John Muehleisen Arnold.

Genesis and science; or The first leaves of the Bible online

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tions, has its nutations within each successive cycle
of 18 years ; there are likewise perturbations and
deviations in the planetary orbits, but in each case
there is the fullest compensation. Just so there
is a compensation by which new formations have
taken place, as it is called by natural selection, to
which Wagner first drew attention. Again, the
representatives of every type of organism, as seen
flourishing peaceably side by side upon every stage,
must be very perplexing to the developists, since
according to them only one organism could maintain
its position while all others are suppressed. On
examining fossil strata it is very plain that there are
only very few classes of animals or plants which
are not represented at present; and it will be
our fault if we fail to see that not only is there no
strusrsrle whatever for existence, but, on the contrary,
the most perfect harmony and concord.

As there is no struggle for existence between male
and female, between parents and children, so there



84 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

is none between the species of the flora and fauna
which are seen to supplement and maintain each
other. The entire cosmos is so constructed that
the higher organism rests upon the lower, and
the lower in its turn reacts beneficially upon
the higher. I submit the following illustra-
tions of Huber:— The organisms depend not only
upon inorganic nature but they also live upon each
other. The elements from which the plant is formed
are not taken up in a pure and unmixed state, but
only in certain combinations of air, water, and earth.
The nature of the soil is known to affect the nature
of plants as well as the colour of the flowers or
blossoms. Like the plant, the animal substance also
consists mostly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen, but the animal cannot assimilate these
elements in their pure state in the same way as the
plant ; it lives, on the contrary, on organic matter
which has been formed in vegetable or animal bodies,
and this food is subjected to a process of digestion
within its own system. As the life of the plant is
dependent upon the combination of inorganic matter,
so that of the herbivorous animal is dependent upon
the existence of the organic matter in the vegetable
kingdom. Again, the carnivorous animals depend
for existence upon the herbivorous. If there be rich
combinations of inorganic matter, the flora will be
rich ; again the herbivorous animals abound in pro-
portion to the richness of vegetation, just as the
carnivorous animals abound in proportion to the
herbivorous animals. The consumption of vegetation
by the herbivorous, and of these by the carnivorous
animals is a necessity in the economy of nature.

But instead of the elements thus treasured up in
the organisms lying fallow, they are again profitably



DIFFICULTIES OF THE EVOLUTION THEORY. 85

exchanged. The animal world gives back to vegeta-
tion what it has borrowed, and thus it provides indi-
rectly for the maintenance of vegetation, whilst
directly it provides for its own maintenance. The
plants are nourished by the animal, and the animals
again are nourished by the plants. As the animal
world depends upon the vegetable, so innumerable
animals, especially insects, begin and end their
existence upon plants, and so intimate is their
connection with the plants that the body of the
animal, as in the case of the leaf-insect, and stick-
insect, has limbs similar to that of plants, its air
vessels resemble those of the spiral vessels of the
plant ; even the colour of the animal is the same as
that of the plant. Many, too, are the services which
these insects render to the vegetable world, by
distributing the pollen as widely as it is intended.
Parasites always take the existence of those bodies
for granted upon which they themselves subsist.
The climbing plants have need of others for their
support ; innumerable specimens can only prosper
under the protection and shade of other plants ; and,
again, very many animals enjoy the hospitality of
others.

It is known to most people in what important
ways vegetation subserves the animal, by exhala-
tions as well as by affording nourishment, just
as the animals, in their turn, subserve vegetation.
By respiration the animal endeavours to repay to the
plant some of the elements it has borrowed ; then
there is the manure of the living, and the decom-
position of the dead body. Enough to show that
instead of there being a simple warfare, or a fierce
and deadly struggle for existence, there is a constant
friendly exchange and ministering to each other of



86 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

the members of the cosmos ; yea, animals which
appear loathsome in themselves have their high and
necessary function in the great economy of life.
Even beasts of prey have their beneficent share in
the working out of the purposes of the universe, and
they become as needful in their way as the harmless
plant, which subserves the process of life in the
animal kingdom.

Lastly, what can render the evolution theory more
untenable than the well-known fact, that all the
elements needed for the higher organisms must, first
of all, pass through the vegetable spheres before they
can be of service to us, yea for thousands of animals
they have to pass through other animals, and that of a
certain class of animals, before they can become food
to them. Erom this plan, by which man is not
brought into direct contact with the rudimentary
elements in creation, but can obtain his food only
through higher vegetable and animal forms, it is
clear beyond all doubt that there is a strong sym-
pathy between the plant, the animal and man,
revealing a state of dependence of the one upon the
other, and showing that the one cannot exist without
the other. In other words, instead of the grim
strus;cHe for life and existence, there is the fullest

DO

harmony and union in which one member ministers
to the other. And if the whole cosmos be an organism
of a higher sort, in which all the members are helpful
to each other, it also stands to reason, that one
member could not evolve out of the other, nor at
different times from each other. The brain is not
formed from the heart, nor does the eye ever grow
out of the ear.



HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A MAN. 87

4. General Appreciation of the Hypothesis.

Before adding a single observation of my own on
the fully developed materialism and physiolatry of
the evolution hypothesis, I shall give the outlines of
a sketch by Eraw, purporting to describe the tedious
process by which the ape became gradually endowed
with a human body and with a reasonable mind.
The sketch confines itself to one special section of
the inquiry, but the principles which govern the
whole may be most conveniently tested by applying
them to any special part. In the year 187,100
before our era, we are told, there lived a Chimpanse
in Africa, to whom posterity gave the name of
Charles. In keeping with the ape's unchange-
able instinct, Charles one morning greatly desired
some of the delicious nuts which abounded on the
surrounding lofty trees. He quickly climbed one of
them, but as he was reaching a branch covered with
ripe fruit he fell, and with the act of falling com-
menced the struggle for existence. When he reached
the bottom he not only felt sadly bruised, but disco-
vered to his dismay that his left hinder leg was
broken. Though quickly surrounded by his wife
and children, they could not assist him ; yet, thanks
to the providence of Natural Selection, the struggle
he was engaged in produced a change for the good of
himself and his race. The longing for something
was considerably enhanced ; it was no longer the
longing only for nuts, but to prolong his existence ;
and ere long he was empowered to transmit the
feelings and longings which then filled his own
bosom, to his posterity.

The next period of 7,000 years was exclusively
devoted to the study of natural selection, with a



88 CHAP II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

view to bring about some advantageous change in
the shape of his limbs. The accident of Charles, in
which his hind paw was fractured, directed attention
to those parts ; indeed, there seemed to be an improve-
ment of the limb when restored, compared with what
it was before the fall. Charles himself, too, felt con-
vinced that, come what may, he must not venture
on trees as heretofore. So, by degrees, the hinder
paws became more and more adapted for walking,
and less suited for climbing purposes. At all events,
a beginning of improvement was made.

Another Chimpanse, of great fame, was born in
the year 180,000 before our era ; he was destined,
though we are not told by whom, to advance still
further in the way of improvement, so auspiciously
commenced by Charles and his race. The wise and
learned pithekists, as Eraw calls them, or Pithe-
kosonians, as I should prefer calling them, ape in
Greek being ipitliekos, who regard the monkey as the
great patriarch of their illustrious race, in their
palseontological records give him the name of Karl,
who was to carry on the struggle for existence and
to advance by all lawful means in the interests of
natural selection.

One day Karl sat before his hut of palm
branches, looking out into the blue sky, engaged
inwardly in the great struggle for existence, and
longing outwardly for something, he himself knew
not what. He suddenly observed something float-
ing towards him on a wave ; when it came near
it proved to be one of the erratic blocks, or one of
the large masses of rock, which were frequently seen
afloat in those days, and upon the erratic block sat a
live specimen of the northern bear. As the flood
came rushing from the North over the great Sahara,



HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A MAN. 89

towards Central Africa, the bear was in his proper
place, sailing towards the South, Karl threw himself
bravely into the struggle for existence ; it was some-
thing to rouse his attention, and observing the peril
which threatened him, fled to the top of the nearest
mountain, which he reached just in time to see
the floating mass settle upon his hut, the bear jump-
ing down as soon as the waters disappeared. Karl
in the struggle acquired the gift of observation, and
he found no difficulty whatever in handing it down
to his son and heir.

The observations, made for many centuries after
the event, could not fail to influence the bodily
appearance of the Chimpanse ; the ears gradually
rounded, the world, the great object of his ob-
servation being round; the eyes were set in his
head more straight, for a straight line is the shortest
way between the observer and the things observed ;
and thus for 40,000 years the privileged race of
Karl moved forward on the road of improvement,
observing not only erratic blocks floating from
north to south and from east to west, but even com-
mon objects, a true gain for the future pithe-
kosonians. And yet, compared with the progress
made by another hero, Louis, who appeared on the
scene in the year 140,000 before our era, it was com-
paratively trifling.

Louis inherited the struggle for existence from his
ancestors, and to revenge the murder of some of his
children by a bear, he commenced his career by
killing the murderer. On coming to the spot
shortly after he observed nothing but the mere
skeleton of the bear, the ants having devoured every
morsel of flesh. Louis paused in deep, solemn
thought ; he observed the skeleton well, and presently



90 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

the image of the bear as he was came before his
mind's eye ; he could supply from his recollection
all that was lacking. That was not all. The sight
of the naked skeleton, with the unstuffed, unuphol-
stered bones of the bear, had inspired a sort of terror,
and as he yielded to the feeling of alarm, Louis felt
a smart pricking sensation in that part of the body
where human beings now carry a covering of flesh,
called the calf of the leg. What this pricking sensa-
tion signified his descendants happily lived to enjoy,
for, according to Ly ell's calculation, the calves were
satisfactorily developed after some 40,000 years
more ; the first impulse having been given when
Louis contemplated the skeleton of the bear who had
murdered his children.

Thus it will be seen how, in the successive stages
of the simple struggle for existence, a being had come
into existence, half-ape, half-man, the creature
standing on his hind legs adorned with calves, with
all but human eyes and ears, furnished with intense
longing desire, possessing the gift of not only obser-
vation but also of imagination, and all this was the
happy result of 87,100 years. It may seem slow
work to some people ; but still there was progress, and
we cannot feel surprised that the Pithekosonians
contemplate raising a joint monument in every
great city of Europe and America to the memory of
Charles, Karl, and Louis, the three great patriarchs
of pre-historic apedom.

Yet all was not accomplished ; hence the intense
longing with which the ape-man looked out and
glanced upward to the blue sky of the perpetual
summer of his native land. The mutation which
had taken place in his limbs prevented his climbing
trees, and it was difficult to find food on the ground.



HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A MAN. 91

The faculty of observing had its advantages ; but
then it made him fear where no fear was ; and
many of the changes which had taken place were
not practically conducive to his personal comfort.
The struggle for existence seemed to get hotter every
day, and we must consider it as a result of this struggle
that Rudolf, the true father of logic, was born
on the banks of the Niger. The river swelling dur-
ing the rainy season, several times nearly brought
ruin to Rudolf and his family. He set to work,
therefore, to study the ins and outs of the dangerous
river ; he formed notions, ideas, conceptions, and made
his observations about its level, its shores, and the
increase and decrease of its waters. The result was
the happy thought of driving piles into the ground,
and of building his hut sufficiently high upon them,
so as not to be molested in future by the overflowing
of the river. The lasting memorials of this happy
thought of Rudolf are the famous Pfahlbauten in
various parts of the world.

Rudolf's posterity was greatly benefited by the
discovery of these logical conceptions, and to stimu-
late the reflections of later Pithekosonians they cast
into various rivers flint instruments, bones and frag-
ments of earthenware, or they buried them carefully
in kjoekkenmoeddings and other heaps of rubbish.
It was now felt that the time had come to give more
attention to the personal appearance of the race of
ape-men, and this became the great object during the
next 50,000 years. Rudolf's posterity could not fail
observing that further modifications must take place,
especially in the hip-bone, to harmonise with the
steady progress of evolution. The subject of the
hip-bone had caused Rudolf himself much anxious
thought, but it was onlv in the third generation that



92 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

a certain individual, with a great deal of phosphor in
his brain, discovered that to walk upright it needed a
certain balance attached to the body itself. Once
rightly conceived nothing further was needed but
to lay these acts of longing for this natural balance
into future acts of generation. The grandson of
Hudolf did so ; and behold he had the satisfaction
of perceiving at once the necessary improvement in
his children. This greatly promoted the position
of Rudolf's descendants, but something occurred
towards the close of the year 50,000 before our era,
which seemed even more important than the an-
atomical change just named.

In the early part of that year Ernest was sitting
in the dusk of the evening, before his hut, waiting
for Ernestine, his spouse, to prepare his supper, when
to his dismay he saw a snow-white figure making its
way towards the tent, and in his fright he was about
to smite the strange apparition to the ground. It
was Ernestine, who had fallen into a lime-pit ; hence
the marked change in her appearance. When he
recognised his wife he exclaimed, " The monkey is
black, — my wife is white." Here was the first step
towards forming a correct judgment upon the things
observed, and it was formed in the struggle for
existence. Ernestine was not slow to appreciate the
compliment thus given, and she failed not at once to
transmit to her offspring not only the faculty of
judging, but also to many of them the whiteness of
skin which she had so unexpectedly acquired ; and
endless are the judgments which have since been
formed among the Pithekosonians, most of whom,
moreover, inherited the white skin of their mother
Ernestine.

It will not be surprising to learn that it soon be-



HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A MAN. 93

came desirable that the new race of ape-men should
separate from the original stock, with whom
neither the struggle for existence, nor natural
selection, had produced the progress acquired by
themselves. Still, there were some things needing
improvement ; and not the least was the removal of
the ugly monkey hair, which still stuck to the race.
Calling his wife and children around him, he made
them all set to work gently to pull out the obnoxious
hair, and from what we know from other instances,
recorded in the history of natural development, it
will not surprise us to learn that the beautiful
hairless form thus produced soon repeated itself in
the children of his posterity. It certainly did not
prove an unmixed benefit, for even in Africa there
are chilly nights and cold winds, as well as hot burn-
ing rays of the sun, all of which sadly tried the
beautiful naked skin of the ape-man. lie did all
he could to mitigate the evil, but it often nearly cost
him his life.

Some 3,760 years before our era, a further change
was effected in the bodily appearance of the
Pithekosonian race. Nature kindly turned back the
uncomely snout, modified the cheek-bones, and made
the cheeks come out round and rosy, the tongue,
too, became shorter and thicker, to prepare for future
articulation ; but, strange to say, the nose was left in
its true position, so as conveniently to be poked into
things which do not concern him. Thus the ape-
man, or, better, the Pithekosonian, in his struggle
for existence, completed his development, with
the exception of one serious deficiency. lie had
acquired the faculty of longing, of observing, and of
judging, but these qualities happen to be possessed
by dogs, horses, elephants, and other animals ; the



94 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

chief point, however, by which man became later
distinguished from the brute is his capacity for appre-
hending spiritual things. The struggle for existence
seems only to have become fruitful amidst danger
or want, but never when there was blessing and
enjoyment. Hence, the total absence in the Pithe-
kosonian of the faculty of perceiving spiritual things,
or of power to believe in the existence of a Divine
Being as the first cause of all things. It might,
indeed, be urged that the term for the acquisition
of such an exalted faculty was too short, being only
5633 years. Since the immense ages required, accord-
ing to Lyell, to produce the smallest bodily change,
we need not despair of this new Pithekosonian race
yet raising themselves to the knowledge of the
unseen, the supernatural, and the divine.

If, however, this hope were not to be fulfilled there
is some consolation in the fact that just about the time
when the Pithekosonians made the discovery that
they were no longer real monkeys, another race seems
to have sprung up, professing to have been made
by God, and this human race seem to have possessed
the faculties of longing, observing, and judging
from the very beginning, and to have started their
career with the power of perceiving spiritual and
supernatural truths, of which the Pithekosonians
are to this day utterly destitute. In spite of deep
research into their palseontological records, we are
quite unable to ascertain whence the ape-man ob-
tained the same language which has been spoken by
the human race from the beginning. Darwin, indeed,
in his work, treating of the " Descent of Man," writes
as follows : — " Some extraordinarily wise ape-like
animal might, perhaps, have hit upon the idea of
imitating the roaring of a beast of prey to direct the



HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A MAN. 95

attention of its fellows to the danger which was
threatening ; and this, perhaps, was the first step to
the formation of a language !" We may throw out
the hint that language might possibly have from
man been acquired by the Pithekosonians, for the
explanation here given can scarcely be meant to be
serious.

Such are some of the happy conjectures of Eraw
on the merits of the evolution theory. The value of
a satire depends on the real amount of truth which
it embodies to preserve the actual likeness ; and no
one can fail to perceive the force of the well-
merited sarcasm contained in the above sketch. The
same inconsistencies which adhere to the evolution
of man from the ape attach to other branches of
organisms. In order to account for the existence of
the mane in the male lion, Haeckel assumes that once
it happened accidentally that a lion was endowed
with this ornamental mane ; and in a certain
struggle for existence at a season which need not
fully be specified, that individual lion was protected
from the ferocious bites of his rivals, and so
succeeded in handing down the glorious mane to
his posterity. The abnormal shape of the leaf of the
Begonia has its analogy in a certain well-known
crooked-mouthed fish ; but the origin of the one-sided

mouth of the little fish is described as follows :

Some millions of years ago (Haeckel assumes) the
fish having laid down at the bottom of the sea,
turned its head to look upward, until by dint of
unceasing practice it acquired its present shape!
Such is the character of the hypothesis of develop-
ment or evolution.

In adding further proof of the inconsistency of
the evolution theory, I suggest that if the principle



96 CHAP. II. GENESIS AND EVOLUTION.

hold good in the organic, it must hold good in the
inorganic world. In other words, if the animal
organisms of the fauna he evolved from something
more simple and primitive, it stands to reason that
the sixty-five chemical elements should in like
manner he educed from one or two more simple and
more primitive elements ; hut the man who is to
trace that evolution has not yet appeared ; nor is he
likely ever to appear. The argument, therefore,
would he, that if nature commenced its course with a
great variety of inanimate chemical ohjects, there is
no reasonable cause why this variety and multiplicity
should not exist in the sphere of living organisms.
As long as no process he hinted at which would imply
the transmutation of the chemical elements into one
another, which underlie the formation of our earth
as the mother of all organisms, it will likewise appear
more rational to admit the like variety in the
beginnings of the flora and the fauna.

Again, if natural selection produce certain effects
(though the mystery of being is not in the least
solved by assuming that one being evolves out of the
other being), it must not be forgotten, that there is also
a natural resistance or a tendency in nature to re-
main in static quo ; hence the mysterious sterility of
bastards. If man have gradually evolved from the
lower strata of existence, we must of necessity be
able to trace specimens of the human kind, if not
whole races which are in a state of transition, or
which stand at least much nearer the lower kind of
animals than to the fully developed man. Which are
they ? "Where shall we look for these half-developed
human beings, either in the strata of the rocks or
among the living organisms which now fill the
earth ? They are nowhere to be seen ; hence the



GENERAL ESTIMATE OF EVOLUTION. 97

missing links are never produced. Darwin assumes
that all plants and animals spring from four or
five different types, but thinks it possible that all
originated from one single form. That man raised
himself from the original type, he has not the wild
courage to assert ; but no one can escape from this
most necessary conclusion ; and what he is diffident
in claiming, his disciples proclaim from the house-
tops. Nor has Lamark maintained any such reserve ;
on the contrary, he deemed it simply prejudice which



Online LibraryJohn Muehleisen ArnoldGenesis and science; or The first leaves of the Bible → online text (page 8 of 27)