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kitchen is at one end of it on the
same level. The oflices and store-
rooms are on lower storej^s, whence
supplies were raised to the kitchen
by a windlass. In 1298 this castle
held out for Wallace against Edward
I., who detached Bishop Beck to
besiege it. After some resistance it
surrendered. It subsequently be-
longed to the Euthven family, and
was the promised bribe that induced
Logan of Eestalrig to join their con-
spiracy.

4^ m. North Berivick Stat. {Inns :
Royal, close to the st^t., very well
kept, comfortable, and moderate ;
Johnston's Hotel — a large house
fronting the sea. Boarding Houses :
White's, good ; and Mrs. Abel's ;
Mr. Brodie will give information
about lodgings.) This is a station
for the herring-fishery, and a fa-
vourite resort for sea-bathing, not
only for the Edinburgh people, but
also visitors from the south. The
sands are excellent for the purpose,
but there are no bathing-machines,
only cots on the shore. There are
extensive green Links between the
sea and the town, constantly covered
by golf-players. It is a very pleasant
summer residence, without the fuss
of a fashionable watering - place,
healthy, with a fine sea-view en-
livened by the Bass and other rocky
islets, the constant passage of ship-
ping, and the Fife coast in the dis-
tance.

Episcopal Chapel — a neat Gothic
building near the stat.

On S. side of the rly. stat. are
scant remains of a Convent for Cis-
tercian nuns, founded by Duncan,



38



Route 4, — North Berwick — Bass Rock.



Sect. I.



6th Earl of Fife, towards the end
of the 12th cent. They consist
of part of the refectory, with cellars
underneath the kitchen, with its
grand old fireplace, and at the E.
end a fragment of the chapel is still
standing. The ruined arcliAvay
which formed the entrance is at a
little distance. Here it was that the
Abbess of St. Hilda stopped while
Clara and Marmion went on to Tan-
tallon.

" And now, when close at hand they saw
North Berwick's town and lofty Law,
Fitz- Eustace bade them pause a while.
Before a venerable pile.

Whose turrets view'd, afar,

The lofty Bass, the Lambie Isle,

The ocean's peace or war."

Marmion, Canto v.

I of an hour's walk to the S. of
the town is North Berwick Law, a
conical hill of trap, 612 ft. high,
from Avhence a splendid panorama,
including Fife coast, Arthur's Seat,
Pentlands, Dunbar, St. Abb's, Tan-
tallon, and the Bass and Isle of St.
Mary, is obtained on a clear day.
The ground to the N, and E. is com-
paratively flat, and the prospect
reaches from the Pentlands to Ben
Lomond. Upon the top are the ruins
of a watch-tower, built during the
war with France. These "Laws"
were probably all used as beacon-
hills, and the word seems to be
identical with the Derbyshire " Low,"
derived from the Anglo-Saxon word
" Hltew," a heap, a hill. The cliffs
E. of North Berwick consist of vol-
canic tuff's, like those of Dunbar.
The geologist will find no fijier sec-
tions in the kingdom to illustrate
this class of rocks.

From the small hamlet in Canty
Bay, 1 4 m. E. of N. Berwick, a boat
may be obtained to row to the Bass
Ptock, 2 m. distant ; the charge is 6s.
there and back, and the boats will
hold 4 or 5 people. This island is a
mass of basalt, with precipitous
sides descending to the sea. The
landing is slippery, and a little diffi-



cult in rough weather. The castle
was from early times one of the
"strengths" of Scotland, and was
used as a prison for English cap-
tives in the wars with England, and
some of the Scottish Covenanters
were confined there in 1671. Upon
it are still to be seen traces of fortifi-
cations and of an old chapel. The
island is farmed, the only production
being solan geese, which are shot for
their feathers. There is a penalty of
5s. for every goose shot by a stranger.
" The sloping acclivity of the Bass
consists of 3 great steps or terraces,
with steep belts of precipice rising
between ; of these the lowest is occu-
pied by the fortress, and furnishes,
where it sinks slopingly to the sea,
on the S.E,, the two landing-places
to the island. The middle terrace,
situated exactly over a great cave
perforated by the sea, has furnished
a site for the ancient Chajyel, while
the upper and largest terraces, lying
but a single step below the summit
of the rock, we find laid out in a
levelled enclosure, once a garden." —
Hugh Millar.

21 m. E. of ISr. Berwick, I m. be-
yond Canty Bay (from which there
is a path round the edge of the cliff'),
are the ruins of Tantallon Castle.

" But scant three miles the band had rode.

When o'er a height they pass'd ;
And, sudden, close before them show'd

His towers, Tantallon vast ;
Broad, massive, high, and stretching far.
And held impregnable in war.
On a projecting rock they rose.
And round tlu'ee sides the ocean flows.
The fourth did battled walls enclose,

And double mound and fosse.
By narrow drawbridge, outworks strong.
Through studded gates, an entrance long.

To the main court they cross.
It was a wide and stately square.
Around were lodgings, fit and fair.

And towers of various form.
Which on the court projected far,
And broke its lines quadrangular.
Here was square keep, there turret high.
Or pinnacle that sought the sky.
Whence oft the warder could descry

The gathering ocean-storm."

This description will be found very



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Tantallon — Haddington.



39



accurate. AVithin a deep natural moat
on the S. side was the outer court-
yard, one tower of which is still
standing. A passage through an
archway, now in a ruinous state, led
into the inner court, where probably
were the stables and offices. On the
N. side of these was the artificial
moat, crossed by a drawbridge, the
piers of which are still to be seen on
each side of the entrance to the
castle. The original gateway has
been bricked up, and a small wicket
now leads through a narrow passage
into the interior. The great tower
in the centre is quadrilateral with
rounded corners. From it extends
to the edge of the rock on each side
a solid curtain about 50 ft. high,
terminated by lofty towers, each of
which enclosed a staircase, now
fallen down. The wall on the N.
side has several rents in it, which
seem to presage its fall at no very
distant period. The inside of the
castle appears to have consisted of
three sides of a square. Of the E.
wing, which probably contained the
chapel, there are no remains except
the line of foundations, but of that
towards the W. there are portions of
banqueting-hall and cellar under-
neath. The great strength of the
place gave rise to the saying, " Ding
down Tantallon, and build a brig to
the Bass," as feats of equal difiiculty.
It is not known at what time Tan-
tallon Castle was built. It first be-
longed to the Earls of Fife, whence it
passed to the Menteiths, and at the
death of Murdoch, Duke of Albany,
was forfeited to the crown, and con-
ferred upon the Douglas family.
After the Earl of Angus had been
banished in 1527, the castle stood a
regular siege by James V. Sir Ralph
Sadler, the English ambassador, lived
here, under the Earl of Angus's pro-
tection, after the failure of his nego-
tiation for mating the infant Mary
with Edward VI. The castle was
eventually destroyed by Gen. Monk,
the Douglas of the day being a



Royalist. At the beginning of the
last centy. the whole of this property
was sold to Sir Hew Dalrymple, and
is still in possession of his family.
A little to E. of Tantallon is a dila-
pidated ruin, which goes by the
name of " Aicldhame Church," and is
said to have been St. Baldred's place
of abode and death. It was ap-
parently a small monastery, of which
the refectory and cellars are alone
represented in the ruins, standing
on one side of a picturesque little
bay ; at the end of the other is a
beacon, and farther inland is Sea-
cliff House (J. AV. Laidlay, Esq.)

Tynninghame grounds may be
visited on Saturday from N. Ber-
wick, 4 m. beyond Tantallon].

Leaving Drem Junct., on right
are ruins of Redhouse, a double
tower of the year 1500, and Gosford
House, the seat of the Earl of
Wemyss. The top only is visible
among the plantations. A new house
was built close by, but has not yet
been inhabited, and the old one has
been restored. There is a good col-
lection of pictures (not open to the
public), by Teniers, Murillo, N.
Poussin, Hogarth, Hohhetna, a
landscape, an important work ;
Ruysdacl, 4 fine landscapes ; J.
Romano, a procession ; Wm. V.
dcr Velde, Ships at Sea in a Breeze ;
Lely, Portrait of a Lady ; Memling,
Head of St. Sebastian ; S. Rosa,
Rocky Landscape : Velasquez, Por-
trait of a Man.

On the W. side of the grounds is
a Gothic lodge, designed by Mr. Bil-
lings, from whence it obtained the
sobriquet of " Billingsgate." On left
are the Garleton Hills, on which is
a British fort called the Chesters
(Castra), and an obelisk raised to the
memory of the 4th Earl of Hopetoun.

44^ m. LoNGNiDDEY Junct. Stat.
In the village John Knox was a
private tutor from 1543-47, and
preached in the ch.



40



Route 4. — Haddington — Tester.



Sect. I.



[Longmddry to Haddington, 4^ m.
(Pop. 4007 ; Inn: George), a Pari,
burgh, prettily situated on the W.
bank of the Tyne, gives its name to
the county of East Lothian, and is
one of the best grain markets in
Scotland. Its early history is lost,
owing, it is said, to the destruction
of its records by Edward I. The
name is derived from Ada, Countess
of aSTorthumberland, mother of Mal-
colm IV. and William the Lion, who
founded a nunnery here 1178, which
latter may still be traced in ' ' Nim-
gate," the name of the suburb on
the E. bank of the river. On the S.
side of the town the Parish Church,
originally the nave of a Francis-
can abbey, of which the choir
and transept, reduced to ruin and
unroofed, remain, also the central
tower. Its choir was once called
" The Lamp of the Lothians." Its
architecture is that of the transi-
tion from the early to the later
period of the Dec. era. The W.
doorway, and the triple arches of
the tower windows, though exhibit-
ing the semicircular form of the
Normans, belong to a much later
period. The chancel is the most
modern portion, and contains a
chantry, in which are the tombs of
the Maitland family ; one of marble
to the Duke of Lauderdale, 1682.

The quarter of Haddington be-
yond the Tyne, called Gifford Gate,
was the birthplace of John Knox,
1505. John Knox was educated here,
at the school. Is'ear the stat. is a
monumental statue of the late Robt.
Fergusson of Raith.

Distance?,. — Edinburgh, 18 m. ;
Longniddry, 4| ; Dunbar, 11.

Near the town are the residences
of Alderston (J. Aitchison, Esq.)
and Amisfield (Earl of Wemyss) ;
Gilmerton (Sir David Kinloch, Bart.)

The most interesting place near
this is Lethington, or Lennoxlove
(Lord Blantyre), so called from
Frances, Duchess of Lennox, one of



the beauties of King Charles II.'s
Court, There is a portrait of her in
the house by Lely. The tower is
old, but the lower parts of the house
are a modern addition. The grounds
and walks through the glen are very
pleasing. It was originally a seat of
the Lethington Maitlands. One of
the green alleys is still called ' ' The
Politician's Walk," from the wily
Secretary L. John, Duke of Lau-
derdale, was born here. Coulston
(Lady Susan Bourke), on a pretty
wooded glen, was inherited by the
Ramsays, Lords Dalhousie, wdio pos-
sess the jewel called " The Coulston
Pear." Gihiierton is seat of Sir David
Kinloch, Bt.

Just beyond Gifford village (5 m.
S. ) is Tester House (the seat of the
Marquis of Tweeddale), an old name
for a modern house in an estate of
20, 400 acres. The old Castle of Gif-
ford, or Yester, stands upon a penin-
sula, formed by the Water of Hope
on the E. , and a large rivulet on the W.
Sir D. Dalrymple, in his " Annals,"
relates that Hugh Gifford de Yester
died in 1267 ; that under his castle
was a capacious cavern, formed
by magical art, and called in the
county Bo Hall ( = Bogy Hall) : a
stair of 24 steps led down to it.
The real object of the cavern was
to obtain a supply of water from the
brook, which ran at a considerably
lower level. The stor}^ of its build-
ing is told at length in the 3rd canto
of Marmion.

" I would, Sir Knight, your longer stay
Gave you that cavern to survey.
Of lofty roof, and ample size,
Beneath the castle deep it lies ;
To hew the living rock profound.
The floor to pave, the arch to round.
There never toil'd a mortal arm—
It all was -ivi-ought by word and
charm."]

2 m. left of Longniddry is the
village of Gladsmuir, at which place
Dr. Robertson held the living, and
wrote his "History of Scotland."
George Heriot's family belonged to
this place.



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Prestonpans — Pinkie Burn.



41



46 m. right is Setmi, which gave
its name and title to one of the
oldest and most distinguished
families of the Scottish nobilit3\
A hideous modern house replaces
one which was the frequent resort
of James and Charles I. Queen
Mary repaired hither after the
murder of Darnley. The party in-
cluded Bothwell and his supporters.
The Queen and he "spent their
time merrily ; in light doings —
shooting at the butts for a wager."
Near the house is a small old ch.
in ruins, in which are several monu-
ments to past members of the family,
The last Seton, Earl of Winton, was
attainted in 1715, and the title has
since become merged in that of
Eglinton. Of the Chapel, never
completed beyond the chancel, tran-
septs, and an unfinished spire, there
remains the fine apse of 3 pointed
arches at the end of the chancel,
which contains monumental eflSgies
of one of the Lords of Seton (in
armour) and his wife. The roof is
pointed and ribbed. The archi-
tecture is mixed, but principally
Dec. , and the tracery of the windows
(particularly in the transept) is re-
markably good.

In the parish of Pencaitland is
TVmton House (Lady Kuthven), seat
of the Earls of Winton down to their
attainder, 1716 — a fine old mansion.

Leaving Seton behind, the rly.
passes, rt., the Battlefield of Pres-
tonjmns, fought Sept. 21, 1745, be-
tween Prince Charles Stuart and the
royal forces under Sir John Cope,
.who occupied a strong and well
chosen position facing towards Tra-
nent, where the Highlanders were
posted. It was flanked by an impass-
able morass, along which the rly.
now runs, but, on the night before the
battle a local laird, friendly to the
Prince, led the Highlanders from
Tranent by a path across the morass,
so that they unexpectedly appeared
in the rear of Cope's position. He
had barely time to change front to
[Scotland.]



the E. when the battle began. It
was decided in ten minutes by the
furious charge of the Highlanders.
The royal army lost 400 men killed,
the Prince about 30, and next day
he marched in triumph back into
Edinburgh.

On left of rly., near the Tranent
Stat. , Bankton Iloicse is passed, occu-
pying the site of that where dwelt
Col. Gardiner, who fell at the battle
of Prestonpans, fighting against the
Highlanders. An obelisk to his
memory stands within an avenue
close by the railway, 1. (See Lo7-d
Maho'iis " History of the '45," and
" Waverley.")

48 m. Prestonpans or Tranent
Stat, " a smoky, cindery, collier vil-
lage, rife Avith whisky shops," ill-
drained and unhealthy ; the village
of Preston, or Salt Preston, being on
the shore of the Firth of Forth, 1 m.
to the N". These villages depend
on the collieries, as they once did on
the salt Pans, which supplied the E.
of Scotland with salt. On right of
the station is Preston Tower, once
the residence of the Hamiltons, a
square keep of the 14th centy. ; and
beyond this is Preston Grange, for-
merly the property of Grant, Lord
Prestongi-ange. His daughter mar-
ried Sir George Suttie, in whose
family the place still remains. Over
the entrance is their motto : " No-
thing hazard, nothing have." A road
on right leads to the ruins of Dol-
phinston Castle.

The rly. then crosses the Pinkie
Burn, a small stream upon which was
fought, Sept. 10, 1547, the Battle of
Pinkie, when the English were com-
manded by the Protector Somerset.
A united charge of the English took
the Scots by surprise, and produced
a helpless flight, followed by a slaugh-
ter almost exterminating. Their vic-
tory was most complete, with a loss
of about 200, while that of the Scots
was computed at 10,000. On left,
but far off, is Carherry Hill, where
c2



42



Route 4. — Berimh to Edinburgh.



Sect. I.



Queen Mary surrendered to tlie rebel
lords, 1567. She was sent to prison
at Lochleven a few days after.

Pinkie House (Sir A. Hope, Bart.),
on the right, and close to Mussel-
burgh, an interesting and well-pre-
served old mansion, was at one time
a country seat of the Abbot of Dun-
fermline. A large part of it shows,
unaltered, the architecture of the
Jacobsean era. In front is a fountain
of two crowned arches. The original
building was a square tower, to which
it seems the rest was added in 1613,
by Alexander Seton, Earl of Dun-
fermline and Chancellor of Scotland,
as an inscription modestly testifies :
" ]S'on ad animi, sed fortunarum et
agelli modum." In the interior are
some fine apartments, particularly
the painted gallery, which is an
arched room 120 ft. in length, and
lighted b}^ an oriel window, the roof
being covered Avith paintings and in-
scriptions. Prince Charles slept here
the night after Prestonpans.

51 m. Inveresk Stat. On right is
Ifusselbwgh, a favourite resort of
the Edinburgh citizens, whose villas
and mansions occupy its outskirts.
On the W., beyond the Esk, is the
village of Fishcrroiu, inhabited chiefly
by fishermen and their families, and
connected with the town by three
bridges. Of these one was built by
Rennie, and another is very steep
and old, believed by some antiquaries
to be of Roman origin. Near it is a
monument to Dr. Moir, the " Delta"
of Blackwood, who was born here.
The town is named from a bed or
"broch" of mussels, at the mouth
of the Esk. This will explain the
meaning of an old rhyme, common
in this place : —

" Musselburgh was a broch
When Edinbroch was nane,
And Musselbnfgh sliall be a broch,
When Edinbroch's gane." — R. C.

Hard by are the Links, a sandy waste
covered with greensward, resorted to
for the manly game of Golf. Here



are held the Edinburgh races, and
here Cromwell had his camp after
the battle of Dunbar, 1650.

54| m. at Poktobello Jitnct., the
rly. is joined by the lines from Dal-
keith, Melrose, Hawick, and Peebles.
This is a pleasant seaside town
{Hotel: Commercial), consisting prin-
cipally of a number of detached villas.
The sands are very extensive, and
well adapted for bathing-ground ;
they were a favourite haunt of Sir
W. Scott, who delighted to ride his
horse into the surf. Along part of
the beach a broad terrace or espla-
nade has been formed, and a sub-
stantial Pier has been thrown out, at
which, in summer, steamers touch.
Portobello obtained its somewhat
eccentric name from a sailor who
built the first house there, and who
had taken part in the capture of the
American town.

Quitting Portobello the line passes
Piershill cavalry barracks, right the
turreted house of Restalrig, near
which are sewer-irrigated meadows,
left Arthur's Seat, Parsons Green,
Salisbury Crags. At their foot Holt/-
rood House and Chapel are seen from
the train, which, creeping under Cal-
ton Hill and Jail — " a palace and a
prison on either hand" — enters

57p m. Edinburgh Terminus
(Rte. 15), at Waverley Bridge Stat.,
at the bottom of what was formerly the
Nor' Loch, between the Old and New
Town, and close to Princes Street.



Edinburgh.



Index.



a. Inns and Miscellaneous in-




formation ....


43


h. Walk round the city


44


( General Description )
^' \ Modern Athens \


44




d. Old Town


45


e. Castle ....


45


/. General Assembly Hall .


48


g. West Bow, Grassmarket .


48



linhiioi'rih



















-1 ^i \




S. Scotland.



Route 4. — Edinburgh.



43



h. High Street. County Hall.
OldTolbooth .... 48

i. St, Giles's Church. Par-
liament House. Tron Church 49
j. John Knox's House . .52
k. Jeffrey Street. Trinity
Church. Canongate. Moray
House ..... 52

I. Holyrood Palace and
Chapel . . . . . 54

m. Queen's Drive and Salis-
bury Crags . . . .55
n. Arthur's Seat . . .56
0. Cowgate . . . .56
J). Greyfriars' Churchyard . 56
q. Heriot's Hospital . . 57
r. University . . .58
s. Museum of Science and Art 58
t. New Town . . .59
u. Calton Hill ... 59
V. High School ... 59
w. Princei Street and Scott's
Monument . . . .60

X, The Mound. Antiquaries'
Museum . . . .60

y. National Gallery . . 61
z. Princes Street Gardens . 62
aa. George Street — its Monu-
ments ..... 62

hb. Dean Bridge and Ceme-
tery. Fettes College. Botanic

Gardens 63

cc. Eminent Natives . . 63
Environs and Excursions 64

a. Hotels : Douglas Hotel, St. An-
drew-square, improved under a new
master, a first-class family hotel.
Hotels in Princes Street : All very
good, and in the best situation.
Grieve's Eoyal British Hotel, 22
Edinburgh H., 36 ; Eoyal H., 53
Bedford H., 83 ; Balmoral H., 91
Dejay's H., 99 ; Palace H., 109
Alma H., 112 ; Caledonian H.
Osborne H., 146.

London Hotel, St. Andrew-square
Waterloo Hotel, Waterloo-place
Imperial Hotel, near Waverley Sta
tion ; Eoyal Alexandra Hotel, Shand
wick -place: Eoxburghe,38 Charlotte-
square. Of a cheaper class are the



Albert and Hanover Hotels, Han-
over-street.

Temperance Hotels: New Waver-
ley, Waterloo-place and Princes-st. ;
Cockburn, near the Waverley Stat. ;
Crown, West Eegister-street.

The visitor during the autumn and
travelling season will do well to
write for rooms beforehand, to guard
against any uncertainty.

Post Office and Telegraph, E. end
of Princes-street, corner of N. Bridge,
opposite Eegister Office.

Coach and Omnibus Offi/:e, 4
Princes-street, whence conveyances
start for Corstorphine, Queensferry,
Lasswade, Dalkeith, Pathhead, Por-
tobello, Musselburgh, and other
places in the neighbourhood.

Railway Stations — North Bri-
tish. — Waverley Bridge Stat, to
London by York, 400 m. in 10 hrs. ;
to Melrose and Abbotsford, 37 m. ;
to Carlisle (Waverley Etc.), 100 m. ;
to Glasgow, 47 m. ; to Stirling, 36
m. ; and Callander, Trossachs, 52
m. ; to Perth, 46 m., and Dundee,
50| ; to Eoslin, 12m.; to Leith and
Grantou Pier — for the ferry steamers
to Burntisland.

Hay market Stat., of N. Brit.
Ely. — Many trains stop here for the
convenience of persons living at the
W. end of Edinburgh.

Caledonian Ely. — Tcrmimcs,
W. end of Princes-st, near Lothian-
rd. ; to London by Carlisle, 402 ra. ; to
Glasgow, 474 m. ; to Carstairs Junct,
27i m. ; Moffat, 63 ; Dumfries, 89^
m. ; Stranraer, 150 m. ; Ayr, 66 m.

Steamers (from Leith) to Hull,
London, Newcastle ; and foreign to
Christiansand, Copenhagen, Dun-
kirk, Hamburgh, and Stettin (from
Granton) to Bordeaux, Stirling,
Aberdeen, Kirkwall, London, Ler-
wick, and Thurso.

Cab Fares. — By distance. Is. for
every 1:^ m., and 6d. for every addi-
tional 4 m. By time, 2s. for first
hr., and 6d. for every additional |.



44



Route 4. — Edinburgh.



Sect. I.



For a drive into the country, 3s, per
hr., and Is. for every additional 20
min. , and driver is bound to go 6 m.
per hr. 6d. for luggage over 100 lbs.
From 11 P.M. to 7 a.m., double fare.

Churches. — Episcopal : St. John's,
"W. end of Princes-street ; St. Paul's,
York-place ; Trinity, St. Peter's, St.
James's, St. George's.

The best shops are to be found in
Princes-street, George-street, and ISI".
Bridge. Jewellers and Silversmitlis
— Marshall and Coy. ; Mackay and
Cunningham ; Hamilton and Inches,
Princes-st., under Balmoral Hotel.

Confectioner. — R. Blair, 37 George -
street — for luncheon.

Booksellers. — Edmonston and
Douglas, 88 Princes-street.

Chemist. — Duncan and Flockhart,
Princes-street and North Bridge.
Medicines and chemicals are well
made up, and the charges moderate.

Cooling Drinks, after the Ameri-
can fashion, in great variety — Bail-
don, 73 Princes-street.

h. The following Walk or Drive
through Edinburgh will embrace the
principal objects of interest, and will
give a general idea of what may after-
wards be seen in detail.

Passing E. along Princes-st. — be-
tween the Post and Register offices,
ascend the Calton Hill for a pano-
ramic view of the city.

Descend to Holyrood. Drive round
the Queen's Park, or walk up to Ar-



Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)Handbook for travellers in Scotland → online text (page 11 of 73)