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the Marian and Sullan revolutions, the struggles of Csesar
and Pompey, and the awful massacres of the triumvirs had
alarmed and disgusted all classes, and they sought repose,
security, and peace. Any government which would repress
anarchy was, to them, the best. They wished to be spared
from executions and confiscations. The great enfranchisement
of foreign slaves, also, degraded the people, and made them
indifferent to the masters who should rule over them. All
races were mingled with Roman citizens. The spoliation of
estates in the civil wars cast a blight on agriculture, and the
population had declined from war and misery.

Augustus, intrenched by military power, sought to revive
not merely patrician caste, but religious customs, Institution8
which had declined. Temples were erected, and of Augustus,
the shrines of gods were restored. Marriage was encouraged,
and the morals of the people were regulated by sumptuary
laws. Severe penalties were enacted against celibacy, to
which the people had been led by the increasing profligacy
of the times, and the expenses of living. Restrictions were
placed on the manumission of slaves. The personal habits
of the imperator were simple, but dignified. His mansion
on the Palatine was moderate in size. His dress was that of
a senator, and woven by the hands of Livia and her maidens.
He was courteous, sober, decorous, and abstemious. His
guests were chosen for their social qualities. Virgil and
Horace, plebeian poets, were received at his table, as well as

564 Roman Civilization. [Chap. xlii.

Pollio and Messala. He sought to guard morals, and revive
ancient traditions. He was jealous only of those who would
not flatter him. He freely spent money for games and festi-
vals, and secured peace and plenty within the capital, where
he reigned supreme. The people felicitated themselves on
the appearance of unbounded prosperity, and servile poets
sung the praises of the emperor as if he were a god.

And, to all appearance, Rome was the most favored spot
upon the globe. Vast fleets brought corn from Gaul, Spain,
Roman Sicily, Sardinia, Africa, and Egypt, to feed the four

commerce, millions of people who possessed the world. The
capital was the emporium of all the luxuries of distant prov-
inces. Spices from the East, ivory, cotton, silk, jjearls, dia-
monds, gums thither flowed, as well as corn, oil, and wine.
A vast commerce gave unity to the empire, and brought all
the great cities into communication with each other and with
Rome — the mighty mistress of lands and continents, the
directress of armies, the builder of roads, the civilizer and
conservator of all the countries which she ruled with her iron
hand. There was general security to commerce, as well as
property. There were order and law, wherever proconsular
power extended. The great highways, built originally for
military purposes, extending to every part of the empire, and
crossing mountains and deserts, and forests and marshes, and
studded with pillars and post-houses, contributed vastly to
the civilization of the world.

At this time, Rome herself, though not so large and splen-
did as in subsequent periods, was the most attractive place
on earth. Seven aqueducts already brought water to the
city, some over stone arches, and some by subterranean pipes.
The sepulchres of twenty generations lined the great roads
which extended from the capital to the provinces. As these
roads approached the city, they became streets, and the
Residences houses were dense and continuous. The seven origi-

ofthenobil- -it.,1 -i • -i i t l i

ity. nal hills were covered with palaces and temples,

while the valleys were centres of a great population, in which
were the forums, the suburra, the quarter of the shops the cir-

Chap, xlii.] Grandeur of Rome. 565

cus, and the velabrum. The Palatine, especially, was occupied
by the higher nobility. Here were the famous mansions of
Drusus, of Crassus, of Cicero, of Clodius, of Scaurus, and of
Augustus, together with the temples of Cybele, of Juno Sos-
pita, of Luna, of Febris, of Fortune, of Mars, and Vesta. On
the Capitoline were the Arx, or citadel, and the temple of
Jupiter. On the Pincian Hill were villas and gardens, includ-
ing those of Lucullus and Sallust. Every available inch of
ground in the suburra and velabrum was filled with dwell-
ings, rising to great altitudes, even to the level of the Capi-
toline summit. The temples were all constructed after the
Grecian models. The houses of the great were of immense
size. The suburbs were of extraordinary extent. The pop-
ulation exceeded that of all modern cities, although it has
been, perhaps, exaggerated. It was computed by Lipsius to
reach the enormous number of four millions. Nothing could
be more crowded than the streets, whose incessant din was
intolerable to those who sought repose. And they were
filled with idlers, as well as trades-people, and artisans and
slaves. All classes sought the excitement of the theater and
circus — all repaired to the public baths. The amphitheatres
collected, also, unnumbered thousands within their walls to
witness the combats of beasts with man, and man with man.
The gladiatorial sports were the most exciting Amusements

,.. . . , . . . of the aris-

exnibitions ever known in ancient or modern times, tocracy.
and were the most striking features of Roman society. The
baths, too, resounded with shouts and laughter, with the
music of singers and of instruments, and even by the recita-
tions of poets and lecturers. The luxurious Roman rose with
the light of day, and received, at his levee, a crowd of clients
and retainers. He then repaired to the forum, or was carried
through the crowds on a litter. Here he presided as a judge,
or appeared as a witness or advocate, or transacted his busi-
ness affairs. At twelve, the work of the day ceased, and he
retired for his midday siesta. When this had ended, he
recreated himself with the sports of the Field of Mars, and
then repaired to the baths, after which was the supper, or

566 Roman Civilization. [Chap. XLII.

principal meal, in which he indulged in the coarsest luxuries,
valued more for the cost than the elegance. He reclined at
table, on a luxurious couch, and was served by slaves, who
carved for him, and filled his cup, and poured water into his
hand after every remove. He ate without knives or forks,
with his fingers only. The feast was beguiled by lively con-
versation, or music and dancing.

At this period, the literature of Rome reached its highest
purity and terseness. Livy, the historian, secured the friend-
Roman lit- sm P °f Augustus, and his reputation Avas so high
erature. ^hat an enthusiastic Spaniard traveled from Cadiz
on purpose to see him, and having gratified his cui'iosity, im-
mediately returned home. He took the dry chronicles of his
country, drew forth from them the poetry of the old tradi-
tions, and incited a patriotic spirit. A friend of the old oli-
garchy, an aristocrat in all his prejudices and habits, he
heaped scorn on tribunes and demagogues, and veiled the
despotism of his imperial master. Virgil also inflamed
the patriotism of his countrymen, while he flattered the
tyrant in whose sunshine he basked. Patronized by Maecen-
as, countenanced by Octavius, he sung the praises of law,
of order, and of tradition, and attempted to revive an age of
faith, a love of agricultural life, a taste for the simplicities of
better days, and a veneration of the martial virtues of heroic
times. Horace ridiculed and rebuked the vices of his age, and
yet obtained both riches and honors. His matchless wit and
transcendent elegance of style have been admired by every
scholar for nearly two thousand years. Propertius and Tibul-
lus, and Ovid, also adorned this age, never afterward equaled
by the labors of men of genius. Literature and morals went
hand in hand as corruption accomplished its work. The age
of Augustus saw the highest triumph in literature that Rome
was destined to behold. Imperial tyranny was fatal to that
independence of spirit without which all literature languishes
and dies. But the limit of this work will not permit an
extended notice of Roman civilization. This has been at-
tempted by the author in another work.



"We have alluded to the centralization of political power
in the person of Octavius. He simply retained all the great
offices of State, and ruled, not so much by a new title, as he
did as consul, tribune, censor, pontifex maximus, and chief
of the Senate. But these offices were not at once bestowed.

His reign may be said to have commenced on the final
defeat of his rivals, b. c. 29. Two years later, he received
the title of Augustus, by which he is best known in history,
although he was ordinarily called Caesar. That proud name
never lost its pre-eminence.

The first part of the reign was memorable for the organi-
zation of the State, and especially of the army ; and also for
the means he used to consolidate his empire. Augustus had
no son, and but one daughter, although married three times.
His first wife was Clodia, daughter of Clodius : his „,.

' » ' The wives

second was Scribonia, sister-in-law of Sextus Pom- of Au s us tus.
pey ; and the third was Livia Drusilla. The second wife was
the mother of his daughter, Julia. This daughter was mar-
ried to M. Claudius Marcellus, son of Marcellus and Octavia,
the divorced wife of Antonius, and sister of Octavius. M.
Claudius Marcellus thus married his cousin, but died two
years afterward. It was to his honor that Augustus built
the theatre of Marcellus.

On the death of Marcellus, Augustus married his daughter
Julia to Agrippa, his prime minister and principal lieutenant.
The issue of this marriage were three sons and The f ami i y
two daughters. The sons died eai-ly. The young- . ofAu ? ustus -
est daughter, Agrippina, married Germanicus, and was the

568 The First Six Ccesars. [Chap, xliii-

mother of the emperor Caligula. The marriage of Agrippina
with Germanicus united the lines of Julia and Livia, the two
last wives of Augustus, for Germanicus was the son of Dru-
sus, the younger son of Livia by her first husband, Tiberius
Claudius Nero. The eldest son of Livia, by Tiberius Claudi-
us Nero, was the emperor Tiberius Nero, adopted by Augus-
tus. Drusus married Antonia, the daughter of Antonius the
triumvir, and was the father, not only of Germanicus, but
of Claudius Drusus Caesar, the fifth emperor. Another
daughter of Antonius, also called Antonia, married L. Donii-
tius Ahenobardus, Avhose son married Agrippina, the mother
of Nero. Thus the descendants of Octavia and Antony be-
came emperors, and were intertwined with the lines of Julia
and Livia. The four successors of Augustus were all, in the
male line, sprung from Livia's first husband, and all, except
Tiberius, traced their descent from the defeated triumvir.
Only the first six of the twelve Caesars had relationship with
the Julian house.

I mention this genealogy to show the descent of the first six
emperors from Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar, and grand-
mother of Augustus. Although the first six emperors were
elected, they all belonged to the Julian house, and were the
heirs of the great Caesar.

When the government was organized, Augustus left the
Maecenas care °^ n * s ca pi ta l to Maecenas, his minister of
andAgrippa. c \ v \\ affairs, and departed for Gaul, to restore order
in that province, and build a series of fortifications to the
Danube, to check the encroachments of barbarians. The
region between the Danube and the Alps was peopled by
various tribes, of different names, who gave perpetual trouble
to the Romans; but they were now apparently subdued, and
the waves of barbaric conquest were stayed for three hun-
dred years. Vindelicea and Rhsetia were added to the em-
pire, in a single campaign, by Tiberius and Drusus, the sons
of Livia — the emperor's beloved wife. Agrippa returned
shortly after from a successful war in the East, but sickened
and died u. c. 12. By his death Julia was again a widow, aud

Chap, xliii.] The Teutonic Races. 569

was given in marriage to Tiberius, whom Augustus after-
ward adopted as his successor. Drusus, his brother, re-
mained in Gaul, to complete the subjugation of the Celtic
tribes, and to check the incursions of the Germans, who,
from that time, were the most formidable enemies of Rome.
"What interest is attached to those Teutonic races who
ultimately became the conquerors of the empire ! „.
They were more warlike, persevering, and hardy, ic races -
than the Celts, who had been incorporated with the empire.
Tacitus has painted their simple manners, their passionate
love of independence, and their religious tendency of mind.
They occupied those vast plains and forests which lay be-
tween the Rhine, the Danube, the Vistula, and the German
Ocean. Under different names they invaded the Roman
world— the Suevi, the Franks, the Alemanni, the Burgund-
ians, the Lombards, the Goths, the Vandals ; but had not, at
the time of Augustus, made those vast combinations which
threatened immediate danger. They were a pastoral people,
with blue eyes, ruddy hair, and large stature, trained to
cold, to heat, to exposure, and to fatigue. Their strength
lay in their infantry, which was well armed, and their usual
order of battle was in the form of a wedge. They were
accompanied even in war with their wives and children, and
their women had peculiar virtue and influence. They in-
spired that reverence which never passed away from the
Germanic nations, producing in the Middle Ages the graces
of chivalry. All these various tribes had the same peculiar-
ities, among which reverence was one of the most marked.
They were not idol worshipers, but worshiped God in the
form of the sun, moon, and stars, and in the silence of their
majestic groves. Odin was their great traditional hero,
whom they made an object of idolatry. War was their
great occupation, and the chase was their principal recrea-
tion and pleasure. Tacitus enumerates as many as fifty
tribes of these brave warriors, who feared not death, and
even gloried in their losses. The most powerful of these
tribes, in the time of Augustus was the confederation of the

570 The First Six Ccesars. [Chap, xliii

Suevi, occupying half of Germany, from the Danube to the
Baltic. Of this confederation the Cauci were the most
powerful, living on the banks of the Elbe, and obtaining a
precarious living. In close connection with them were the
Saxons and Longobardi (Long-beards). On the shores of
the Baltic, between the Oder and the Vistula, were the

The arms of Caesar and Augustus had as yet been only
felt by the smaller tribes on the right bank of the
Rhine, and these were assailed by Drusus, but only
to secure his flank during the greater enterprise of sailing
down the Rhine, to attack the people of the maritime plains.
Great feats were performed by this able step-son of Augus-
tus, who advanced as far as the Elbe, but was mortally
injured by a fall from his horse. He lingered a month, and
died, to the universal regret of the Romans, for he was the
ablest general sent against the barbarians since Julius Cassar,
b. c. 9. The effect of his various campaigns was to check
the inroads of the Germans for a century. It was at this
time that the banks of the Rhine were studded by the
forts which subsequently became those picturesque towns
which now command the admiration of travelers.

After the death of Drusus, to whose memory a beautiful
triumphal arch was erected, Tiberius was sent against the
Germans, and after successful warfare, at the age of forty,
obtained the permission of Augustus to retire to Rhodes, in
order to improve his mind by the study of philosophy, or,
as it is supposed by many historians, from jealousy of Caius
and Lucius Caesar, the children of Julia and Agrippa — those
young princes to whom the throne of the world Avas appar-
ently destined. At Rhodes, Tiberius, now the ablest man
in the empire, for both Agrippa and Maecenas were
dead, lived in simple retirement for seven years. But the
levities of Julia, to which Augustus could not be blind, com-
Banishmcnt P e ^ e{ ^ him to banish her — his only daughter — to
ofjuiia. the Campanian coast, where she died neglected
and impoverished. The emperor was so indignant in view

Chap. XLIIL] Sadness of Augustus. 571

of her disgraceful conduct, that he excluded her from any
inheritance. The premature death of her sons nearly broke
the heart of their grandfather, bereft of the wise councils and
pleasant society of his great ministers, and bending under
the weight of the vast empire which he, as the heir of
Csesar, had received. The loss of his grandsons compelled
the emperor to provide for his succession, and he turned his
eyes to Tiberius, his step-son, who was then at Rhodes.
He adopted him as his successor, and invested him with the
tribunitian power. But, while he selected him as his heir,
he also required him to adopt Germanicus, the son of his
brother Drusus.

Another great man now appeared upon the stage, L. Domi-
tius Ahenobardus, the son-in-law of Octavia and Antony,
who was intrusted with the war against the Germanic tribes,
and who was the first Roman general to cross the Domitius

t-> m- Aneno-

Elbe. He was the grandfather of Nero. But Ti- tardus.
berius was sent to supersede him, and following the plan of
his brother Drusus, he sent a flotilla down the Rhine, with
orders to ascend the Elbe, and meet his army at an appointed
rendezvous, which was then regarded as a great military feat,
in the face of such foes as the future conquerors of Rome.
After this Tiberius was occupied in reconquering the wide
region between the Adriatic and the Danube, known as
Illyricum, which occupied him three years, a. d. 1—9. In
this war he was assisted by his nephew and adopted son,
Germanicus, whose brilliant career revived the hope which
had centred in Drusus.

Meanwhile Augustus, wearied with the cares of State, pro-
voked by the scandals which his daughter occasioned, and
irritated by plots against his life, began to relax his attention
to business, and to grow morose. It was then that he banished
Ovid, whose Tristia made a greater sensation than his immor-
tal Metamorphoses. The disaster which befel Varus with a
Roman army, in the forest of Teutoburg, near the Disaster of
river Lippe, when thirty thousand men were cut to YarU:s -
pieces by the Germans under Arminius (Hermann), completed

572 The First Six Ocesars. [Chap. XLin-

the humiliation of Augustus, for, in this defeat, he must have
foreseen the future victories of the barbarians. All ideas of
extending the empire beyond the Rhine were now visionary,
and that river Avas henceforth to remain its boundary on the
north. New levies were indeed dispatched to the Rhine,
and Tiberius and Germanicus led the forces. But the princes
returned to Rome without effecting important results.

Soon after, in the year a. d. 14, Augustus, died in his seventy-
seventh year, after a reign of forty-four years from the battle
of Actium, and fifty from the triumvirate — one of the longest
reigns in history, and one of the most successful. From his
Death of nineteenth year he was prominent on the stage of
Augustus. R oman public life. Under his auspices the empire
reached the Elbe, and Egypt was added to its provinces. He
planted colonies in every province, and received from the
Parthians the captured standards of Crassus. His fleets navi-
gated the Northern Ocean; his armies reduced the Panno-
nians and Illyrians. He added to the material glories of his
capital, and sought to secure peace throughout the world.
He was both munificent and magnificent, and held the reins
of government with a firm hand. He was cultivated, unos-
tentatious, and genial ; but ambitious, and versed in all the
arts of dissimulation and kingcraft. But he was a great
monarch, and ruled with signal ability. After the battle of
Character of Actiurn, his wars were chiefly with the barba-
Augustus. rians, and his greatest generals were members of
the imperial family. That he could have reigned so long, in
such an age, with so many enemies, is a proof of his wisdom
and moderation, as well as of his good fortune. That he
should have triumphed over such generals as Brutus, and
Antonius, and Sextus — representing the old parties of the
republic, is unquestionable evidence of transcendent ability.
But his great merit was his capacity to rule, to organize, and
to civilize. He is one of the best types of a sovereign ruler
that the world has seen. It is nothing against him, that, in
his latter years, there were popular discontents. Such gen-
erally happen at the close of all long reigns, as in the case of

Chap. XLITL] Accession of Tiberius. 573

Solomon and Louis XIV. And yet, the closing years of his
reign were melancholy, like those of the French monarch, in
view of the extinction of literary glories, and the passing
away of the great lights of the age, without the appearance
of new stars to take their place. But this was not the fault
of Augustus, whose intellect expanded with his fortunes, and
whose magnanimity grew with his intellect — a man who
comprehended his awful mission, and who discharged his
trusts with dignity and self-reliance.

Tiberius Caasar, the third of the Roman emperors, found
no opposition to his elevation on the death of Augustus. He
ascended the throne of the Roman world at the mature age
of fifty-six, after having won great reputation both as a
statesman and a general. He was probably the most capable
man in the empire, and in spite of all his faults, the empire
was never better administered than by him. His great mis-
fortune and fault was the suspicion of his nature, which
made him the saddest of mankind, and finally, a monster of

Like Augustus, he veiled his power as emperor by assuming
the old offices of the republic. A subservient Senate and peo-
ple favored the consolidation of the new despotism Tiberius
to which the world was now accustomed, and with power.
which it cheerfully acquiesced as the best government for the
times. The last remnant of popular elections was abolished,
and the Comitia was transferred from the Campus Martius
to the Senate, who elected the candidate proposed by the

The first year of the accession of Tiberius was marked by
mutinies in the legions, which were quelled by his nephew
Germanicus, whose popularity was boundless, even

• ill .' ' _'. . Germanicus.

as his feats had been heroic. This young prince,
on whom the hopes of the empire rested, had married Agrip-
pina, the daughter of Julia and Agrippa, and traced through
his mother Antonia, and grandmother Octavia, a direct
descent from Julia, the sister of the dictator. The blood of
Antony also ran in his veins, as well as that of Livia. His

574 The First Six Ccesars. [Chap, xliii.

wife was worthy of him, and was devotedly attached to hini.
By this marriage the lines of Julia and Livia were united ;
and by his descent from Antony the great parties of the
revolution were silenced. He was equally the heir of Au-
gustus and of Antonius, of Julia and of Livia ; and of all the
chiefs of Roman history no one has been painted in fairer
colors. Tn natural ability, in military heroism, in the virtues
of the heart, in exalted rank, he had no equal. As consul,
general, and governor, he called forth universal admiration.
His mind was also highly cultivated, and he excelled in
Greek and Latin verse, while his condescending and cour-
teous manners won both soldiers and citizens.

Of such a man, twenty-nine yearsof age, Tiberius was nat-
urally jealous, especially since, through his wife, Germanicus
jealousy of was a ^ ie ^ with the Octavian family, and through his
Tiberius. mother, with the sister of the great Julius ; and,
therefore, had higher claims than he, on the principle of legiti-
macy. He was only the adopted son of Octavius, but German-
icus, through his mother Antonia, had the same ancestry as
Octavius himself. Moreover, the cries of the legionaries,
" Caesar Germanicus will not endure to be a subject," added
to the fears of the emperor, that he would be supplanted.
So he determined to send his nephew on distant and dan-
gerous expeditions, against those barbarians who had defeated

Germanicus, no sooner than he had quelled the sedition in
his camp, set out for Germany with eight legions and an
equal number of auxiliaries. With this large force he crossed

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