius
was not of long duration, and the former, as consul, repaired
to Brundusium to assume command of the legions stationed
there, and Octavius collected his forces in Campania. Both
parties complained of each other, and both invoked the
name of Caesar. Cicero detested the one, and was blinded
as to the other.

The term of office as consul, which Antonius held, had now

550 Wars after the Death of Ccesar. [Crap. xli.

expired, and Hirtius, one of the new consuls, marched into
Pros ectsof Cisalpine Gaul, and Octavius placed himself under
civil war. jjjg command. The Senate declared a state of pub*
lie danger. The philippics of Cicero had taken effect, and
the Senate and the government were now opposed to Anto-
nius, as the creator of a new revolution. The consuls crossed
swords with Antonius at Forum Gallorum, and the consul
Pansa fell, but success was with the government. Another
success at Mutina favored the government party, which
Octavius had joined. On the news of this victory, Cicero
delivered his fourteenth and last philippic against Antonius,
who now withdrew from Cisalpine Gaul, and formed a junc-
tion with Lepidus beyond the Alps. Octavius declined to
pursue him, and Plancus hesitated to attack him, although
joined by Decimus, one of the murderers of Cresar, with ten
legions. Octavius now held aloof from the government
army, from which it was obvious that he had ambitious
views of his own to further, and was denounced by Plancus
to Cicero. The veteran statesman, at last, perceived that
Situation of Octavius, having deserted Decimus (who, of all the

Eoimin '

affairs. generals, was the only one on whose ndeiity the

State could securely lean), was not to be further relied upon,
and cast his eyes to Macedonia and Syria, to which provinces
Brutus and Cassius had retired. The Senate, too, now dis-
trusted Octavius, and treated him with contumely; but sup-
ported by veteran soldiers, he demanded the consulship, and
even secretly corresponded with Antonius, and assured him
of his readiness to combine with him and Lepidus, and in-
vited them to follow him to Rome. He marched at the head
of eight legions, pretending all the while to be coerced by
them. The Senate, overawed, allowed him, at twenty years
of age, to assume the consulship, with Pedius, grand-nephew
of Ccesar, for his colleague. Since Hirtius and Pansa had
both fallen, Octavius, then leaving the city in the hands of
a zealous colleague, opened negotiations with Antonius and
Lepidus, perceiving that it was only in conjunction with
them that his usurpation could be maintained. They met

Chap. XLL] The Triumvirate. 551

for negotiations at Bononia, and agreed to share the empire
between them. They declared themselves triumvirs for the
settlement of the commonwealth, and after a con- The trium-

"virntc of

ference of three days, divided between themselves Autonius,

, . . rr , . Octavius,and

the provinces and legions, ihey then concerted Lepidus.
a general proscription of their enemies. The number whom
they thus doomed to destruction was three hundred senators
and two thousand knights, from the noblest families of
Rome, among whom were brothers, uncles, and favorite offi-
cers. The possession of riches was fatal to some, and of
beautiful villas to others. Cicero was among this number, as
was to be expected, for he had exhausted the Latin language
in vituperations of Antonius, whom he hated beyond all
other mortals, and which hatred was itself a passion. He
spoke of Caesar with awe, of Pompey with mortifi- They pro-

n ~ ..-..._ -in\ •! scribe their

cation, ot Crassus with dislike, and oi Antony with enemies.
bitter detestation and unsparing malice. It was impossible
that he could escape, even had he fled to the ends of the
earth. The vacillation of his last hours, his deep distress,
and mournful agonies are painted by Plutarch. He fell a
martyr to the cause of truth, and public virtue, and exalted
patriotism, although his life was sullied by weakness and
infirmities, such as vanity, ambition, and jealousy. In the
dark and wicked period which he adorned by his transcend-
ent talents and matchless services, he lived and died in faith
— the most amiable and the most noble of all his contem-

The triumvirs had now gratified their vengeance by a
series of murders never surpassed in the worst ages of relig-
ious and political fanaticism. And all these horrible crimes

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