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Boston ("Fourfold State"), were
natives. It is of some importance as
a cattle, horse, and sheep market,
standing at the foot of the Lammer-
muir Hills, and at the base of Dunse
Law, on the summit of which there
is a camp : from this hill or Dun no
doubt it gets its name. There is a
neat E'piseoixd Cliapel at Dunse.

1 m. from Dunse is llodes Castle,
said by some to be the scene of the
ballad "Adam o' Gordon."

Dunse Castle (Col. Hay) is a
spacious and handsome building,
overlooking the town on the W., and
includes the old tower built by Ran-
dolph Earl of Moray. On the S. is
Wedderhurn Castle (D. Milne-Home,
Esq.), a stately mansion of Grecian
architecture. Also Nishet House
(Lord Sinclair), Rimnurghame House
(A. Campbell Swinton, Esq.), a
handsome modern mansion (Bryce,



S, Scotland. Route 4. — Berwick to Edinhurgh.



31



archt.), and Langton House (Lady
Elizabeth Pringle) (also by Bryce),
begun by the late Marquis of Breadal-
bane, contains a collection of family
pictures, some of them portraits by
Jameson.

' ' On the N". side of Cockburn Law,
about 3 m. X. fromDunse, and about
a mile E, from Abbey St. Bathans,
are the interesting remains of an
ancient building of unhewn and un-
cemented stones called Edinshall.
It is circular in shape, and about
90 ft. in diameter : the wall varies
in thickness from 15 to 20 ft. It is
surrounded by ditches and ramparts
of earth and stone, and there are
trenches round the top of the hill
on which it stands." — Oliver.

On the other side of Cockburn Law
is Priestlaiv, where a convent once
stood. The Fassney Water here
flows over some rock sections of great
interest to the geologist, as they
show the manner in which the gra-
nite and greywacke shale of the
Lammermuirs are related to each
other.

Distances. — To Greenlaw, 74 m. ;
Coldstream, 104; Berwick, 184-

Dunse is a good fishing station for
the upper Avaters of the Whitadder,
which flows about 3 m. to the N.
The angler should go up to Abbey
St. Bathans and the Cottage, where
he will get sport. Trout run from
4 lb. to 14. Passing left, Mander-
ston House (W. Miller, Esq.), the
train reaches

25 m. Edrom Stat., which is pro-
bably a corruption of Adderham,
from adder or a,(}iQr = aivedur (Cam.
Brit.) = running water, and ham
(Ang.-Sax. ) = a home or village. Not
far from Edrom is Broom House (G.
Logan Home, Esq.), a modern cas-
tellated building, erected on the site
of the old fortress, burnt by the Eng-
lish under Lord Evers. The river is
crossed at



26^ m. Chirnside" Stat. The
village is 1 m. to the right, and con-
tains a tine old ch. of the 15th centy.
in good repair. Kinewells House was
the family residence of Hume the
historian.

29 m. Eestox Junction (Rte. 4.).



ROUTE 4.

Berwick to Edinburgh, by Cold-
ingham, Dunbar [North Ber-
wick], Haddington, Preston-
pans, and Musselburgh.,— North.
British. Rly. (coast line).

574 ra. 10 trains daily, in \\ to
21 hrs.

The traveller from the S. cannot
fail to be struck with the first view
of Scotland after passing Tweed-
mouth. The rly. is carried high up
on the hills bounding the valley of
the Tweed, so that you look down
upon the river, its junction with the
sea, and the town on its N. bank.
The rly. clears the valley, still main-
taining its elevation, by Robert
Stephenson's noble viaduct of 28
arches in a curve, 126 ft. high, and
nearly 4 mile long (cost £120,000),
leading into

Berwick Junct. Station, occupy-
ing the site of the ancient historic
Castle, which it has nearly erased,
only a few fragments of walls and
towers remaining on the steep slope
running down towards the Tweed.
The view from the edge of the river
and viaduct is striking.

BerivicJc-on- Tweed {Inns: Red
Lion, King's Arms.)

Berwick, from its position on the
frontier of England and Scotland,
was for ages the most important for-
tress in the N"., the object of constant
struggles between the two nations,
and the scene of great events. The
most remarkable of these were the
sieges by Edward L, 1296, when the



32



Route 4. — Berwick to Edinburgh.



Sect. I.



slaughter of 8000 citizens, and the
burning alive in the To\Yn Hall of a
handful of Flemish merchants who
held it, followed the surrender of the
town ; a nd that by Edwrd III., in
1333, when the battle of Halidon
Hill drove it to capitulate. A strong
garrison was maintained at all times,
and the Captain of Berwick was
always a man of mark and reputa-
tion, A Minstrel Ballad recounts to
the praise of Harry Hotspur (Percy)
that he "kept" Berwick. It is now
only a dull and dirty town, with a
Pier and small harbour, a consider-
able salmon fisher}', and 2 M. P. 's.
It is still suiTOunded by bastioned
walls ; which it is not worth while to
pull down, and which serve as a
public walk, and it has five gates —
the English, Scotch, Cow Gates, etc.
It is disappointing to find that on
this historic spot nothing remains of
antiquity with which to associate so
many memories. On the whole, the
town is best seen from the rly., and
is not worth entering. Besides the
scanty remains of the Castle in the
Stat., there are, a little to the E. of it,
the ruins of the Bell Tower, on
which a beacon Avas lighted to give
notice Avhen maurauding parties
crossed the Border. A Bridge was
thrown across the Tweed here as
early as 1271.

There is nothing very striking in
the town» the streets of which are
mostly cramped and hilly. In the
broad main street is tlie Tow^n Hall,
with a belfry that serves for the ad-
joining ch., which is said to have
been built by Cromwell, and contains
some painted glass, and an oak pulpit
from Avhich John Knox preached.

The salmon fisheries, which have
always been a fruitful source of
trade, are still worth £4000 a year.

Railway to York, 151 m. ; to
Edinburgh, 574 ; ^nd Kelso, 234
(Route 2).

Distances. — T^orham, 8 m. ; Union
Bridge, 5 m. ; Dunse, 194 m.



Excursions : —

a. To Norham Castle and Flodden
(Rte. 2).

b. To Coldingham Priory Euins,
via Peston (Rte. 4).

c. Lindisfarne or Holy Island is
10 m. from Berwick, and 2 from the
coast of Xorthumberland. It may
be reached on foot at low water from
Belford. See Handbook for North-
umberland.

2 m. to the N. of Berwick is Hali-
don Hill — where, in 1333 the Scotch
army, under the Regent Archibald
Douglas, endeavouring to raise the
siege of Berwick, attacked the Eng-
lish posted in a strong position W.
of the town, and were signally de-
feated, with the loss of 14,000 men,
including the Earls of Lennox, Ross,
Carrick, Sutherland, Strathearn, and
Athol. Thus did the English
avenge the fatal day of Bannockburn.



The rly. to Edinburgh is carried
for a considerable distance close to
the edge of the cliffs, affording a
magnificent sea view, and an occa-
sional peep into the rugged gullies of
the rocks.

4 m. left are the ruins of Lamber-
ton Kirk, where, in 1503 the founda-
tion of the union of the two kingdoms
w^as laid by the marriage-contract of
Margaret, daughter of Henry VII.,
to James IV. The ceremony was
performed at Holyrood. In former
days the man at the toll-bar of Lam-
berton performed the same good
offices to runaway couples as did the
smith at Gretna, on the W.

54 m., at Bicrnmouth Stat., the
line tends inland. In the old ch.,
of which the transept, built in the
12th centy., is still standing, a
treaty was signed between England
and Scotland in 1384 ; and another
in the castle, after its capture by the
Earl of Surre}-, in 1497. The r\j.
traverses the E. part of the district
of Berwlckshii-e, called The Merse.



S. Scotland.



Route 4. — Coldingham.



33



74 HI. Ay ton Stat. On right is
Ayton Rouse (A. ]\[itchell Innes, Esq.),
built 1851, in the Scotch style, of red
sandstone, in a commanding position,
and occupying the site of an old
castle mentioned in Ford's drama of
" Perkin AVarbeck." The estate ex-
tends over 5780 acres.

[3 m. to the N.E. of Ayton is the
fishing town of Eyemouth (formerly
celebrated for its contraband trade),
sweetly placed in a little bay at the
mouth of the Eye Water, formed by
a point known as Cromwell's Fort
and the Nest Ends rocks. Adjoining
the village is Netherhyres (J. E.
L'Amy, Esq.), in whose grounds is
a tension bridge built by Sir Samuel
Brown, the designer of the Union
Bridge.

Gunsgreen House was built by a
smuggler, and adapted to the exi-
gencies of his profession.]

lU ni. PiESTON JuNCT. Stat., from
whence a branch is given on left to
Dunse, Earlston, and Newtown St.
Boswell's (Rte. 3).

[From hence it is a pleasant walk
of 3.2 m. rt. to * Colclmgham, cross-
ing on the Avay the Ale Water and
the Abbey Burn. Notice about
1^ m. from the village on left, some
gateposts formed of whale's jaws.
Coldingham (the Urbs Coludi of
Bede) is celebrated for its priory. It
is said that Edwin, Saxon Prince of
Northumbria, wishing to marry
Ebba, a nun, she fled hither, and
was miraculously saved by the rising
of the waters. To show her grati-
tude she founded the nunnery of
Coldingham, became its first abbess,
was canonised, and gave her name
to St. Abb's Head. In 886 the nun-
nery was attacked by the Danes, and
the inmates, to avoid the ruthless
attentions of the barbarians, cut off
their noses and lips in self-defence,
whereupon the intruders burnt the
building, the abbess, and the nuns.
Upon the site was founded a Bene-



dictine priory by King Edgar in
1098, which eventually became so
rich as to be the cause of the civil
war that cost James III. his life.
Its ultimate fate, however, was to be
seized and blown up by Cromwell.
The tower, which w^as 90 ft. high,
fell, 1775. The building has since
been partially restored and fitted up
as a parish cli. During some repairs
which took place at the beginning of
the centy., the skeleton of a woman
was found built up in the wall in an
upright position, supposed to be that
of a nun who had broken her vows.
This discovery has been turned to
much account in the 2nd canto of
" Marmion :" —

" And now that blind old Abbot rose
To speak the Chapter's doom,
On those the wall was to inclose,
Alive, within the tomb."

' ' The fragments of this building are
of an extremely interesting character.
Along with some other Scotch edi-
fices within the bounds of the eccle-
siastical influence of Lindisfarne,
they show a peculiarly graceful mix-
ture of the later and less stern fea-
tures of the Norm, with the earlier
indications of the pointed style." —
Billings. As it at present stands,
Coldingham is simply a one-aisled
ch. The visitor should notice ex-
ternally the Romanesque arcades and
string-courses at the E. end of the
building, and internally the exqui-
site series of E. pointed arches with
foliaged columns that form a gal-
leried arcade round the wall. There
are also traces of the monastic
offices, together with a ruined gate-
way (Eom.) and some tombs of
former priors.

A neat cross has been put up in
the village.

24 m. to the N.E. of Coldingham
is St. Abb's Read, one of the most
noted landmarks on the E. coast.
The E. promontory of the head is
called Kirk Hill, and supports the
walls of a ch. and monastery. " The
Head is separated from the mainland



34



Route 4. — BeriDick to Edinburgh.



Sect. I.



by a quagmire, and consists of 3
hills. On the middle hill (Hare
Law) a lighthouse, 200 ft. high, is
erected. About 150 yds. to the N.
the porphyry rocks have been ground
down, smoothed, and grooved by an-
cient glaciers.

" The coast line on either side of
St. Abb's head is remarkable for the
numerous complicated folds into
which the Silurian strata have been
twisted and thrown. These may be
seen passing from top to bottom of
cliffs 200 to 300 ft. high. This dis-
trict is classic in the eyes of geolo-
gists from the early descriptions
given of it by Hutton, Playfair, and
Sir James Hall," — and recently by
Lyell.

5^ m. E. is Fast Castle.

Should the pedestrian choose to
proceed by the coast to Fast Castle,
which is 4 m. farther, he should
keep to the right of Coldingham
Lake, and follow the high ground (a
rough and fatiguing walk) to Du-
law Bum, a deep gully in the rocks,
which can only be crossed by a little
bridge leading to DulaAv Farm.
Then make for the coast again, and
follow the cliffs until the path is
struck to Fast Castle, which, from its
situation is very easily overlooked.
" On 3 sides the rock is precipitous ;
on the 4th, which is that towards
the land, it had been originally
fenced by an artificial ditch and
drawbridge, but the latter is broken
down and ruinous, and the former
has in part been filled up. " This is
the description of Wolf's Crag in the
"Bride of Lammermoor," of which
Fast Castle was supposed to be the
original, but the author declares
that he never saw the castle, except
from the sea. It was once a fortress
of the Home family, and subse-
quently belonged to Logan of Eest-
alrig, one of the Gowrie conspirators,
who intended to confine James VI.
here, Logan's body was exhumed
after death, tried for high treason,



and found guilty. His property was
forfeited, and his family declared in-
famous. From Fast Castle to Cock-
burnspath Stat, it is at least 7 m. ;
but the road is tolerable, and offers
exquisite sea-views and extensive
landscape northward, embracing the
Bass Rock, Berwick Law, the Isle of
May, and the Fifeshire coast.]

From Reston the line enters the
defiles and broken ground to the E.
of the Lammermuir Hills. Berwick-
shire is divided into 3 districts — the
Merse to the S. , Lammermuir to the
iST., and Lauderdale to the W. Lam-
mermuir, which the North British
Railway traverses, is wild and hilly,
and devoted almost entirely to pas-
turage. The rly. ascends a narrow
valley, which it surmounts near

ICI m. Grant's House Stat, situ-
ated among wild hills. After tra-
versing a short tunnel, the Pease
Deane, or dell, is crossed by the rail-
way, and (rt.) a little lowef down
by the old London Road, by the
Pease Bridge, a viaduct of 4 arches,
1 27 ft. above the Pease Burn. It was
built in 1786, and is 100 yards across.
The railway is carried through much
rock cutting to

21 m. Cockhurnspath Stat, in the
open, not far from the sea (a small
Inn), the village being prettily situ-
ated at the base of the Lammermuirs.
Fast Castle is 7 ro. from this stat.
To the left is an old tower, a fortress
of the Homes, overlooking a deep
glen of rough stone, with a circular
staircase in its S.W. angle. The
scenery of the deep, narrow, wooded
and ferny dingle of the Pease Burn,
crossed by the colossal bridge, is ex-
ti-emely picturesque, and well worth
the walk of I5 m. from Cockhurns-
path to see.

This defile was the object of con-
tention before the battle of Dunbar,
Gen. Leslie gathering toward the
hills, labouring to make a perfect
interposition between Cromwell and
Berwick. "And ha^dng in this pos-
ture a great advantage, through his



E. Lothian.



Route 4. — Imienvick — Dunbar.



35



better knowledge of the country, he
effected it by sending a considerable
party to the strait pass at Coj)pers-
path (Cockburnspath), where one
man to hinder is better than twelve
to make way. " — Cromic ell's Despatch.

Between Cockburnspath and In-
nerwick on left, is Dunglass (Sir
James Hall), a modern building,
erected upon the site of an old castle
of the same name, which belonged
to the Earls of Home, arid still gives
the 2nd title to that family. The
grounds are bordered on the S. by
the pretty wooded dell of Dunglass
Burn, which the rly. crosses by a
viaduct connecting Berwickshire
with East Lothian.

23| m. Innerwick, situated at the
foot of Cocklaw Hill, 1046 ft. On
the left are the remains of Innerwick
and Thornton Towers, both destroyed
by the English in the invasion of
1547. 1 m. before Dunbar Stat, the
rly. crosses a small stream, the Brox-
bourne, hastening to join the sea.
This spot is historical as the field
of the Battle of Dunbar, Sept. 3rd,
1650. Oliver Cromwell had his head-
quarters in the pretty park of Brox-
bourne Hoiise (Duke of Roxburghe)
right. His army was posted between
this and Belhaven, with its back to
Dunbar and the sea. His antagonist,
David Leslie, with the Scotch army,
occupied high gi'ound (Doon Hill)
along the right bank of the Brox-
bourne, which flows in a gully like a
deep ditch. His position was im-
pregnable, and he effectually barred
with his army Cromwell's access to
Cockburnspath, and closed the road
to England. He was hemmed in,
and his army was diminished by
famine and disease. At this moment
Leslie, moved it is said by the
urgent pressing of the Covenanting
clergy at headquarters, came down
from his vantage ground and pushed
forward his riglit wing to occupy the
flat open space near the mouth of
Broxbourne glen. Cromwell and
Ireton at once perceived this, and



began the attack : sending forward
Generals Monk, Fleetwood, Lambert,
and Whalley, Avith a large force of
cavalry, they charged through Les-
lie's right wing, drove it in disorder
back upon the infantry, which, not
having space to deploy between the
gully of the Broxbourne and the
hills, was broken, disordered, and
routed — 3000 of the Scotch army
were slain, 10,000 made prisoners,
and the possession of Edinburgh and
Leith soon after were Cromwell's
gains from this astounding victory.

28 1 m. Dunbar Stat. {Inns : Ander-
son's near the Stat. ; P. horses and
traps ; St. George) ; Pop. 3000. " A
small town, standing high and windy,
looking over its herring-boats, over
its grim old castle, now much honey-
combed, on one of those projecting
rock promontories with which the
shore and the Firth of Forth is nicked
and vandyked ; a beautiful sea and
grim niched barrier of whinstone
sheltering it from the chafings and
tumblings of the German Ocean." —
Carlyle, Cromwell, ii. 198. It is a life-
less town and small seaport, and
consists of one long street, at the
end of which is Dunbar House (once
the residence of the Earl of Lauder-
dale), now a barrack. Behind it are
the ruins of Dunbctr Castle, consist-
ing now merely of a few shapeless
masses of masonry, on a red sand-
stone rock, hollowed by the waves
into an arch. Close under the castle,
is the entrance to the new harbour,
between 2 scarped rocks. In the
History of Scotland Dunbar was an
important fortress and outlet to the
sea. Its most celebrated defence
was by Black Agnes, Countess of
March, daughter of Randolph, Earl
of Moray, and grandniece of Robert
Bruce, 1337. the Earl of Salisbury,
after trying every means to reduce it,
was compelled to raise the siege,
upon which the town was made a
royal burgh by David II. Edward
II. fled hither after Bannockburn,
and embarked here for Berwick.



36



Route 4. — Berivkh to Edinburgh — Dunbar. Sect. I.



The governorship was conferred on
the Earl of Bothwell by Q. Mary,
who was carried off from Edinburgh
by him and an armed band under
his orders, to this castle, 1567, April
22, after the murder of Darnley,
and only 3 weeks before her mar-
riage with Bothwell. Accompanied
by Darnley she had taken refuge
here after the murder of Kizzio ; and
hither again she fled, in the disguise
of a page, with Bothwell after the
interruption of their honeymoon at
Borthwick Castle. A few days after-
wards she surrendered at Carbery
Hill, and Dunbar Castle was de-
stroyed by the Eegent Moray.

Notwithstanding its antiquity
there are no buildings of any age or
beauty in the town. The Parish
Church, rebuilt 1821, whose tall red
tower is well seen from the Stat.,
contains a huge marble monument
to George Home, Earl of Dunbar,
Treasurer of Scotland under James
VI., 1593. His effigy, under an arch,
is supported by armed knights on
either side, all of marble. Great
efforts have been made to establish
a safe and commodious harbour, for
Dunbar is an important rendezvous
for the herring-fishers of this district,
and the coast is very dangerous from
sunken rocks. For this purpose the
harbour has been deepened at a cost
of £35,000.

In the neighbourhood of Dunbar
were fought two great and decisive
Battles. 1st, in 1296, Edward I.
defeated John Balliol, and 2dly, in
1650, Cromwell defeated Gen. Leslie.
{See above.)

Adjoining Dunbar, Lochend, a seat
of Sir George Warrender, was de-
stroyed by fire in 1860 ; and 1^ ni.
to the S. is the village of Spoil, at
the foot of Doon Hill, the head-
quarters of Leslie's forces. In the
parish, towards the Lammermuirs,
is the Chesters (Castra), a circular
British fort ; and close to the village
is Spott House (J. Sprott, Esq).
This rly. passes through one of|



the finest farming districts in Britain.
Every farmyard has its own steam-
engine, Avhose stalk marks its site,
rising over a level sea of yellow
grain in summer. Near Dunbar
appear in view on right the conic
hill of N. Berwick Laiv, and the
Bass Rock, remaining in sight nearly
to Edinburgh.

29 m. right, Belhaven, a small fish-
ing-village, from which Lord Belha-
ven takes his title. The rly. now turns
inland, and soon crosses the high
road at the Biel Water, having to
the right Belton (J. G. Hay, Esq.),
the grounds of which are celebrated
for their firs ; and higher up the
stream, Biel House (Rt. Hon. R. A. C.
Nisbet- Hamilton), surrounded by
charming pleasure-grounds in a large
estate of the finest land. Biel is tlie
birthplace of the poet Dunbar. On
left is Whittinghame (Arthur J. Bal-
four, Esq. ), under Traprain Law, where
the Darnley murder was planned.

34 m. Linton Stat., on the river
Tyne, here crossed by a red stone
bridge. On right, close to the rly.,
is Plmntassie, where Rennie the en-
gineer was born ; and close to the
village of Preston is Smeaton House
(Sir T. Buchan-Hepburn, Bart). [Be-
yond it, 4 m. , beautifully situated on
the banks of the river, and sur-
rounded by plantations, is Tynning-
hame House, the seat of the Earl of
Haddington. Binning woods are the
finest in Scotland. The district is
celebrated for its holly, the roads
being lined with holly hedges, in
some places 15 ft. high. Admittance
to the gi'ounds on Saturday.

Close to the house are the remains
of the Romanesque Church of Tyn-
ninghame, built in the 12th cent, on
the site of an ancient monastery].

To left of the stat. 1 m. are the
ruins of Hailes Castle, where Queen
Mary lived for some time during her
connection with Bothwell, and where
George Wishart was imprisoned.
Near it is the dome-shaped hill of



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Dideton — North Berivick



37



felstone, called Traprain Law, 724
ft. , which is a conspicuous feature in
the landscape.

364 m. East Fortune Stat. There
are several seats in the vicinity : on
left Gilmerton (Sir D. Kinloch) ;
and on right Xewbyth (Sir David
Baird), Eockville, Sheriff Hall, and
Balgone (Sir George Suttie, Bart.),
in a beautiful park.

On left are the Kilduff Hills,
which in the neighbourhood of
Athelstaneford are celebrated for
their fox-covers. In the latter vil-
lage an obelisk has been erected in
memory of Blair, the author of
" The Grave," who was minister
here, and was succeeded by John
Home, who himself was compelled
to retire from the living for writing
the tragedy of " Douglas."

The conic hill, N. Berwick Law,
is well seen, right, near

39| m. Drem Junct. Stat.

[Drem to North Berivick. Branch
^l5^, nearly 5 m.

Archerfield. Right — Fenton Tower
is passed.

2i m. Dirleton Stat. 1 m. to the
N.W. is the village of Dirleton, with
the ruins of a Castle built in the 14th
centy., and once the property of the
De Vaux family. The grounds on
which it stands are the property of
the Et. Hon. R. A. C. Nisbet-
Hamilton, of Archerfield, and are
well kept up. They are open to the
public on Thursdays, on which
day an omnibus runs from North
Berwick. The gardens are tastefully
laid out, and the mixture of gay
flower parterres, with spruce, yew,
and privet hedges, with the vener-
able trees, is quite in keeping with
the solemn gi-andeur of the ruins.
The original plan of the building,
M^hich stands on a rocky elevation,
is that of a square. The side towards
the S.E. is a continuous wall of great
height, with scarcely an embrasure.
At the S. extremity is a tower, and
a second towards the N. Each of



these springs from a broad base, and
becomes narrower as it rises. The
entrance to the castle was under a
projecting archwa}^, in front of which
are the moat and the vestiges of the
masonry upon which the old draw-
bridge rested. The hall in the
upper storey is roofless, and the



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