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freemen in the city. The building
was begun in 1628 and finished
in 1650, at a cost of £30,000. It
was designed by William Aytoun *
(though long attributed to Inigo
Jones). Its architecture, a mixture of
Italian and Gothic, is very original and
deserves inspection. "When Cromwell
took possession of the city after the
battle of Dunbar he placed his sick
and wounded here, and it continued
to be used as a military hospital till
1659, when General Monk removed
the patients, and it was then opened
according to the intentions of the
founder. It is a square building,
witli towers at the corners, each
tower rising a storey above the main
building, aud surmounted by 4 small
projecting turrets. A picturesque
gateway leads into a quadrangle 94
ft. each way, very like an Oxford
college. Above the entrance is a
statue of the founder. The Gothic
Chajiel, restored 1836, contains some
painted windows, and is fitted up
with dark oak. Besides this are
shown the dining-room, dormitory,
reading-rooms, containing portraits
of ex- officials, etc. It now receives
180 boys, and there are also seven-
teen schools in the city in connec-
tion with the Hospital, where, for a
small fee, children get an elementary
education. These schools are at-
tended by upwards of 4000 children ;
and there are eight schools open for
gratuitous evening instruction, at-
tended by about 1300 young men
and women.

Edinburgh possesses several other

* Burton's "Hist, of Scotland," vii. p.
103, Note.



58



Route 4. — Edinburgh : University.



Sect. I.



great educational establishments —
now placed under the excellent
management of the Merchant Com-
pany — a, that founded by the will of
George AVatson, a merchant's clerk,
and afterwards accountant to the
Bank of Scotland, who died in 1723,
has a revenue of £1700 per annum,
and under the new arrangement 1000
boys and 500 girls are educated,
sixty being foundationers, the others
]^aying moderate fees. The Merchant
Company have also under their man-
agement Daniel Stewart's Institution
for boys (formerly an hospital, now, •
under the powers of a provisional
order, a day-school). James Gilles-
pie's Schools for boys and girls (also
formerly an hospital), and a large
girls' school, formed from the nucleus
of the Merchant ]\Iaiden Hospital.
These educational establishments pro-
vide a cheap, and in some instances
a gratuitous, education for the child-
ren of the mercantile classes, and are
largely taken advantage of, the course
of instruction being in general emi-
nently satisfactory.

The Meadows axe a sort of inclosed
park, which with Bruntsfield Links
formed a part of the Borough Moor,
where, in 1336, Guy Count of Na-
mur, with reinforcements for the
army of Edward III., then at Perth,
was encountered and defeated by the
Earl of Moray. Upon this ground,
too, James IV. reviewed his forces
before marching to Flodden. The
Bore Stone, in which it is said his
standard was stuck, is still to be seen
built into a wall at Morningside.
Overlooking the Meadows is t\\Q Neic
Infirmary, in course of construction.
Five detached blocks have already
been erected, and it is intended to ex-
tend the building as far as Lauris-
ton, about 800 yards farther north.

r. The University (S. end of South
Bridge) is a massive building, entered
by a triple archway. It was founded
in 1582 by James VI., and is now
justly celebrated for the excellence



of its medical school, which is hardly
surpassed by any other in Europe.
The building Avas pulled down in
1789, and the present front, styled
by Fergusson ' ' a truthful and well-
balanced design," is Eob. Adam's best
work. The quadrangle was finished
by Playfair. " The aggregate annual
value of the Fellowships and Scholar-
ships (all founded since 1858) is about
£3400. There are above 100 bursaries
in connection w^ith the Faculty of
Arts, and 24 in Divinity, besides some
newly founded in Law and Medicine."
There are 38 professors, and about
2000 students. The University
Session begins in November and
ends in April ; but there is another
for medical students from May to
July. The Library, in a room 198
ft., by 50. Its collection of books
is nearly 150,000. ^'^' Opposite the Col-
lege Infirmary-street, with the Medi-
cal and Surgical Hospitals — the lat-
ter, at the foot of the street, was,
till 1829, the Royal High School.

Drummond-street, leading out of
South Bridge, opposite the College,
occupies in part the site of The
Kirl'-o'-Fifld, in which stood Darn-
1%5^'S'house,' i\'hich was blown up, with
him in it, 10th Feb. 1567.

Near this is the Grecian Portico
of Surgeon's Hall, by Playfair, one
of his best works.

The house in which "Walter Scott
was born Aug. 15, 1771, near the
head of College Wynd, was pulled
down about 1871. Chambers-street
occupies the site.

s. Behind the University to the "W.,
in Chambers-street, is the Edinlurgh
Museum of Science and Art — a hand-
some edifice of stone, iron, and glass,
after the fashion of the Museum at
South Kensington. The Brst stone
of it was laid by the Prince Consort
on the 23rd Oct. 1861. It is Vene-
tian in character, from designs by
the late Capt. Fowke. The E. wing
is devoted to the Natural History
Collection (removed from the Col-



S.Scotland. R.L — Edinhurgh : Neio Toivn ; Calton Hill. 59



lege). Suspended from the roof is
a perfect skeleton of a Greenland
whale {Physalis antiquarum), 79 ft.
long, an animal almost extinct.
Specimens of the gorilla from the
Gaboon, of the yak from the Kara-
corum Mountains, etc. The minerals,
fossils, etc., including the collection
formed by Hugh Miller, are very
good. The Geology of Scotland is
illustrated in the most complete and
instructive manner by the specimens,
sections, etc.^ collected by officers of
the Geological Survey. The contents
of the Highland and Agricultural
Society's Museum have been removed
hither. There is a very interesting
series of models of Scottish Light-
houses, including the Bell Rock,
Skerr5'-vore, and Dim Heartach, 15 m.
W. of lona — all marvels of con-
structive ingenuity. Other galleries
are occupied with works of art of
all times and countries, with raw
materials fitted for manufacturing
processes, and a collection of Indian
and Chinese curiosities.

t. New Town. Edinburgh is in
fact two distinct cities. From the
Old Town of condensed lofty build-
ings and nan-ow wynds you cross
the Mound into one as difierent as
possible, of wide streets, open spaces
and low houses, handsome, but on
the whole monotonous, always ex-
cepting Princes-street, already de-
scribed. It was begun about 1767,
upon a plan proposed by James Craig,
architect, and nephew of the poet
Thomson, although the original de-
sign has been considerably extended
by the addition of new squares and
terraces. To appreciate this contrast,
as well as to obtain one of the most
interesting views of Edinburgh, it is
indispensable for the stranger to
ascend the Calton Hill.

u. At the E. end of Princes-street
(or strictly of its continuation,
Waterloo-place) rises the Calton Hill,
beset wdth numerous monuments,
the general effect of which at a dis-



tance is not unpleasing. The top of
the hill is occupied, it is true, by
ISTelson's Monument, a building
which has been likened to a butter-
churn or a telescope. It was com-
pleted in 1815. Adm. 3d. to go up
to the top to see the view.

To the N.E. stands the most pro-
minent object, the National Monu-
ment, raised to those who fell in the
Peninsula and the "Waterloo cam-
paign ; a building intended to have
been a restoration of the Parthenon
in its perfect state, but which is a
much nearer copy of the temple of
Minerva as it stands at present. It
was commenced in 1822, and the
completion of every column cost
£1000. AVhen it arrived at its pre-
sent state no more funds were forth-
coming. To the N.W. is the Ob-
servatory. On the S.W. is Dagald
Stewart'' s Monument, copied from that
of Jjysicrates at Athens, commonly
called "The Lan thorn of Demos-
thenes." Beyond this is Professor
Playfair's, a rectangular, heavy ceno-
taph.

V. At the base of the hill in the
Regent-road is the Boyal High
School, built in 1825. It was founded
in the 12th cent., and remodelled
1598. The actual building, a happy
adaptation (Hamilton, architect) of
the Temple of Theseus in Athens,
comprises a centre, 2 wings, and 2
lodges, extending 400 ft. in front,
and was erected at a cost of £30,000.
The number of pupils is about 400.

To the south is Burns's Monument,
erected in 1830. The body of it is
circular, surrounded by 12 columns.
The cupola is a copy of the monu-
ment of Lysicrates at Athens. It
contains some relics of Burns.

On the left stands the Prison, a
castellated building in a prominent
situation, overhanging the North
British Eailway.

TFatcrloo-place extends to the foot
of the Calton Hill, and on the right



60



Route 4. — Edinburgh: Scott Monument. Sect. I.



is the Calton old Burying-Ground, in
which there is a tower-like monu-
ment to David Hume, and a lofty
obelisk to the five premature Radical
Reformers, transported for sedition
1818, and now styled martyrs to the
cause of popular freedom. Public
appreciation of their e^orts was
rather tardy, for the monument was
not raised till 1845.

At the corner of N". Bridge is the
Post-office, a lofty, handsome Italian
edifice, the first stone of which was
laid by the late Prince Consort, 23d
Oct. 1861, his last appearance at any
public ceremony.

w. right At the end of Frinces-st.,
the fine building, Avith a central
cupola, opposite the N. bridge, is the
Register Office, designed by Adam, in
which all public documents relating
to Scotland are kept, such as regis-
trations of births, deaths, and mar-
riages, and also the register of all
deeds conveying or charging landed
])roperty in Scotland. Strangers are
admitted to see some of the valuable
State Papers, Autographs, Letters of
Q. Mary, etc. In front stands an
equestrian Statue of the Ditke of
Wellington, by Steell, erectedin 1852.

St. Andrew Street leads into St.
Andrew Square, which contains on
E. side the ISTational Bank, British
Linen Co.'s Bank, and the Eoyal
Bank, all handsome buildings. In
front of the last is a statue of the
Earl of Hopetoun. In the centre of
the square is a pillar surmounted by
a statue of the 1st Lord Melville, who
was impeached by the House of Com-
mons, but acquitted. The statue is
14 ft. high, and the whole is 150 ft.
from the ground. It was erected in
1828, and cost £8000.

Left Waverley Bridge gives access
to the Old Town, and to the North
British Railway Station.

The following objects of interest
are passed in walking along Princes-
street from E. to W. Directly above



the "Waverley Bridge rises the Scott
Monument, a graceful Gothic cross
or spire, with pinnacles, resting on
4 pointed arches, the piers of which
are strengthened by 4 outer piers,
forming lancet arches, and serving to
buttress up the whole structure. It
thus forms a canopy of open arches
to enclose the statue. It was erected
in 1844, from the designs of George
Kemp, an architect previouslj'- un-
known to fame, who did not live to
see his plans completed. He was an
intense admirer of ]\Ielrose Abbey,
and has endeavoured in this monu-
ment to combine all the character-
istics and proportions of that build-
ing. Thus the monument may be
said to consist of a pile of arches,
gradually decreasing in size till the
Avhole terndnates in a single pin-
nacle. An interior staircase (ad-
mission 2d.) conducts to the top,
which is 200 ft. from the gi"ound.
Above the principal arches, and in
various parts of the structure, are
niches, filled with statues represent-
ing the most prominent characters
in Sir "Walter's novels. Beneath
the main arches is placed a statue of
Sir Walter Scott and his dog, by Steell,
a first rate work of art.

The uppermost house on the right
in St. David-street was the last
residence of David Hume, who died
in it, 1776. AVest of Scott's Monu-
ment is a statue to Professor "Wil-
son in bronze, by Steell — a verj^
good likeness, and a fine work of art.

X. 1. The Mound, a raised cause-
wa}', connecting the Old and New
Towns, was formed of the earth dug
out for the foundations of the latter.
At the N. end of it is the Royal In-
stitution (Playfair, archt.) (admis-
sion, Tues., Wed., and Sat., free;
Thurs. and Fri., 6d.), of which the
N. side was completed in 1836. It
is an oblong building, of the Grecian-
Doric style. " The porticoes cover
entrance, and the flank colonnades
are stepped against blocks, which



S. Scotland. Pde. 4. — Edinburgh : Antiquarian Museum. 61



give them character and meaning,
and the whole is well proportioned."
— Fergussons " Modern Architec-
ture." It is to be regretted that
such a handsome building should
have been put on such a site, when
so many other good positions might
have been available.

In this building is placed the very
interesting * iVa^io^ia/ Museum of the
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
(Admission, Tues., "Wed., and Sat.,
free ; Thur. and Fri., 6d,) — not only
a depository of historic relics and ob-
jects of value, but, from its excellent
arrangement and copious catalogue,
(price 6d.), a school of instruction
in relation to the primitive civi-
lisation of iST. Britain. Not to dwell
on the Egyptian antiquities, the like
of which may be seen elsewhere,
except to point out a "funereal
canopy" in the form of a temple, we
pass on to the Antiquities found in
Scotland, illustrating what are called
the Stone, Bronze, and Iron periods.
Obsen'C, a vast assemblage of stone
and bronze Celts, and other primi-
tive implements ; whorls of sjiin-
dles used for hand-spinning : querns
or hand-mills for grinding corn,
which continued in use to the
end of the 17th cent, in the noi-th ;
3 -legged bronze pots for cooking ;
burnt and glazed stones from Fi7?7'-
fcd Foists ; ax^s, utensils, ornaments,
and other relics found in Picts'
houses, brochs, weems (or under-
ground dwellings) "; relics from Scot-
tish lake-dwellings ; from Carlin-
wark and Dowalton Lochs ; personal
ornaments of gold and silver — arm-
lets, torques, chains, and Celtic
brooches ; do., found at Sandwick
Orkney, along with. Anglo-Saxon and
Cu/k Coins of the Caliphs of Bagdad,
10th cent. ; Casts of sculptured
stone monuments and crosses, in-
cluding that of Kuthwell, Dum-
friesshire, Campbeltown, Argyll, and
other parts of Scotland ; memorial
inscriptions from various parts of
Scotland— in Agham characters from



Shetland, Aberdeenshire, etc. ; in
ancient Celtic or Pictish, from St.
Vigeans, Forfarshire ; in Latin, from
Kirkliston, Midlothian, and Kirk-
madrine, Wigtownshire ; and in Scan-
dinavian Eimes, from Maeshow, Ork-
ney, and the Isle of Man ; monu-
ments, altars, and inscriptions found
on the line of the Eoman Wall be-
tween Forth and Clyde — a Sculp-
TahJ'et, 9 ft. long, representing on
one side a Sacrifice (Suovetam'ilia), on
the other Eoman cavalry ti-ampling
down the Caledonians, dedicated to
the'Emperor Antoninus Pius by the
2d Legion, stating that they had
built 4652 paces of the wall ; bronze
patellie or saucepans ; a Eoman ocu-
list's stamp ; ancient cannon and fire-
arms ; Eobert -Burns's pistols, used
by him as an exciseman ; a bronze
battle-axe found at Bannockburn ;
Lochaber axes ; flags borne by the
Covenanters at Bothwell Brig, etc. ;
relics found in the grave of Eobert
Bruce at Dunfermline in 1818, and a
cast of his skull ; the piiljnt from
which John Knox preached ; the
folding stool which Jenny Geddes
threw at the head of the Dean of St.
Giles's Church when he began to read
the Liturgy ; the stool of penitence,
from Old Grey friars Church, etc. ; the
sackcloth gown worn by penitents
while standing on the stool, from
West Calder ; the jougs, a sort of iron
collar, from Galashiels Church ;
various charms against witchcraft ;
The Maiden, an early form of the guil-
lotine, in use during the 16th cent. —
the Eegent E. of Morton, erroneously
said to have been its inventor, 1581,
and the Marquis of Argyle, were be-
headed by it ; brass collar, gifted by
the Justiciaries, of a Scotch convict
condemned for theft as a perpetual
serf, as late perhaps as 1701 ; relics of
Prince Charles Stuart — miniatures of
him and his family, his ribbon of the
Garter ; the sea-chest and carved
cocoa-nut cup which belonged to
Alex. Selkirk— the original of Eob-
inson Crusoe, cast away on Juan



62



Route 4. — Edinburgh : National Gallery. Sect. I.



Fernandez — tliey came from Largo,
his birthplace. This collection of
historic and antiquarian relics is well
worth the stranger's notice,

y. To the south of the Eoyal Insti-
tution stands the National Gallery
(admission, free on Tues., AVed., and
Sat. ; Thurs. and Fri., free to artists,
to public 6d ; catalogues, 6d. ) It
contains good examples of Scotch
artists — Kasmyth, Stirling Castle;
Portrait of Robert Burns, bequeathed
by the poet's son ; Sir John Watson
Gordon, Portrait of Sir Walter Scott ;
J. Phillrp, Spanish Boys ; J. Facd,
Annie's Tryst ; Raehurn, first-rate
Portraits— of ]\[rs. ]\Ioncrief, Lord
Newton, Francis Horner, Dr. Adams ;
W. Dyce, Francesca di Rimini ; H.
TV. Williams, Views of Sunium and
Athens ; Wilkie, John Knox admin-
istering the Sacrament ; Sir Edioin
Landseer, "Rent day in the Wild-
erness" (a bequest* of Sir Roderick
Murchison). Sir Josh. Reynolds,
Edmund Burke ; " The Origin of Paint-
ing," by David Allan; and works by
Geddes, Roberts, R. Lauder, MacCul-
loch, Sir G. Harvey, Thomson, Doug-
las, Herdman, and other Scottish
artists. Of foreign masters may be
mentioned Titian, Adoration of the
Kings. The Lomellini Family, a first-
rate work of Van Dyk's best time, in-
cluding 5 whole-length portraits ;
but perhaps the gem of the collection
is the Honble. Mrs. Graham, whole-
length, by Gainsborough. Observe,
also, Flaxman's statue of Bums ;
Sir John Moore, Sir T. Law-
rence ; the 7)oet Gay, AiJcman ;
Oberon and Titania, Paton ; Judith
and Holofernes, and The Combat,
Etty : The Porteous Mob, Drum-
Tnond ; Interior of St. Peter's, Pan-
nini ; Flemish Landscape, Ruysdael.

The New Club in Princes-st. is on
the plan of the best London clubs.
Among its members are the chief
gentry and aristocracy of Scotland.
The other clubs in Edinburgh are
the United Service Club, Queen-st. ;



the University Club, Princes-st. ; the
Northern Club, George-st. ; and the
City Club, Princes-st.

z. 1. In West Princes-st. Gardens,
opposite the New Club, is a marble
statue by Steell of Allan Ramsay.
These gardens are not public pro-
pert}'' like those to the E. of the
Mound, but admittance can easily be
obtained by application to the hotels
or booksellers' shops opposite. A
military band plays here once or twice
a week in summer, on which occasions
admission is virtually unrestricted.
The walks through them under the
black rock of the castle are charming.
They offer one of the best approaches
to it for pedestrians, who will see on
the way the remains of the Wellhouse
Tower.

1. St, John's Episcopal Church
stands at the W. end of Princes-st.
Its style of architecture is Florid
Gothic, with details after the model
of St. George's Cliapel, Windsor.
Just behind is St, Cuthbert's Parish
Kirk, In the West Churchyard, in
the S,AV. corner, is the grave of
Thomas de Quincey, "the Opium
Eater, "

There is now building at the back of
the castle — Castle Terrace — a theatre,
winter-garden, and aquarium, the
project of a joint-stock company.

At this end of Princes-st,, near
Lothian-rd,, is the Caledonian Rail-
icay Stat., whence start trains for
Carlisle, Glasgow, Dumfries, Stran-
raer, etc.

At the W, end of the town, on a
line vAih. Maitland-st., is the Hay-
market Stat, of the N, B, Railway,
a little bej^ond which is a winter-
garden, open to the public, belonging
to Downie and Laird, nurserjnaftn.

A new episcopal Cathedral Ch., to
cost £40,000, is being built at the
W. end of Melville-st., from a be-
quest of Miss Walker of Coates, The
design is by Sir G, G, Scott, architect,
Passing through Maitland-st, and
Glasgow-rd. , a good view is obtained



S. Scotland. Route 4. — Edinburgh : Dean Bridge.



63



of *Doiialclsov!s Hosjntal, the hand-
somest and best situated Wlding of
the kind in Edinburgh, and the
masterpiece of the architect Playfair.
(Admission on Tuesdays and Fridays,
2 to 4.) Donaldson was a printer,
who died in 1830, and left £200,000
for the education and maintenance
of 200 boys and girls. Ninety-two of
the children are deaf mutes.

aa. Parallel with Princes-st., and
connected with it by 5 cross streets,
runs George-sL, bounded on the E.
by St. Andrew-square, with the Mel-
ville Column, and on the W, by
Charlotte-square and St. George's
Ch., and the monument to the
Prince Consort. It would be a some-
what monotonous avenue of uniform
houses were it not for the brilliant
shops which enliven it, and some
handsome buildings, as the Com-
mercial Bank opposite St. Andrew's
(the Ch. marked by a tall spire), the
Music Hall and Assembly Rooms, in
Avhich Sir Walter Scott first made a
public confession that he was the
author of Waverley, in 1827. Nearly
opposite is the shop of Mr. Black-
wood, the publisher of the " Maga-
zine, " and the resort in times past
of Prof. Wilson, Lockhart, Hogg,
]\[oir, and many other distinguished
writers. No. 39 Castle-st., a few
yards N. of George-st., Avas the
dwelling of Sir Walter Scott from
1800 to 1826. On quitting it he
wrote — " It has sheltered me from
the prime of life to its decline."

Along the length of George-st.
runs a row of public monuments : a
statue of George IV. at the intersec-
tion of Hanover-st., and of AVm.
Pitt, Frederick-st. , both b)'' Chantrcy.
Farther on will be placed a statue of
Dr. Chalmers, a very characteristic
likeness by SteelL who is also en-
gaged upon the Scottish National
Monument to the Prince Consort,
which will close the vista in the
centre of Charlotte-square. This re-
markable group of sculpture consists
of an equestrian statue of the Prince,



surrounded by 8 figures of the vari-
ous classes of the community : the
aristocracy, the intellectual and
teaching class, the working and agri-
cultural class, etc., all in attitudes
testifying respect to the Prince's
merits.

hh. At the N.W. corner of Edin-
burgh the Water of Leith is crossed
by the Dean Bridge, at the height of
more than 100 ft. above its bed, one
of Telford's best designs, consisting
of 4 arches, each of 96 ft. span.
Seen from the bridge is a Doric
temple, placed on the river bank
below, and containing a statue of
Hygeia, raised above the mineral
well of St. Bernard. The design was
by Nasmyth, and a copy of the
Sibyl's Temjile at Tivoli.

Crossing the Dean Bridge to the
left we reach the *Dean Cemetery, in
which many men of note are buried,
such as Lords Jeffrey, Cockburn, and
Piutherfurd, Prof. Wilson (Christo-
pher North), Alison, etc. The re-
turn from W. to E. may be made by
George-st. Close beside the Dean
Cemetery is what was for long used
as Daniel Stevarfs Hospital, a large
building in Elizabethan style of archi-
tecture, but which is now occupied as
one of the Merchant Co.'s schools for
boys. In the immediate neighbour-
hood there is also an Orphan Hospital,
and John Watson's Hosp. — all fine
buildings.

About 1 mile north of Dean Bridge
and a little to the right of Queens-
ferry road, on a gentle eminence, rises

The Fettes College, which well de-
serves to be visited, both as a re-
markably fine building and for the
view it commands of Edinburgh. It
is a good specimen of architecture,
imitating successfully the Domestic
Gothic of Scotland, with a tower and
spire over the central archway, pro-
jecting oriels, and bartizan turrets.
Behind are a hall and chapel of good
Dec-Gothic — the whole is of the
finest masonry ; the capitals, .string-



64



Route 4. — Edinburgh : Fettes College.



Sect. I.



courses, window frames, foliage, and
masques, are carved with the most
perfect finish.

It is from the design of David
Bryce, and cost about £60,000, '.the
funds having been furnished by a
bequest of a Sir William Fettes, a
rich banker, to found an educational
institution. The Fettes College is a
public school for the education of
boys of the upper classes, 40 being
foundationers. The system adopted
is from the best parts of the schemes
of Eton, Winchester, and Rugby, to



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