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A handbook for travellers in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden online

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and crosses the Nors river near

Lillnor, 1§ m. Here the road turns
off nearly S.E. to

Carlstad, 1^ m. See Rte. 67, which
is joined here.



ROUTE 72.

STOCKHOLM TO FALUN, BY WAY OF
WESTERAS.

Mail-coaches start from the post-
office in Stockholm. The road passes
by the N. gate to

t* Barlcarhy, 1^ m.

t Tibbie, 1^ m. Upon this stage
the N. arm of lake Malar, which leads
to Sigtuna and Upsala, is crossed at
Stliket (see Rte. 74) by a long floating
bridge, peculiar to Sweden. A small
toll is payable by private vehicles.

t Bolsta, If m.

t Lislena, 1| m. About the middle
of this stage another branch of the
Malar is passed at Ekolsund, where
there is a post-office, and the coach
stops to deliver and receive mail-bags.
Hence a steamer departs direct for
Stockholm 3 tunes a week.

t* IJ m. Enkoping. This little town
has also direct water-communication
with Stockholm by means of steamers
leaving Enkoping every week-day.
Passage, 5 hrs. ; fare, 3 rdr.

■f^Bjuggsta, If m. This stage the
road crosses Saga-d, which divides the
shires of Upsala and Westeras, and on
the other side of which is Ostanbro
post-office, where the coach stops to
deliver and receive mail-bags.

t* WesterdSf 1| m. Fare from Stock-
holm 1 rdr. 20 oe. per mile. From
this town mail-coaches start for Falun
three times a week by way of

iHallsta, 2 m.

\*Sala, 15 m. This small town, with
3660 inhabitants, is celebrated for its
silver-mine, which has furnished spe-
cimens to most cabinets of minerals.
Worked since 1282, it has yielded
millions of pounds, but at present the
production does not exceed 3500 to



Sweden.



ROUTE '12. — SAliA. HEDEMORA.



io6



4000 pounds annually, worth little
more than the working expenses. The
greatest depth of this mine is 150
fathoms, and the many workings and
galleries excavated in the course of
centuries, are well worth descending to
see. Near the town is a very charm-
ing parsonage and the manor of Washy,
formerly a royal domain, and often the
residence of Gustavus I. and Gus-
tavus II. The grove where the latter
is said to have first declared his love
to Ebba Brahe, is still carefully pre-
served. It is beautiful to see how
everything connected with the memory
of Gustavus Adolphus is enshrined in
the heart of every true Swede. About
a mile S.W. of the town is Sdtra, a mi-
neral spring which is much frequented
and surrounded with a pretty park.

A shorter way from Stockholm to
Sala, when travelling post, is by Bolsta
to Tunalund, If m., Wdngsjo 11 m.,
Karleby 1| m., Tdrnahy 1^ m., Sala
11 m.

After leaving Sala, the beauty of
the scenery on this road increases as
it proceeds N. Westmanland is consi-
dered to be better farmed than any
other district in Sweden, and many
fine examples of cultivation may be
seen upon the portion of it through
which this route passes. The houses
of the farmers and peasants also display
great neatness and comfort. Next are
reached in succession
jBrdddbo, Ifg m.

•fBrovallen, If m., across the frontier
of Dalecarlia.

-fAvesta, 1| m. On this stage the
Dal river is crossed by a raft-bridge, a
little above the point where it expands
into a lake of a most irregular form,
with numerous and richly wooded
highlands. The length of this pic-
turesque lake to its junction with the
sea at Elfkarleby, is about 55 Eng. m.
Avesta is a large factory, belonging to
the Falun Mining community, with
refining furnaces and rolling-mills for
copper, forging -hammers, ironfoundry,
&c., and with its post-office, shops,
and other buildings, has quite the ap-



pearance of a little town. Three quar-
ters of a mile S.E. is Brunnhdch, at a
beautiful part of the Dal river, and
famous as the place where, in 1521,
Gustavus Wasa and his Dalecarlians
gained their first decisive victory over
the Danish invaders. Quitting Avesta,
our route now follows the 1. bank of
the Dal to

-fGrddo, 1| m., where the river is
again crossed on a raft-bridge, near
where it issues from the H^fran lake,
which is then in sight on the right and
on to

t^lTecZemora, | m. A small town
with 1180 inhab., but the oldest in
Dalecarlia. It is iminteresting, apart
from the beauty of the scenery around
it. The inn here is decent, and the
food tolerable. E. from the town is
Garpenherg ironworks, and N. of this
Dormsjo and Kloster powder-mills on
the Flino lake. (For the road to Lek-
sand on the way to Elfdal, see Rte. 74.)
The country from here to Falun is a
chain of small valleys, generally with
a lake at the bottom of each. They
are only divided from each other by
gentle elevations. The poverty of the
houses and barrenness of the soil in-
crease in proportion as the scenery be-
comes wilder and more picturesque.
In going from Hedemora, the Dal is
again crossed at

•fUpphOj 1| m., and at the next sta-
tion

^Strand, 1| m., the lake Runn com-
mences, round the E. bank of which
the road continues all the way to

f *i^aZw7i, 2 m.



N.B. In tracing the routes of the
mail-coaches, it will be understood
that the same stations serve for tra-
velling post at any time, which gives
more leisure for seeing the country and
stopping wherever it may be desired,
besides obviating the necessity of tra-
velling by night. The coaches, more-
over, rarely carry more than 2 pas-
sengers, and the seats are therefore
F 3



106 ROUTE 73. — STOCKHOLM TO FALUN BY SMEDJEBACKEN. Sweden,



often occupied when wanted. For ex-
pedition and saving of trouble, how-
ever, this mode of conveyance is gene-
rally preferred. The fare between
Westeras and Falun is 1 rdr. per mile.



KOUTE 73.

STOCKHOLM TO FALUN BY WAY OF
SMEDJEBACKEN.

By the canalisation of the river Kol-
b'ack, direct steam communication has
beon opened between Stockholm and
lake Barken in the mining districts of
Dalecarlia, to within 6| m. by road,
to Falun. This route is so much fre-
quented, that 6 steamers are engaged
in the traffic, occupying about 24 hrs.
in the passage. Fares, 11 rdr. for a
cabin berth ; children under 12 years
half-price. These steamers, following
the same course along Lake Malar as
the Westeras boats, pass by the fjord
of that name, and further on, the
manor-house of Wichhus, Tido, with
an old castle built by Bo Johnson
Grip, and a mansion erected by Axel
Oxenstjerna, in which the great chan-
cellor's audience-chamber is still pre-
served, Fiholm, an ancient seat of the
Westeras bishops, the beautiful island
of Nychelo, and beyond that reach

Stromsholm, at the mouth of Kol-
back river, 13 m. from Stockholm.
This place is a royal domain, with a
palace, originally built by Gustavus
Wasa, and where his dowager queen,
Catherine Stenbock, survived him and
all his sons, until 1621, only eleven
years before the death of Gustavus
Adolphus. The present palace, erected



after a design of Tessin, by Hedvig
Eleonora, queen of Charles X., was a
favourite hunting residence of Charles
XI., and is prettily situated on an island.
Stromsholm is now an establishment
for the breeding of horses. There is
also a loading-pier, with a weighing-
office for metals, a post-office, &c.
Apartments and board for travellers
can be had at the house of Mr. W.
Nyberg.

The steamer here enters the Strdms-
liolm canal, which was 3&nally com-
pleted in 1859. It is 10 m. in length,
7 ft. in depth, and has 32 locks. The
river has been partly utilised in its con-
struction, and the rapids and falls
avoided by cuttings; at other places
the canal runs through a succession of
lakes. The scenery on both banks is
beautifully diversified, and altogether
this is one of the most lovely steam-
routes that can be found in Sweden.
The steamers Norherg and Dalarne con-
tinue their passage from Stromsholm
about 2 a.m., when, in the middle of
summer, daylight is breaking, so that
the surrounding scenery is before the
eyes of an early riser all the way. The
first station the steamer touches at is
called Slcanzen; next come Suraham-
mar, Eamnds, Seglingsberg and Wirsbo,
all of them iron- works. The steamer
has now entered the long and narrow
lake Amdnningen, and at'noon reaches
Engelsherg, whence a railway leads into
the important mining district of Nor-
berg, terminating at a point not far from
Avesta (see Kte. 72). Higher up, on
the opposite shore lies Westanfors, and
at Semhla a cutting connects this water
with lake Barken, At Soderbarke, the
next landing-place, the picturesque
situation of its ch. and parsonage is
much admired, and by 5 p.m. the
journey ends in the N.W. corner of
Barken, at

Smedjehachen, a small town, but with
a lively trade for its size. The whole
neighbourhood is filled with mines and
furnaces. A short railway is made
from the town, over and along nu-
merous lakes, and through most pic-



Sioeden,



ROU*E 74. — STOCKHOLM TO UPSALA.



107



turesque scenery to Mamas and Lud-
vika ch. on the extensive lake Wessman,
which is the last link in this chain of
communications into the remote moun-
tains of Dalecarlia.

From Smedjebacken to Falun the
distance is 5 m., and has to be tra-
velled post. The stations are :

■f*Bommarsho, 1^ m.

-fBusgdrden, 1 m. From hence a
cross-road runs to Sater, 1| m., and
Hedemora 1| m. (see Rte. 72). Sater,
J I small town with about 500 inhab.,
has very fair accommodation for tra-
vellers at the post station, and it is
chiefly visited on account of its charm-
ing situation, by a little river running
from lake Ljustern into the Dal river,
at the end of the beautiful Sater's
valley. A quarter of a mile off are the
iron-mines of Bispherg, with remark-
able machinery by Pol hem, and a
splendid view from the top of the moun-
tain, far away to lake Runn and Falun
on one side, and Hedemora on the
other. From Rusgarden to

•f'^Buskaker is 1| m., and thence to

t*FALUN, 2 J m. (for description see
Rte. 74.)



ROUTE 74.

6T0CKH0LM TO UPSALA, THE DANNEMORA
IRON^MINES, GEFLE, THE COPPER-MINES
AT FALUN, AND THE PORPHYRY WORKS
AT ELFDAL, IN DALECARLIA — BY
STEAMER OR RAIL.

A. This route is, perhaps, the most
interesting in Sweden, and no one who
has time to take it, should quit the



country without doing so. Steamers
from Riddarholmen every morning
reach Upsala in 5^ hrs., calling at
many places on their way. First-class
fare the whole journey, 2 rdr. Pass-
ing through Nockeby bridge, the
steamer proceeds up the most N.
branch of the Malar, which is very
winding and irregular in form, having
many bays and small islands, and di-
vided by name into several " fjords.'*
First comes Lammar-fjord, next Lofsta-
fjord, where the steamer stops at the
fine mansion of Biddersvik ; then Gor-
val-f jord, on which is situated a chateau
of the same name, built by duke
Adolphus John, a brother of Charles
X., while opposite lies Lennartsnas,
formerly the property of Marshal Len-
nart Torstenson, of Thirty Years' War
celebrity. Between tliis fjord and
that of Skarfven, is a narrow strait
called Stdket (see Index), in the middle
of which rises on an island, the mansion
of Almare-Stdk, in olden time a fortress
to defend the fairway, which was de-
stroyed by the Esthonians in 1188,
afterwards a castle belonging to the
archbishops of Upsala, which was
levelled to the ground by Sten Sture
in 1517. Near Runsa, one of the sta-
tions on Skarfven, at the head of a
deep bay, is the royal palace of Bosers"
herg (see Index) ; further on, past Ste-
ninge, and in about 4 hrs. from Stock-
holm, the steamer arrives at

SiGTUNA. The station-house is small,
but lodgings may readily be obtained
at a private house. The town of Sig-
tuna, founded according to the legends,
by Sigge Fridulfsson, the historical
Odin, at a neighbouring spot which
now bears the name of Signildsbergt
was destroyed by the Norwegian king,
Olof Haraldson, in 1007, and after-
wards rebuilt on its present site, by Olof
Skotkonung. In its best days the town
is said to have had 1 0,000 inhabitants,
but in 1188 it was destroyed by the
Esthonians, and its gates of silver (pro-
bably belonging to one of the numerous
churches), are at present a trophy in



108



ROUTE 74.— SKOKLOSTER.



Sweden i



Novgorod (?). The foundation of Stock-
holm was the ultimate ruin of Sigtuna,
and this ancient capital of Sweden, is
now little more than a village with
scarcely 500 inhabitants. Still the ruins
of Petri, Laurentii, Olai, and Nicolai
churches, as well as the dilapidated
parish church, formerly part of a Domi-
nican convent, are interesting to the
antiquary. The walks among the
woods and rocks in the neighbourhood
are charming, and command extensive
views of the lake. About half an hour
from Sigtuna, up the lake towards
Upsala is

Skokloster, the large antique chateau
of the Brahe family, lineal descendants
of the great astronomer, Tycbo Brahe,
and likewise of the Count Brahe, who
commanded the centre of the Swedish
army under Gustavus Adolphus at
Liitzen, and there fell with his royal
master. On a signal from the steamer
a boat puts oif from the chateau for
passengers who wish to land there.
Beds and food may be obtained at the
Inspector's house, close to the chateau,
which the family most kindly allow to
be seen, whether they are residing
there are not. The usual fee to the
attendant is 3 rdr.

Skokloster was built about 1630, by
Charles Gustavus Wrangel, one of the
most celebrated Swedish generals of
the Thirty Years' War. It forms a
quadrangle, with octagon towers at
each corner, and an open court in the
centre, all the best rooms being on
the first floor. Placed on a high bank,
it commands fine views over the Malar
Lake and distant country. The gar-
dens are well kept, and contain a fine
avenue of lime-trees. This chateau
came into the Brahe family by mar-
riage with that of Wrangel.

The collections here are extensive
and interesting, including a number
of portraits of celebrated Swedes, of
Scotch companions in arms of the
founder, and of members of the family.
Amongst the latter are Tycho Brahe
and the lovely Ebba Brahe, to whom
Gustavus Adolphus was so fondly at-



tached that he would have made her
his queen, but for the schemes of his
mother who, during his absence, mar-
ried her to Jacob de la Gardie. Several
of the king's letters to Ebba Brahe are
still preserved in the library here. One
room is devoted to souvenhs of nume-
rous sovereigns and other illustrious
visitors. The drawing-room ceiling is
a very elaborate specimen of the deco-
ration in vogue during the 17th centy
There is some fine tapestry, much of
which is used as carpets ! A rare old
cabinet of inlaid work, the subjects
coloured and in high relief, is of Ba-
varian workmanship, and a prize of the
Thirty Years' War. Other cabinets con-
tain a variety of costly objects of art,
such as old drinking-cups, curiosities
in amber, cornelian, and ivory, Vene-
tian glass, &c. The library contains
about 23,000 volumes, besides the
largest private collection of manu-
scripts in Sweden, and the armoury
is equally of great value, containing
1150 firearms of all descriptions and
an immense number of swords, sabres,
poniards, &c., some incrusted with gold
and precious stones ; others of histori-
cal interest, such as the shield of the
Emperor Charles V., taken at Prague,
and for the elaborate design of the
subjects in relief upon it and their
exquisite finish, meriting attentive ex-
amination, as one of the finest works
of Benvenuto Cellini ; the sword of the
Bohemian Hussite chief Ziska ; the be-
heading sword used at the execution of
nobles at Linkoping, &c.

Those who are desirous of giving
only two days to Upsala and this in-
teresting chateau, had better go direct
from Stockholm to Upsala, where the
boat arrives at |past 2. On arriving
there, order a carriage to be ready at 7,
drive to the chateau of Krusenberg, at
the back of which there is a fisherman's
hut, where a boat can be obtained
across the lake to Skokloster, which
may thus be reached in 3 hrs. from
Upsala. See the chateau early on
the following morning, and take the
steamer on its way to Stockholm at 10.



Sweden*



ROUTE 74, — UPSALA.



100



The carriage and horses from Upsala
cost about 6 rdr., and the boat from
Krusenberg 2 rdr.

On leaving Skokloster the banks of
the lake become more cultivated to-
wards the head of it, called Ekolnfjord,
on the 1. of which are seen several
churches, and on the rt. Kungshamn,
said to have been the naval station of
the old Upsala kings. A little further
on, the steamer, passing through Flot-
sund bridge, enters a small stream, the
Fyris, the waters of which, tinged with
a yellow mud, irrigate the historical
plain of Fyriswall. To the rt. are
now seen Danmarks, Waxala, and Old
Upsala churches; to the 1. Vltuna
Agricultural Institute ; and not until
he is actually in the midst of the
town, does the traveller realise, by
the massive outlines of the castle and
the cathedral, that he is in

Upsala.

A shorter and more expeditious
route from Stockholm to Upsala, is by
the Northern railway, completed so far
— a little over 6 m. — in August, 1866,
and to be further extended to some
station on the Gefle-Dala rly. From
the Northern terminus, at the back of
the Horticultural Society's Gardens,
Drottninggatan, trains leave for Upsala
three times daily, calling at the fol-
lowing stations (distances in Sw. miles
and decimal fractions from Stock-
holm) : —

Jerfva, 0.7 m.

Botehro, 1.8 m.

Wdsby, 2.3 m.

Bosersberg, 3 ra.

Mdrstay 3.4 m.

Kniftsta, 4.5 m.

JBergsbrunna, 5.5 m.

Upsala, 6.2 m.

Fares to Upsala : 4 rdr. 65 oe., 1st
class ; 3 rdr. 10 oe., 2nd class ; 1 rdr.
55 oe., 3rd class.

Return trains from Upsala : three
times daily.

Inns : Stadshotellet, in Drottninggan,
No. 9, best ; Gamla Gdstgifvaregdrden,
Drottninggatan, No. 12; Hotel Vplandf



near Dombron bridge; apartments,
1 rdr. and 1 rdr. 50 oe. per day^; other
restaurants : Upsala Gille, W. Agatan,
No. 8, has a club-room with foreign
newspapers ; subscription, 1 rdr. per
month ; single^admission, 50 oe. ; Lofs
Kdllare, W. Agatan, No. 7. Cafes,
with Swedish newspapers, several.

Post Office in Upper Slottsgatan,
corner of Carolina Hill; letter-boxes
in various parts of the town.

Telegraph Office near the railway
station.

Livery stables at 6, 8, 9, and 10,
Drottninggatan: 20 and 25, Kung-
sanggatan ; 4 and 8, Jernbrogatan ;
3, Wretgrand. Stand at Strompar-
terren. The usual charges are : to
Eklundshof, 25 oe. ; to Gamla Upsala
and back, 2 rdr. for a one-horse and
4 rdr. for a two-horse conveyance : to
Dannemora and Osterby and back, 10
to 13 rdr. for one horse, for a small
carriage and pair 20 rdr., for a larger
25 rdr. To visit Old Upsala 2 hrs. at
most are required. The journey to
Dannemora, 4| m. from Upsala, and
back, can be made in a day with a
light carriage ; with a heavier the re-
turn must be deferred till next day.
Lodgings for the night can be had at
the inn at Osterby. The best time to
visit the mines is at noon, when the
miners come up and all the charges
are fired.

Upsala is the residence of the arch-
bishop of Sweden and the governor of
the shire ; has a University and about
11 ,156 Inhab. Its name was originally,
Ostra Aros (E. river mouth), to dis-
tinguish it from Westra Aros, now
Westeras ; but after the destruction of
the great pagan temple at Old Upsala
(the lofty halls) higher up the river,
the name, and in a great measure the
importance, of this ancient metropolis
became transferred to the present town,
and though, upon the rise of Stock-
holm, the royal residence Avas fixed
there, the kings were for a long time
afterwards crowned in what may still
be termed the ecclesiastical capital of
Sweden, which is so intimately con-



lio



ilOUTE 74. — tPSALA: CATHEDRAL;



Sweden.



nected with many of the leading events
recorded in its history.

Most of the principal buildings in
Upsala are upon a high ridge of
ground on the W. side of the town,
whence fine views are obtained over
the apparently boundless plain to the
iST. and E.

The Cathedral (Domkyrka) is the
great attraction here. It is of brick,
in the Gothic style, and in the days of
its glory was a beautiful structure ;
even now it is of the highest interest,
spite of the restorations it has under-
gone, and those generally in the worst
taste.

This cathedral was commenced in
1260, and finished in 1435. A French
architect, Etienne Bonneuil, furnished
the plan, which was not adhered to
after his death. Its extreme interior
length is 370 ft. by 106 to 140 ft.
wide; height in the choir 90 ft.
Formerly it had three towers, one
in the centre and two at the N. end,
crowned with Gothic spires, 400 ft,
high, and of elaborate design. These
were destroyed by the last great fire in
1702, and replaced by the two square
towers, 180 ft. high, now flanking the
N. entrance, not at all in keeping
with the pointed architecture of the
body of the edifice. The proportions
of the interior are very pleasing ; the
nave and choir are supported by 24
columns, the capitals of some of them
decorated with animals of most gro-
tesque form and in high relief. To
the rt. of the altar is placed, within a
screen, the relics of St. Eric in a shrine
of silver. The tomb of Gustavus Wasa
and his two first queens (3 marble re-
cumbent effigies flanked by obelisks at
the corner), is in the Gustavian chapel
behind the altnr, and has been decorated
with much skill and good taste. The
surrounding walls are painted in fresco
by Professor Sandberg, representing, in
7 compartments, as many leading events
in the life of Gustavus : 1st, commenc-
ing from the N. side, the Triumphal
entry of Gustavus into Stockholm ; 2nd,
the Battle between the Dalecarlians and



Danes ; 3rd, Gustavus before the Town-
council of Lubeck ; 4th, in Disguise
as a Dalecarlian peasant ; 5th, his Ha-
rangue to the Peasants; 6th, Presenta-
tion of the Bible to him; and 7th,
his Address from the Throne to his
last Parliament. The vaulting of the
chapel is sprinkled with gold stars on
a blue ground. " The sculptured
gravestone of Birger Pehrson, lagman
of Upland, father of St. Brita, lies in
the adjoining chapel, date 1328, much
resembling our English brasses of that
period. Birger, in full chain-armomv
tramples under foot a lion. From be-
neath the petticoats of Lady Ingeborg
peeps forth a little monster; around
are small figures of their seven cliidren,
among whom appears Brita with her
hair down — a sign of grief. Next
comes the chapel of King John, whose
monument, after being shipwrecked —
fished up again, remaining for years
forgotten in a Dantzig warehouse —
was set up, crownless and sceptreless,
by Gustavus III. Though the figure,
by Tuscan Donatelli, is worthy of that
master, the castrum is of wood and the
ornaments a regular makeshift — che-
rubims holding helmet and gauntlet,
ladies with flowers, David with his
harp, Melchisedec with bread and wine
— such an incongruous assemblage as
never before was seen. Queen Cathe-
rine Jagellonica lies alone, on a fine
monument beneath a crown suspended
from the ceiling. An archway sup-
ported by marble columns, and hung
with gilt emblazoned plates of arms,
forms the background." — Marryat,
' One Year in Sweden,' p. 150. Several
of the great generals who served under
Gustavus Adolphus are likewise buried
here, and in the chapel of Gustaf Baner
lie the remains of Linnseus, under a
fine mural tablet of red porphyry, with
a medallion bronze portrait of the great
botanist, by Sergei. Beneath a plain
tombstone lies buried the reformer
Laurentius Petri, first Lutheran arch-
bishop of Upsala. Various objects of
much value, and others of historical
interest, are shown by the sacristan*



Swede



llOUTE 74. — tJNIVERSITY.



Ill



Amongst them are the sacrament ser-
vice of gold and silver, the crowns and
sceptres of John III. and his queen, a
cup of pure gold between 2 and 3 ft.
high; a statue of the Scandinavian
god Thor, a collection of chasubles and
other vestments, &c. The cathedral
can be seen by giving notice to the
sacristan, who lives near.

The archbishop of Upsala is the
primate of all Sweden; prior to the
Keformation, finally established under
Gustavus Wasa, 1529, the revenues of
this see were very great.

Close by the cathedral is the still
older Trinity Ch., now belonging to
the adjoining country parish, and
situated in a park GSiUed Odin's lund,
where an obelisk has been raised by
Charles XIV. in memory of Gustavus
Adolphus, as the great patron and



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