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thur's Seat by St. Anthony's Chapel.

Thence up Canongate and High-st.,
noticing (left) Moray House ; (right)
John Knox's house. At Tron Church
go up S. Bridge-st. to the University.
See Industrial Museum behind it.

Greyfriars' Churchyard — with the
Martyrs' Monument, and the tombs
of George Buchanan and Allan Ram-
say, etc.

Heriot's Hospital.

Cross George IV. 's Bridge to
Lawnmarket, Parliament House, and
St. Giles's Ch.

Edinburgh Castle.



Descend the hill to the Mound —
upon which are the Royal Institu-
tion, National Gallery, and National
Museum of the Society of Anti-
quaries of Scotland.

Princes-st., with its glorious view
of the Castle, Old Town, Arthur's
Seat, etc., and gay shops.

Princes-street Gardens.

Sir Walter Scott's Monument.

From Princes-st. turn up into
George-st., which is well provided
with shops.

Charlotte Square ; then along
Maitland-st. to

Donaldson's Hospital.

Return by JMaitland-st. to Queens-
ferry-st. ; cross Dean Bridge ; and
pursue the road to Dean Cemetery,
and Fettes College.

Return to Randolph-crescent, and
thence to Ainslie-place, Moray-place,
and Heriot-row to Dundas-street ;
thence N. to Royal Botanic Gardens,
and on to Granton Pier, and return
by rly. to Waverley Stat.

c. Edinburgh (without Leith) con-
tains a population of 208,353, and
has been, since the days of James IV.,
the capital of Scotland. No one will
deny to Edinburgh the praise of ex-
treme natural beauty of situation.
In this she is surpassed, perhaps, by
only two other cities in Europe.
The grandeur of the black rocky
pedestal on which the Castle stands,
the majestic bulk and picturesque
outline of Arthur's Seat and Salis-
bury Crags, and other hills which
overlook it on the S., and the
lovely blue of the Firth of Forth,
backed by the hills of Fife, are
features of romantic beauty hardly
to be surpassed. Its appellation of
"the Modern Athens " is not merely
a general comparison. " There are
several points of view on the elevated
grounds from which the resemblance
is complete. From Torphin in par-
ticular, one of the low heads of the
Pentlands, immediately above Colin-
ton, the landscape is exactly that of



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Edinburgh : The Castle.



45



the vicinity of Athens, as viewed
from the bottom of Mount Anches-
mus. Close upon the right, Briles-
sus is represented by the hill of
Braid ; before us, in the dark and
abrupt mass of the Castle, rises the
Acropolis ; the hill Lycabettus,
joined to that of Areopagus, appears
in the Calton ; in the Firth of Forth
we behold the ^Egean Sea ; in Inch-
keith, iEgina ; in Leith, the Pirreus,
and the hills of the Peloponnesus are
precisely those of the opposite coast
of Fife." — Williams. The city is built
all of stone, upon a series of hilly
ridges, rimning parallel like waves,
with hollows between, also occupied
by streets, and occasionally crossed by
high level bridges. On the highest
of these hills the Old Town is built,
the crest of the hill affording room
for a street upwards of a mile long,
ascending in nearly a straight line
ffoin the palace of Holyrood on the
E., to the castle which stands at its
W. extremity, about 380 feet above
the level of the sea. To the E. of
the city rises a precipitous cliff, the
front of which is called Salisbury
Crags, behind which is the more
lofty summit of Arthur's Seat, 822
ft. above the sea, inaking the finest
and boldest background imaginable.
To the IST. of these is the Calton
Hill, studded with monuments, the
extremity of the new town on this
side. The deep gully separating the
New and Old Towns now serves as a
common terminus for various rlys.
This ravine was formerly occupied
by pools of water, and, at the time
when Edinburgh consisted of the
Old Town only, was called the
"North Loch." It is crossed by
the North and Waverley Bridges,
and by the embankment known as
the Mound.

Generally the first place where the
sti'anger looks about him is Princes-
street, properly a long Terrace or
Eow of fine buildings, gay shops, and
inviting hotels, unrivalled in Europe
for the view it commands of the



long picturesque range of buildings
forming the Old Town and the Castle
Rock, a mediaeval acropolis. The
hollow which intervenes is occupied
by the Waverley Railway Stat, and
by Princes-street Gardens, whose
trees form a pleasing foreground to
the pictm-e. These gardens are
crossed in the middle by the i\Iound,
an artificial causeway leading to the
Old Town, supporting its two classic
temples — the Royal Institution and
the National Gallery. E. of the Mound
is the graceful Gothic canopy — the
Scott Monument. Princes-street ter-
minates E. in the Calton Hill, and
the North-bridge, over which appear
the hump of Arthur's Seat and the
cliffs of Salisbury Crags.

d. Let us cross the Mound to enter
The Old Toivn, which is somewhat

foreign in its appearance. The two
main streets, running nearly parallel
with one another, are connected by
numerous alleys or narrow passages
called " Wynds," which consist of
very high houses, each storey or
" Flat " being a hive of population.
On fine evenings, after working
hours, the whole population of these
places turns out into the main
thoroughfares, so that a stranger
would wonder where all the people
can be stowed away. One principal
avenue extends from Holyrood up to
the Castle ; in the lower portion it
is called Canongate, then Netherbow
and High-street ; higher up, above
St. Giles' Ch. , Lawnmarket, and the
Castle Hill opens on the Castle, at
the top of the hill. Beginning at
this end the first point is

e. The CastUj or Edwin's burgh,
so called from aTh early king of Nor-
thumbria [d. 633], whose dominion
extended thus far, was only the occa-
sional residence in time of danger of
Scottish royalty before 1100, when
Edinburgh became the acknowledged
capital of Scotland. Here Malcolm
Canmore left Queen Margaret when he
and his sons invaded England, and



46



Route 4. — Edinburgh : The Castle.



Sect. I.



here it was that she received the news
of his death, on which she lierself fell
sick and died soon after. In 1291
it was taken by Edward L, and held
by the English 17 years. In 1312 it
was retaken by some of Bruce's follow-
ers, who climbed up the western face,
previously deemed inaccessible. It
was dismantled by Bruce, given back
to the English by Edward Baliol, and
re-fortified in 1337 by Edward III. In
1341 it was recovered by sti'atagem
by Sir William Douglas. In 1572
Kirkcaldy of Grange held the fortress
with the gi-eatest difficulty for 33
days, in favour of ]\Iary Queen of
Scots, against Sir William Drury and
an English force. The garrison then
insisted on a capitulation, in spite of
Kirkcaldy, who would have persisted
to the last gasp, knowing that death
^^^ awaited him from his enemies, which
^,.\ was accordinglyinflictedimmediately
^J they got him into their power. In
"«^ 1650, after the battle of Dunbar,
Cromwell took the place after 12
days' siege. He made a feint of
blowing up the rock, having brought
with him Derbyshire miners for that
purpose. The mere threat of these
extemporised sappers and miners
effected his object. He wrote to the
Speaker Lenthall, " I need not speak
of the strength of the place, which,
if it had not come in as it did, would
have cost very much blood to have
attained, if at all to be attained."
In 1745 it refused to open its gates
to the Prince Chas. Edwd. Stuart,
who was unable either to reduce or
blockade it.

On the parade-ground in front of
the Castle, from which a good view
of the city is obtained, is a statue of
the Duke of York ; also a monu-
mental Cross to the officers and men
of the 78th Highlanders who fell in
the Indian Mutiny. Verj^ little of the
original fortifications is still to be
seen, though there are some fragments
of them on the IS", of the rock within
Princes-street Gardens, called Wal-



lace's Tower, a corruption of Well-
house Tower, there being an old well
on this side.

The entrance now is through
the outer and inner stockades, across
a drawbridge, and through a long
vaulted archway called the Port-
cullis Gate, over which is the old
state prison, where the Marquis of
Argyle was confined before his exe-
cution ; whence his son, the Earl of
Argyle, escaped in the disguise of a
page, and to which he was br,£iught
back after his unsuccessful invasion
of the W. coast.

Ptight — Argyle Battery. Beyond
this are the Armoury and officers'
quarters. Winding round the sum-
mit, the road leads through an inner
gate to the top, upon which stands
Mo-iis Meg, a gigantic piece of artil-
lety of long iron bars hooped to-
gether, said to have been made at
Mons, in Hainault, in 1486 ; another
tradition asserts that it was forged at
Castle Douglas, in Galloway, by 3
brothers, blacksmiths, of the name
of M'LeUan, and presented by them
to James II. at the siege of Threave
Castle in 1455.

" Let Mods Meg and her marrows speak
twa words or three,
For the love of the bonnets of bonny-
Dundee. "

It was employed at the siege of
ISTorham Castle in 1497, and burst in
1682, when firing a salute in honour
of the Duke of York. In 1754 it was
removed to the Tower of London, but
was restored to Edinburgh in 1829,
at the'Tequest of Sir Walter Scott.

From the Half-Moon Battery a
time-gun is fired every day at 1 P.M.
Greenwich time, by means of a wire
stretched across the town from the
Observatory, Calton Hill.

On the summit of the rock, close
to the High Battery, stands Queen
Margaret's Cliajwl, certainly the old-
est building in Edinburgh. It is an
eaTly specimen of Eomanesque archi-
tecture, and, if not built by Margaret



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Edinburgh : The Castle.



47



herself, was erected in her honour by
her son David I., about 1100.

It is of very contracted dimensions,
16 ft. 6 in. long by 10 ft. 6 in. wide.
The chancel arch separating the small
nave from the E. semicircular apse
has good zigzag mouldings, and
lozenge patterns on it. It was re-
stored in 1853, having been long
neglected, and latterly used as a
powder magazine. It now serves
only for the baptism of children
belonging to the garrison.

A very magnificent Vievj is ob-
tained from the High Bomb Battery,
from which the city and its outskirts
are all laid open as in a map, bounded
by the Ochils, the hills of Fifeshire,
and the sea, with a peep of the
mountains around the Trossachs in
very clear weather.

A little below the summit, at the
S.E. corner, is a portion of the Royal
Palace, and seat of the Scotch Far-
lia'ment for a short timfe. It was
built between 1565 and 1616, and
forms an irregular square, part being
used as the hospital. Its outer wall
rises up flush with the face of the
precipice. It is entered by a pro-
jecting turret stair. On the S.E.
angle of the square are Queen Mary's
Apartments, in the smaller room of
which James VI. was born, on the
19th June 1566. Over the doorway
are the initials H. and M., those of
his father and mother ; and in the
ceiling are his own and his mother's,
surmounted by a crown. On the E.
side of this square is the Croivn
Room, a bomb-proof vault, in 'which
tTie Kegalia (shown daily till 3
o'clock) are kept within an iron cage.
They were deposited here in an old
chest, with much formality, on the
7th March 1707, and here they were
found on the 4th Feb. 1818.* The
fact of their not having been seen
for upwards of 100 years had raised

* An account of their disinterment is to
be found in Lockhart's " Life of Scott,''
Sir Walter Scott having been one of the
Commissioners appointed for the purpose.



suspicions that they had been re-
moved to England, or perhaps stolen.
They consist of a crown, sceptre,
sword of state, treasurer's rod of
office, the badges of the orders of the
Garter and the Thistle, and a ring.
The crown, at least the double cir-
clet or diadem, is supposed to be as
old as the days of Robert Bruce, but
was ornamented with concentric
arches of gold in the reign of James
Y. The last time it was used was
for the coronation of Charles II.,
before the battle of Worcester. The
sceptre, which was made in the time
of James V., is surmounted with
figures of the Virgin ]\lary, St. James,
and St. Andrew. The sword was a
present from Pope Jidius II. to
James IV., and is a piece of rich
Italian work ; its scabbard is orna-
mented with silver gilt oak-leaves
and acorns. The Golden Collar and
George of tlie Order of the Garter
was presented by Queen Elizabeth to
James VI. ; to whom also belonged
that of the Thistle, inclosing a por-
trait of his wife, Anne of Denmark.
The ring was given by him to
Charles I.

Castle Hill contains some interest-
trig oTd lioiises, but, owing to constant
fires and improvements, the material
remains of " Auld Reekie " are b}" no
means numerous even in the High-
street, once the abode of the noblest
of the aristocracy as well as the
wealthiest of the citizens. This part
of the thoroughfare suff"ered severely
in 1745, when the Castle was held
by Gen. Guest for King George, and
the town and HoljTood were in pos-
session of Prince Charles. The latter
attempted to blockade the Castle, but
was obliged to desist on a threat from
the governor that he would bombard
the city. On right a cannon-ball is
still to be seen sticking in the side
of the end house facing the esplanade,
which originally belonged to the Mar-
quis of Huntly. In old Gordon House
was born Sir David Baird, the dis-



48



Route 4. — Edinburgh : Castle Hill.



Sect. I.



tinguished military commander, son
of Mr. Baird of Newby th. L. Reservoir
for supplying the city with water ; it
is conveyed hither from the Pentland
Hills. At back of this is Ramsay
Lane, leading to Ramsay Lodge,
where Allan Ramsay lived, and where
he died in 1758. The Free Church
College is next, erected 1843, soon
after the "Disruption" of the Church,
as it is called.

/. Right — In the main street, the
first object of interest is the General
Assembly or Victoria Hall, built in
1844, by Gillespie Graham, at a cost
of £16,000, a very handsome Church
in its outward aspect of the Dec.
Gothic style of architecture. At the
E. end is a noble tower and spire
rising to a height of 240 ft., and
forming a very prominent object in
all the views of Edinburgh. The
hall is used for the meetings of the
General Assembly of the Church of
Scotland, and for the ordinary pur-
poses of divine service. On the
N. slope of the hill below this is
the Free Assembly Hall. The section
of High-street below Castle Hill is
known as the Laivnmarket, because
it used to be crowded with stalls and
booths for the sale of linen goods.
Down to the beginning of the present
century it was nearly shut in at the
two ends by projecting buildings, and
had no lateral carriage communica-
tions until 1825-30.

g. rt. Near this is a remnant of
the West Bow, a narrow winding
alley or wjmd, which led down to
the Gra^sniarTcet, the Smithfield of
Edinburgh, formerly the scene of
public executions, but which has
long been used for the sale of corn
and cattle, the Corn Exchange, a
large low building, being situated on
one side. Here it was that Capt.
John Porteous, after being hurried
from the Tolbooth down the West
Bow, was hanged from a dyer's pole.
His offence was, that being in com-
mand of a guard at the execution of
a smuggler, he anticipated an at-



tempt at rescue, and without warn-
ing fired on the mob. The queen
having pardoned him, the mob took
the law into their own hands, as is
so well narrated in the " Heart of
Midlothian. ' ' In the West Bow once
lived Lord Ruthven, who took a pro-
minent part in the murder of Rizzio ;
and Major Weir, the reputed magi-
cian, burnt with his sister in 1670.
Over the door is the inscription
" Soli Deo honor et gloria."

L. James's Court, where stood
the House of Da\dd Hume, and after-
wards that of James Boswell, burnt
down in 1859. Here Boswell enter-
tained Johnson in 1773, and Paoli in
1771. Lady Stair's Close was once
the principal thoroughfare for
walkers from the Old to the New
Town. A house in it, bearing the
date 1622, was for many j-ears in-
habited by the Dowager Countess of
Stair, whose history (as Lady Prim-
rose) is the basis of Sir Walter
Scott's story of " My Aunt Margaret's
Mirror." On the front of the house
are the initials W. G. and G. S. (Sir
W. Gray and Geida Smith), and the
injunction, "Fear the Lord and de-
part from evil," The next turning
is Bank Street, leading to the Mound,
a little way down is the Bank of
Scotland, built in 1806, at an ex-
pense of £75,000, surmounted by a
dome. In 1869 it underwent a
splendid renovation. The Bank of
Scotland was incorporated by Act
of Parliament in 1695.

To the S., opposite Bank Street,
opens George IV.'s Bridge, erected
1835, which spans the Cowgate,
nearly on a level with the spire of
the Magdalen Chapel. On the bridge,
at the west side, are the offices of the
Highland and Agricultural Society of
Scotland, a most useful institution,
opposite which is a handsome build-
ing containing Courts for the accom-
modation of the Sheriffs of the
County.

h. rt. The County Hall is a hand-
some building, the E, face designed



S. Scotland. Route L — Heart of Midlothian ; Ch. of St. Giles. 49



on the model of the Erechtheum at
Athens.

In the open space in front, now
marked by a rude ' ' heart ' ' of paving-
stones let into the causeway, stood
the old Tolhooth, better known as
the " Heart of Midlothian. " It was
separated by a lane from St. Giles's
Ch., and by a narrow road from the
Lawnmarket. The Tolbooth was also
used as the House of Parliament,
principal court of justice, and gaol
for criminals and debtors. Upon
a platform projecting on the side
next the Lawnmarket were exposed,
at different times, the heads of the
Earl of Morton, the jMarquis of Mon-
trose, and the Marquis of Argyle.
Jt subsequently became a mere
prison, the lower storey being let out
as shops ; and after beiug a disgrace
to the city for many years it M'as
pulled down in 1817. The old door-
way of the Tolbooth is still to be
seen, built into the wall at Abbots-
ford, and the keys hang in the
armoury of the same mansion.

i. Midway, in theHigh-st., stands
the Church of St. Giles, a cruciform
building of the 14th cent., with very
slightly projecting transepts : at one
time of great architectural beauty.
Its exterior has, however, been altered
and restored so frequently, that
nearly all traces of it have dis-
appeared, or at all events have
taken refuge in the square central
Tower. It is snrmounted by light
flying buttresses, springing from
the sides and angles of the parapet,
forming an arched imperial crown ;
while, resting upon the keystone of
the whole, a short and graceful spire
springs from among a cluster of pin-
nacles to the height of 160 ft.

Some kind of ch. seems to have
existed here as early as the 9th
centy. The present edifice was
erected by degi-ees, at periods rang-
ing from the beginning of the 12th
century to the middle of the 'loth.
In 1466 it became the seat of a
[Scotland.]



collegiate foundation. At the in-
troduction of the Reformed worship
into Scotland the 36 altars Avhich
the ch. then contained were removed,
and the statue of St. Giles was
carried off by a Protestant mob,
and thrown into the N. Loch.
Soon after, the ch. was pillaged
and "purified," the chancel being
alone restored for divine worship.
In 1572 the tower was fortified by
Kirkaldy of Grange, who held it
against the Regent. James VI. took
leave of the citizens of Edinburgh
in St, Giles's when about to depart
to ascend the English throne. He
promised to defend the Presbyterian
faith, and to pay his Scottish sub-
jects a visit every 3 years at furthest.
He went away, but re-established
Scottish episcopacy, and it was 14
years before he set foot in Scotland
agajn.

It was in the following reign, how-
ever, that St. Giles became the scene
of the most mornentous events con-
nected with the religious history of
Scotland. The bishopric of Edin-
burgh was re-established in 1634,
and St. Giles's Ch. became the
Cathedral of the diocese. From the
very pulpit whence Knox had thun-
ctered against popery, the new liturgy
prepared by Laud was being read
for the first time by the Dean of
Edinburgh, July 1637, when Jenny
Geddes, incensed at the innovation,
took up the cutty-stool on which she
had been sitting, and threw it at
the head of Dean Hanna, the ofliciat-
ing minister. The stool is .still pre-
j served in the Antiquarian ]\Iuseum.
The Presbyterians divided the eh.
into 3 separate places of worship.
But the greatest alteration in the
appearance of St. Giles took place
in 1S28, when the part W. of the
central tower was nearly re-cased
by an architect thoroughly ignorant
of Gothic, and the whole sobered
down into a heavy, dull, and uninter-
esting uniformity. The fine E. win-
D



50



Route 4. — Edinburgh : Parliament House. Sect. L



dow, however, was copied from tlie
tracery of the original, and the choir
remains tolerably well preserved, a
specimen of Middle Pointed. It is
loftj'' and in a masculine style of
Gothic. The vaulted stone roof of
the E. choir, diagonally groined with
bosses at the intersections of ribs,
merits notice. This part of the ch.
was repaired and cleared of pews and
galleries 1S72 ; modern carved seats
being inserted for the Queen, Judges,
and Town-council, also a new pulpit
and reredos. The Preston chapel on
the S. side was erected by the citi-
zens in gratitude to Sir \Ym. P., for
presenting them with an anu-bone
of St. Giles, 1454!

In the crypt, beneath the S. tran-
sept (shortly to be opened out), lie
the remains of two illustrious Scotch-
men, the Marquis of Montrose, whose
scattered and mangled remains were
collected and interred here, 1661,
without monument or memorial ; and
the Eegent Murray, who is commemo-
rated by a tablet in the S. transept,
restored after removal in 1829. The
Latin epitaph is by George Buchanan,
and is Avorthy of being quoted : —

" Jus exarmatum est
Pietas sine vindice luget
23tio Jaiiuarii 1569.
" Jacobo Stovarto Moravia; Comiti Scotife
Proregi, Viro setatis sua? longe oiUimo, ab
inimicis oninis memoriaj deterrirais ex in-
sidiis extincto, ceu Patri couununi patria
mcerens posuit."

Down to the year 1817 a number of
small shops called "krames" were
built against the exterior walls of
the ch. , and the northern space Avas
almost entirely occupied by the
" Luckenbooths," which were ten-
anted chiefly by booksellers and
jewellers.

The space to the S. of St. Giles,
now called Parliament Square, was
originally the cemetery of the ch. A
square stone, inscribed I. K. 1572, let
into the pavement, nearlj^ opposite
the S. door, marks the grave of John
Knox. Boswell happened to ask



where J. KnoxAvas buried. Johnson
burst out, "I hope on a highway."
It is singular that his wish should be
so nearly fulfilled. In the middle
stands an equestrian statue of Charles
II., made of lead, and cast in Hol-
land.

The Parliament House, the build-
ing on the S. side of this square,
which was completed in 1640, was
burned down 1824, and is replaced
by a modern Italian pile, now used
as the Courts of Justice. The Par-
liament Hall, in which the Scottish
legislature used to sit before the
Union, the onl}" part saved of the
old edifice, is occupied by lawyers
and their clients waiting for cases tb
be called on, serving nearty the same
purpose as Westminster Hall. It is
a grand hall, 122 ft. long and 49
broad. Its best feature is the open-
timber roof, which rests on brackets
ornamented with boldly sculptured
heads, and is formed of dark oaken
tie and hammer beams, with cross -
braces. At the S. extremity, where
erewhile stood the royal throne, is a
large painted window, manufactured
at the Eoyal Factory at Munich,
from designs of Kaulbach, repre-
senting the Institution of the Court
of Session by James V. The Scot-
tish Parliament, it must be remem-
bered, consisted only of one house,
and till the Eeformation there was
ample room for it in the Tolbooth.
At the N. end is a statue in white
marble of the 1st Viscount Melville,
by Chantrey. Next to him on left is
Henry Cockburn in his robes of
Solicitor-General ; next Duncan For-
bes, of Culloden, by PoubiMac. Read
the inscription. It was owing chiefly
to Forbes's great influence in Scot-
land, and to his unswerving fidelity
to the Hanoverian cause, that the
Eebellion of 1745 attained such



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