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slender dimensions, and was so soon
suppressed. He is represented in
his official robes, giving his decision
and explaining the grounds : the

S. Scotland. Route 4. — Edinburgh: Libraries ; City Cross. 51

right hand is raised. The forcible
attitude reminds one of that of the
husband in the Nightingale monu-
ment, Westminster Abbey. The
execution is admirable. (For a pane-
gyric upon Forbes, see Thomson's
"Autumn.") Next to him is Lord
President Boyle, and beyond is Lord
Jeffrey, both by Steell. Then comes
Lord President Blair, by Chantrey,
erected by the county of Midlothian,
for which he was member ; and on
the opposite side is Robert Dundas
of Arniston, in a sitting attitude,
also by Chantrey. There are a great
many fine portraits of judges and
other eminent lawyers in the hall.

In this hall 3 grand banquets have
been given : 1st, to Gen. Monk, in
1656 ; 2d, to the Duke of York
(afterwards James VI L), in 1680 ;
and 3d, to George IV., in 1822.

The rooms at the S. end are oc-
cupied by the Courts of the Outer
House, or Lords Ordinary, those on
the E. side by the Courts of the Inner
House, presided over respectively by
Lord President and Lord Justice-
Clerk. The Scottish Court of Session
is composed of 13 judges, who are
divided into the Outer and Inner
House, the Inner House forming tlie
First and Second Divisions, presided
over by Ld. President (1st Div.),
and Ld. Justice-Clerk (2d Div.),
who hear appeals from the Lords
Ordinary and Sheriffs of the counties.
The Lords Ordinary sit separately in
Halls, and are 5 in number. These
form courts both of law and equity,
exercising the powers of the Courts
of Chancer)^, Queen's Bench, Com-
mon Pleas, and Exchequer in Eng-
land. Seven of the judges of the
Court of Session also form the High
Court of Justiciary, the Supreme
Criminal Court of Scotland, in which
causes are conducted by a Public
Prosecutor, the Lord Advocate, or
one of his deputies. It sits every
week diiring the terms of the Civil
Courts, and the judges hold circuits
in vacation throughout the country.

The number of the jury is 15, and a
majority of voices decides.

Between the courts and the County
Buildings are the Advocates' Library
and Signet Library. They are both
well stored with books, especially
the first, which is one of the collec-
tions entitled to a copy of every new
work published in the L^nited King-
dom. It contains about 300, OoO
volumes, and a valuable collection
of MSS. Among its curiosities are
a JMS. of the Vulgate, 11th centy.,
brought from the Abbey of Dun-
fermline. The Mayence 1st edition
of the Bible, printed by Guttenberg
and Faust ; various copies of the
Covenant, with signatures of Mary
Queen of Scots, James VI., etc.
Strangers are admitted to either
library without introduction, and
upon the recommendation of a mem-
ber can get permission to read and
write there.

The E. side of Parliament Square
is occupied by the Exchequer and
other offices, and Police Court. The
Edinbm-gh Police was established in
1807 ; the protection of the citizens
ha-^dng previously been intrusted to
the " Town Guard," an old force which
had been originally raised in 1682.

On the KE. side of St. Giles's
Ch., within the railings, is the City
Cross, restored 1866. The shaft, of
one stone 20 ft. high, surmounted by
a unicorn, is old and original, and
raised upon a plain modern base.
It formerly stood upon an octagonal
base 16 ft. in diameter, and about 15
ft. high. At each angle was a
pillar, and between them an arch of
the Grecian shape. Above there
was a projecting battlement, with a
turret at each corner, and medallions
of rude but curious workmanship
between them. The magistrates de-
stroyed this monument under the
pretext that it encumbered the
street, and it was carried away by
Lord Somerville to his lawn at


Route 4. — Edinburgh : John Knox's House. Sect. I.

Drum, from whence the shaft was
restored iu 1866.

Sir Walter Scott thus speaks of its
removal : —

" Dun-Edin's Cross, a pillar'd stone.
Rose on a turret octagon.
(But now is razed that monument

Whence roj'al edict rang,
And voice of Scotland's law was sent

In glorious trumpet clang.)
Oh ! be his tomb as lead to lead
Upon its dull destroyer's head !—
A minstrel's malison is said."
On the opposite side of the street
stands the Royal Exchange, where
the Town-Council meet, completed
in 1761.

The High-street, the main avenue
of the Old Town, is lined Avith tall
houses, retaining some picturesque
bits of architecture. It is more in-
teresting historically as the scene of
mauy a bloody struggle between the
factions of the nobles and the citizens.
The townsmen used to rally round the
blue banner " of silk embroidered for
the Trades" by Queen Margaret, and
still preserved by the Convener of
Trades, but contemptuously styled
*' tlie blue blanket " by James VI.

Here the rival bands of Douglas
and Hamilton fought for the top of
the Causeway, 1520, when the
Douglas prevailed after a bloody

" When the streets of High Dunedin
Saw lances gleam and falchions redden,
And heard the slogan's deadly yell. "
Scott's Lay., Canto i. , vii.

1. Dunbar's Close was so called
because Cromwell established a guard
there after the victory of Dunbar.

On left is Cockburn-st., a modern
thoroughfare leading to Waverley
Bridge and Station. It is a pictur-
esque copy of old Scotch archittcture,
and contains a group of monster
houses 9 storeys high, partly occupied
by the Town-Comicil.

Right — the Tron Church received
its name from a public " trou," or
weighing machine, which stood close
by, and to which the keepers of false
weights were nailed by the ears.

The side of the ch. facing the street
is the oldest part : a curious old
wooden steeple was burnt in 1824,
when the present tower was erected.

Left — N. Bndge-street, leading to
the New Town by the X. Bridge,
which was completed in 1772 ; right
S. Bridge, leading to the College.

Left — Halkerstoii' s Wynd : the
wooden-fronted house at the corner
was the abode and shop of Allan
Ramsaj^ poet and bookseller.

In Carruhher''s Close the chapel of
St. Paul's was the resort of the
Jacobites after the expulsion of the
Stuarts in 1688.

j. Lower down, projecting into the
street, is John Knox's House (admis-
sion to the interior on Wednesdays
and Saturdays from 10 to 4, on pay-
ment of 6d.) The house is irregu-
larly shaped, and has an external
staircase. The interior is divided
into small, dark, and low rooms.
On the outside, just above the ground
floor, is the inscription, "Lvfe . God .
aboue . al . and . yo^T . nichtbovr . as .
yi . self." A carved stone figure with
uplifted hands, passed for Knox in a
pulpit preaching, until the repairs in
1850 made manifest that the effigy
represented " Moses receiving the
Law on Sinai," God being repre-
sented by a golden disc, inscribed
"Geos." This house became Knox's
manse in 1559 (when he was ap-
pointed minister of the High Church),
and in it he narrowly escaped assassi-
nation from a shot fired at him
through the window ; here also he
died in 1575. The panelling of the
walls has been brought from other
old houses.

k. A wide airy street is in course of
being opened through masses of dense
old buildings, on the line of Leith
Wynd from the High-street to below
the North-bridge, called Jeffrey-street.
Half-way up is a commonplace Nnc

S. Scotland. Pde. 4. — Edinburgh: Moray E., Canongate. 53

Church, into one side of which has
been incorporated that elegant frag-
ment of late Gothic, Trinity College
Church, founded 1462 by Mary of
Gueldres, widow of K. James II. It
consists of two bays, of the choir,
and the apse of 3 lancet windows, of
good tracery, with a fine groined
roof, and though pulled down, 1845,
to make way for the jST. British Eail-
way, was preserved stone by stone,
and every stone numbered for future
reconstruction. This is the only
part Avorth looking at, and it has
been pushed out of sight, round a
corner, by its modern neighbour,
" a meaningless annexe."

At the contraction of the street
liere stood the Nether J^oiv, or Back-
gate of the city — so that it was ori-
ginally of very moderate dimensions,
including neither the Castle, nor
Castle Hill, nor the Canongate. The
Nether Bow was removed in 1764, in
consequence of, though not till many
years after, the Porteous riot. From
this point to Holyrood the street is
called the Canongate, having origin-
ally belonged to the Abbey, then
tenanted b}' " Canons regular." From
its proximity to Holyrood Palace this
portion " of the city contained the
houses of many of the most powerful
members of the Scottish nobility.

Eight — Moray House, now a Normal
School connected with the Free Kirk,
was built by the Countess of Home in
1628, and bears the initials M. H.
in various places, besides a lozenge
Avith the lions rampant, the arms of
the Home family. The entrance-gate
is ornamented on each side by a
pointed pinnacle, or cone of masonry,
and beneath the large window is a
balcony, in which the Marquis of
Argyle and family stood to see Mont-
rose bound and carried in a cart
through the city to his execution.
The house was taken possession of
by Cromwell for his abode on his
first visit to Edinburgh, 1648.

i Left — Canongate Tolhooth, with its

clock projecting over the entrance,
was built in 1591, not exactly " pro
patria et posteris," but for debtors.
On one side of it are the arms of
Holyrood Abbey, a stag's head with
a cross between the antlers, and the
motto, " Sic itur ad astra." The
building is now used as a register
and revenue office. The old cross,
which formerly stood in the centre
of the street, has long since dis-
appeared, and a more modern one
is now attached to the lower end
of the Tolbooth, and consists of an
elegant hexagonal shaft, on the
upper part of which is a battle-
mented capital, with a shield bear-
ing the arms. The Church of the
Canongate stands at the E. end
of the jail, and back from the street.
It was built in 1688. In the ceme-
tery round the ch. are buried Adam
Smith, Dugald Stewart, and the poet
Fergnson, who died at the early age
of 24. Lower down is Panmure
House, in which Adam Smith lived
for some time.

Left — Queenshcrry House was once
a very handsome building, in the style
of a French chateau. It is now used
as a house of refuge. The poet Gay
lived here during the latter part of
his life in the capacity of secretary
to the Duchess of Queensberry. The
house was dismantled in 1801 by the
then Duke of Qyeensberry, who was
usually known by the appellation of

Xeft — White Horse Close deserves
a -visit only because it gives a view
of an old inn in tolerable preserva-
tion. The ground-floor wholly con-
sists of stables. This was a kind of
Messagerie in the 17th centy., where
journeys between Edinburgh and
London usually began and ended. It
is now tenanted by a number of poor

Lower down is Younger's Brewery,
celebrated for its " Edinburgh " ale.
Opposite the Watergate, the radiated


Route 4. — Edinhurgh : Holyrood Palace. Sect. I.

pavement marks the site of the
"Girth Cross," or the bounds of the
Sanctuary of Holyrood for Debt-
ors. Here the road opens out into
the space before Holyrood. In the
centre of the foreground stands a
Fountain of quaint design, a copy of
the one ■which originally occupied
this place, and was made and pre-
sented by Robert ]\Iilne, Esq., C.E.

Left **HolyroodAhheyand Palace.
Adm. Saturdays, gratis, on other
days 6d. ; but during the residence
of the Queen, or the Lord High Com-
missioner, there is no admittance.

Holyrood Abbey, i.e. the Abbey
of the Holy Cross, owes its origin to
the rescue from death of King DaA'id
L, while hunting in the forest of
Drumsheuch, about 2 m. from this
spot, from the horns of an infuriated
stag, by the apparition of a luminous
cross in the sky, which put the
animal to flight. The king founded
the abbey to commemorate his mira-
culous deliverance, in 1128, endow-
ing it richly with revenues. Doubt-
less David had the design of deposit-
ing in the abbey the Holy Rood or
fragment of the true cross brought
by his mother, St. Margaret, from
Waltham Abbey.

The existmg Ch., or Eoyal Chapel,
on the N. side of the Palace, is of
later date, and consists of the nave
of the Abbey Churd], only ; the choir
and transept have disappeared. In
the old choir were married all the
Scottish kings since James L ; and
in front of the present E. window
Queen ]\Iary married Darnley.

The finest portion of the Ch. is the
"W. front, which has been elbowed
and intruded on by the Palace. Well
worth notice is the W. front and
doorway, composed of six shafts and
orders of mouldings, with foliage ex-
quisitely undercut, but now black-
ened with smoke. The nave consists
of eight bays with side aisle. One
circular arch remains on the S. side
of the aisle, a fragment of the original

building of David L ; the remainder
is of the first pointed style, and be-
longs to the latter part of the 12th
cent. The ch. suffered considerably
when the English, under Lord Hert-
ford, burnt the Palace, in their inva-
sion of 1544 ; but it was repaired,
1633, by Charles L, and at the Re-
storation was converted into a Chapel
Royal, having previously been the
parish ch. of the Canongate. In con-
sequence of this promotion it was
fitted up most gorgeously, but at the
Reformation its grandeur only ren-
3f;red it more obnoxious to the mob,
who plundered and burnt it, and also
broke into the vault, which had been
used as the royal sepulchre, and con-
tained the remains of David II.,
James II., James V., and his wife
IMagdalen ; the murdered Rizzio was
buried in the chapel by the express
orders of Queen Mary ; and in the
roj^al vault, on Feb. 11, 1567, was
secretly interred Lord Darnley, two
days after his mysterious murder. |
Tlie remains of Mary of Gueldres
were removed hither from Trinity Ch.
when it was pulled down. In the mid-
dle of the last cent, a plan for repair-
ing the chapel was eventually carried
out (1758) ; but so hea-s'y a roof was
put on, that in 1772 it fell in. Every-
thing portable was then carried "&,way, .^
including the skull of Queen Mary of ^
Guise, which was entire. The ruins •
are now sadly defaced by time.

I. The Palace of Holyrood was begun
by Kin g^ James IV., and completed
by his successor James V. ; Sir James
Hamilton of Trimarty, who had been
employed on the Palaces of Lin-
lithgow, Falkland, and Stirling, being
the architect. This palace was burned
by the English under the Earl of
Hertford, 1544, and again by the
soldiers of Cromwell, 1650, the only
part which escaped being the wings
and towers at the N. W. angle, which ,,
were occupied by Queen Mary from ^
the time of her return from France,
1561, and which possess a great but

S. Scotland. Route 4. — Edinburgh : Hohjrood Palace. 55

painful historic interest in conse-

Queen Marys Apartments. — A
door on the K side of the inner
court, left as you enter, under the
colonnade, leads up to them by a
winding staircase. The rooms on
the first floor were those of Darnley.
They communicated by a private
stair, in the thickness of the wall,
with those of Queen Mary on the
second floor. These consist of an
audience-chamber, a bedroom with
an old tattered bed, said to be that of
the queen, and of two small cabinets
within the angle towers.

In the narrow cabinet or boudoir,
entered from the bedroom, Mary and
a small party were at supper, March
9, 1566, when Darnley and Euthven,
followed by other conspirators, en-
tered for the purpose of seizing Kizzio,
an accomplished Italian secretary
and skilful musician, who had gained
the queen's confidence and roused
the jealousy of the Presbyterian lords
and ministers of the kirk. Suspect-
ing their purpose, Rizzio threw him-
self behind the queen, and caught
hold of her dress, but w'as stabbed
by George Douglas, leaning over the
queen's shoulder, while the ruSian
Ker of Fawdonside held a pistol at her
breast, she being at the time seven
months gone with child ! Rizzio,
having been dragged out into the
outer room, was despatched by fifty-
six w^ounds, and his body thrown
down the stairs, ^vithDarnley's dagger
left sticking in it. Some dark stains
are still shown on the floor as the
marks of his blood.

The present palace was in great
part rebuilt in the reign of Charles II.,
after a design by Sir William Bruce,
and was a copy of the Chateau de
Chantilly, the residence of the family
of Conde. The royal apartments are
on the E. side. They have been in-
habited by James VIl. when Duke
of York, by Prince Chas. Edw. in
1745, and by the Duke of Cumber-
land ; by Louis XVIII ; by Chas. X.

of France, both before his elevation
to, and after his displacement from
the throne. Her present Majesty has
occasionally spent a night or two here
on her way to Balmoral. It is, how-
ever, pretty well deserted b}^ royalty,
as expressed by Hamilton of Ban-
gour, Avho called it "a virtuous
palace where no monarch dwells."
The Picture Gallery, in which the
Representative Peers of Scotland are
elected, is 150 ft. in length, 27 in
breadth, and 18 in height. The walls
are hung with portraits of 106 Scot-
tish kings, who, as Sir Walter Scott
observes, " if they ever existed lived
several hundred j^ears before the in-
vention of painting in oil." Else-
where he inquires " the reason why
the kings should each and every one
be painted with a nose like the
knocker of a door?" One De Witt
was the painter (1684-86). At the
farther end are four pictures, of con-
siderable historic and artistic value :

1. Represents James III. and his son;

2. his wife, Margaret of Denmark ;

3. the Holy Trinity ; 4. Sir Edward
Bonkil, Provost of Trinity College
Church, where the last two (with a
third, since lost) formed the altar-
piece. These pictures were carried
to Hampton Court at the Union, and
removed hither, 1862, by permission
of the queen.

Prince Charles Edward held his
court in Holyrood Palace. His army
was encamped at the back of Arthur's
Seat, near Duddingston, the Prince
constantly reviewing them, and often
sleeping in the camp.

The precincts of Holyrood aff"ord
shelter' to insolvent debtors, a privi-
lege granted by David I. in his ori-
ginal charter. The limits of this
sanctuary include the grounds to the
E. of the Palace, Salisbury Crags,
and Arthur's Seat, a circuit of at
least 4 miles.

m. A little S. of Holyrood extends
a large open space called the Queens
Park. Here is an elegant Gothic

56 lUe. 4c. — Edinburgh: Arthur's Seat ; Greyfriars. Sect. I.

vault, called St. Margaret's Well,
supported by a central pillar, from
which descended a fountain for
the benefit of pilgrims. It dates
from the time of James IV., and "was
brought from Restalrig hither.

Salisbury Crags (origin of the name
uncertain) forms a bold trap cliff,
nnder which is a walk called tbe
Radical Road, from having been
formed by discontented persons out
of emj)loyment in 1819.

n. Separated from it by the Hlint-
^ er's Bog, now the Volunteer Rifle
I Range, rises Arthur s Seat, whose
massive and abrupt form, surmounted
by the unmistakable outline of a re-
cumbent lion, constitutes the strik-
ing feature in all views of Edinburgh.
Though only 820 ft. high, it is in
character and mass a mountain.^ A
magnificent view is to be obtained
from the top, exceeding that from
the castle. Geologically * speaking,
Arthur's Seat consists of two por-
tions, one of sandstone, greenstone,
and ash-beds of Lower Carboniferous
date. This is covered unconformably
by the second portion, which is made
up of various volcanic ejections.

The ascent may be effected in h
hour, driving as far as Dunsappie

The stranger should not omit to
walk or drive round the winding road
called Queens Drive, from which he
will see the pretty village and loch
of Duddingston, the winter resort of
skaters and curlers, and then, passing
under the porphyritic columns of
Samson's Ribs, will come upon a
locality replete with associations of
" The Heart of Midlothian,"
" St. Leonard's Hill," where Eltie
Deans dwelt, and, on the N. slope,
St. Anthony's Chapel in ruins, be-
low which is "Musliet's Cairn."

* The Geology of Edinburgh is curious
and most instructive. It may be best
studied from " Tlie Maps and Memoirs of
the Geological Survey," to be procured at
W. & A. K. Johnston's, 4 St. Andrew Sq.

0. The secon,d thoroughfare of the
Old Town is the Cowgate, built in
1500, and then considered a fashion-
able suburb. It is now one of the
poorest, and is a narrow, dirty lane,
abounding in Irish. The lower end,
called South Back of Canongate, is
chiefly occupied by breweries, and
comparatively open.

The Cowgate is traversed by George
IV. Bridge, which leads from the
High Street to the Greyfriars ; it
was erected 1825-30. At its side
rises the square battlemented tower
and short spire of ^S*^. Magdalen^ s
Chafpel, a Gothic building, founded
1505, attached to the " Corporation
of Hammermen." The Cowgate ends
in the Grassmarket, near the centre
of which, on S. side, is the Corn
Exchange, built in 1849.

p. To the E. of Heriot's Hospital
are the Greyfriars' Churches {Old and
Neiv) and Burying -Ground, from
which an excellent view may be ob-
tained of the castle and S. side of
Old Town. The Avhole of this ground
was formerly a garden belonging to
the monastery of Greyfriars, founded
by James I.

In this ch.-5^ard were penned and
guarded the 1200 prisoners taken at
Bothwell Brig, no prison being large
enough to hold them. The very
plain churches stand nearly E. and
W. A guide to the position of the

Observe S.W. corner the tomb of
Principal Robertson, grand-uncle of
Lord Brougham ; historian of Scot-
land and of Charles V. ; and the wise
leader of the kirk for 20 years. Here
also are the graves of Allan Ramsay,
poet ; Hugh Blair ; Mackenzie, "the
Man of Feeling ;" Dr. M 'Crie, biogra-
pher of John Knox ; Geo. Buchanan,
the historian whose only memorial
is an iron plate erected by a Avorking
man ; Jos. Black, chemist, N. E.

" In this venerable cemetery,
which contains the dust of all the
contending factions of Scottish his-

S.Scotland. Edinburgh: Heriofs Hos. ; Watson's Hos. 57

tory — where the monument of the
Covenanters recounts their praises
almost within sight of the Grass-
market where they died ; where rest
the noblest leaders both of the mo-
derate and of the stricter party, there
rises, S. side, another stately monu-
ment, at once the glory and the
shame of Scottish Liberals. It is
the ponderous centre tomb, bolted
and barred, of Sir George Mackenzie,
King's Advocate under James XL,
and as such prosecutor of the Cove-
nanters. He it is of whom Davie
Deans has said, that ' he will be
kenned by the name of Bloody Mac-
kenzie so long as there's a Scot's
tongue to speak the word. ' " — Dean
Stanley's " Church of Scotland." It
was popularly believed that his corpse
would not remain quiet in the grave.
Standing above the N. wall, you look
down upon the house, at the head of
the Cowgate, in wh, Ld. Brougham
was born.

Old and New Greyfriars Churches
form one long line of building, the
eastern portion being termed Old
Greyfriars. This church was origin-
ally erected in 1612, partially de-
stroyed in 1718, and totally burnt in
1845. The present building has
been erected since, and contains
some good stained glass. Dr. Eobert-
son, the eminent historian, was min-
ister here in 1762. New Greyfriars
Ch., built in 1721, contains nothing
worthy of note.

q. George IV. Bridge conducts to
HerioVs Ilospital, the Scotch equi-
valent for Christ's Hospital, London,
occupying the high ground S. of
the Grassmarket, commanding a fine
view of the castle. Orders to see it
may be obtained daily, except Sat.
and Sunday, 12 to 3, from the office
of the Treasurer, Eoyal Exchange,
High Street. There is no fee. No
city in the world is more rich in
charitable and educational establish-
ments than Edinburgh, which, in ad-
dition to tlie advantages they offer to

the inhabitants, constitute by their
buildings one of its principal orna-
ments. Of these the oldest and
richest is the hospital founded by
George Heriot, goldsmith and jewel-
ler to James VI., who, dying in 1624,
left his property to the Town-Council
of Edinburgh, to build an hospital for
the maintenance and education of
poor and fatherless boys, the sons of

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