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furnish at a moderate cost an educa-
tion fit for sons of gentlemen. Each
boy has a separate bedroom ; the
food is supplied by the institution,
and not by the masters.

A little to the west is St. Cuthhcrfs

cc. Eminent natives of Edinburgh
and Residents. — Sir Walter Scott,
born Aug. 15th, 1771, on the site of
the University. Henry Brougham
in the 3d flat of a house at the head
of the Cowgate, Sept. 19, 1778 {see
Register of St. Giles). His mother,
Miss Syme, was niece of Principal
Robertson, the historian ; his father
was a cloth merchant. Sir David
Baird, in Castle-hill, in a house
which once belonged to the Gordon
family. His father was Baird of
Newbyth. Francis Horner was born
in High-st, 1794. Sir Henry Rae-
burn, the portrait-painter, was born
at Stockbridge 1756. The painters
Allan Ramsay, 1713 ; Runciman,
David Roberts, 1796, and Nasmyth,
1758, were also natives of Edinburgh.
Dr. Chalmers' favourite residence was
at Morningside, where he died. He
is buried in the Gn-ange Cemetery, on
S. of the Meadows. David Hume
lived in St. David-st.

At the E. end of Princes-st. is
Leith-walk, where stood the Theatre
Royal, burned 1875. In this posi-
tion an earthwork was erected against
Cromwell : it was afterwards con-

verted into a "Walk," and finally
opened out into the present roadway.

Historic Notes on Edinburgh.

In the 7th centy. a military station
was formed on the Castle Hill by
Edwin, King of Northumbria, and
the town which grew up under its
protection was called by his name.
David I., in a charter, calls it
"Burgo meo de Edwinesburg, " from
which it may be gathered that it was
made a royal burgh before his time,
probably by Malcolm Canmore. The
early history of the city is in reality
the history of the castle. Edinburgh
did not become the capital of the
kingdom till the middle of the 15th
centy., when the murder of James

1. disgusted the court with Perth.
King James II., grateful for the
interest shown in his behalf when he
was at variance with his nobles,
erected the city into a Sheriffdom
within itself, and presented to the
incorporated trades a banner or
standard, which has since been known
by the name of the Blue Blanket,
and is still preserved. The city
gradually increased in wealth and
importance till 1544, when it was
seriously injured by the English
under the Earl of Hertford. This
wanton destruction, followed by a
century of civil and religious discord,
with many will account for the
poverty of its ancient architecture
and the absence of buildings of any
great age.

Of old public buildings there are
none ; and no older date than that of
James V. is claimed for any part of
Holyrood Palace, and that only for

2. of the towers. There are only a |
few houses upon which may be seen

a date prior to the accession of James
VI. to the English throne. This
event gave an impulse to building
all over the country. Within the
last ten years especially, much build-
ing has been going on in Edinburgh,

S.Scotland. Boute i. — Edbiburgh : Leith; Granton.


and a number of handsome new
streets and houses have been erected.
The progress of the town is chiefly
towards the S. and W, Notwith-
standing this, houses are difficult to
get, and rent is high.

Environs and Excursions.

a. Leith, Trinity (Newhaven),

Railioay Stat, in Leith Walk or
at Waverley Bridge ; trains every
5 hr.

Leith has been the port of Edin-
burgh since the days of Robert Bruce,
and has witnessed the landing of
many a royal personage. In 1561
Mary Queen of Scots was received
with great ceremony on her arrival
from Calais ; and George IV. landed
here in 1822. In 1560 the French
raised here a fortress, in which they
planted a strong garrison to main-
tain the authority of the Guises in
Scotland. Queen Elizabeth despatch-
ed a fleet to expel them from Leith.
It is at present an independent
Pari. Burgli, with a Pop. of near
50,000, and carries on a very great
trade in corn and timber from the
Baltic, besides wine from France -and
Spain, and esparto (for paper) from
Oran and Almeria. The cones of its
huge glass-works are conspicuous
from a distance. There are large
manufactures of cordage, sailcloth,
machinery, soap, oil-cake, etc. Be-
sides these, there are shipbuilding
yards, and 2 of the largest Flour
Mills in the country, that of Todd,
where 99 pairs of stones work under
one roof, and that of Gibson and
Walker at Bonnington.

The old harbour, the estuary of
the black and foul Water of Leith
("quasi Lethe," quoth Dr. Johnson,
" because Scotchmen embarking here
forget their own country"), divides
the town into S. and N. Leith.
Opening from it to the W. are the
Victoria and wet docks ; to the E.

the Albert Dock, excavated out of
the E. sands. The last has a water
area of 14 acres, and was opened in
1869. On its quays may be seen Sir
William Armstrong's Scientific Hy-
draulic Cranes, for raising cargoes.
The entrance to this harbour is by
two Piers stretching into the sea
1000 yards. Near tlie mouth a
Martello Tower rises out of tlie sea.
Leith Fort, to the N.W., Avas one of
the 3 Citadels built by Cromwell for
keeping the Scots in order. It is now
of no strength as a defence — little
more than an Artillery Barrack.
Leith is the cradle of the Gladstone
family. There is a Church here
founded by them.

Registered ships, 1873, 201 vessels
= 65,692 tons. Total number of
vessels entered inwards, 1873 — 3635
= 768,825 tons.

To the W. of Leith is Nev.iha.ven,
celebrated for its fishing and its
fish-dinners. The fishwives of the
village are noted for their peculiar
costume, and may be seen in all
parts of Edinburgh selling fish, the
produce of their husbands' or fathers'
labour. Their high reputation for
morality (see Chas. Reade's novel
" Christie Johnstone "), though exag-
gerated, is not wholly undeserved.
The Newhaven fishers are of Jutland
origin, and are singularly conser-
vative in their household customs.
They rarely marry outside of their
own race ; the men are celebrated
for their skilful seamanship and
hardy daring ; the women are noted
for their keenness in driving a bar-
gain {vide " The Antiquary").

It is a pleasant walk or driv^e of 2 m.
from Edinburgh to Granton Pier, by
Inverleith-row, stopping by all means
to visit on the way the * Royal Bo-
tanic Gardens (free admission daily,
except Sunday), which is remarkable
for the beauty of its walks, the order
of its an-angement, its fine trees, and
for the most truly pictorial View of
Edinburgh which it commands. It


Route 4. — Edinburgh : Excursions.

Sect. I.

includes a very extensive Pinetum
and arhoretuni, containing many-
choice specimens in very healthy
condition. The wild garden of Al-
pine flowers demonstrates how such
plants may be cultivated with per-
fect success. The Palm-houses and
Foreign Fernery are not surpassed
even by Kew. No garden in the
kingdom is better managed than
this, under Professor Balfotir and
Mr. Macnab.

Granton Pdy. Stat, on the Pier.

Granton is the point at which the
Earl of Hertford disembarked his
troops when he invaded Scotland in
1544. The magnificent Pier here
Avas built entirely at the expense of
the Duke of Buccleuch. It was
begun in Nov. 1835, and partly
opened on the day of the Queen's
coronation. It is 1700 ft. in lengtli
and from 80 to 160 ft. in breadth,
and has the great advantage of being
accessible at an}^ state of the tide.
The Victoria jetty, from whence the
Queen landed and re-embarked in
Sept. 1842, is on the W. side, and
extends 90 ft. From this pier is
the steam ferry to Burntisland, in
Fife, a passage of about lialf-an-hour.
From this as well as from Leitli the
London steamers depart. The trains
run down to the steamers lying
alongside of the pier.

§ 2. Hawthornden, Roslin Chapel
and Castle, may be reached a. By the
high road direct to Roslin, 7 m.,
through Liberton. h. By carriage
via Lasswade to Hawthornden, 11
m., walking thence to Roslin, and
sending round the carriage, c. By
Railway direct, via Loanhead, 4
trains daily in 40 min., to Pioslin
(Rte. 13), the quickest way.

Eoslin and Hawthorndeia stand at
opposite ends of a romantic glen of
the N. Esk, traversed by a footpath
2 m. long. The only entrance to
Hawthornden is by the Lodge Gate
(admission, Is.), on the high road ;

consequently it should be first
visited. Quitting HaAvthornden by
the lower gate, on the Esk bank, it
is a charming walk of 1^ m., thence
through the glen to Eoslin Chapel.
There is a ]niblic footpath from
Lasswade to Eoslin, passing outside
the bounds of Hawthornden. (These
places are described Ete. 13.)

English Service on Sundays in Eos-
lin Chapel ; 12i and 4^.

Independent of the many interest-
ing objects, and the attractive
scenery in the neighbourhood of
Edinburgh, the stranger will find
the chief charm of all in the varied
and exquisite views of the city itself,
and the grand and picturesque
heights which sun-ound it, Avhich
compose a new natural picture at
every turn.

§3. 3m.S. E. of Edinburgh, on
the way to Dalkeith, may l^e seen,
embosomed by trees, ithe ruins
of Craicjmillar Castle^ consisting
of a "■square toWer* in the centre,
anothei- in front, and two circular
turrets behind — thewholesurrounded
by a high and strong wall, with round
towers at the corners. It is a forti-
fied house of the 15th cent., with
altei'ations and additions of the 17th
cent. The central tower is massive
and old-fashioned, but is of the same
date as the wall that surrounds it.
The roof (from which there is a good
view of the surrounding country) is
formed of large stones. The prin-
cipal room in the interior is the
hall, which is lofty, and by the ap-
pearance of corbels halfway up the
side, probably contained a Gallery.
The armour of Darnley and portrait
of Queen Mary deserve abo\it equal
faith in the beholder. The view of
Edinburgh and the country around
is very striking. Craigmillar was
used as a prison for the Earl of Mar,
brother to James II., in 1477, and
here he is said to have been bled to
death. According to Drummond of
Hawthornden, however, he was seized
with a severe fever, and either bled

4- xl^^i^^-r-i^^^S^''



/ / h, )lu f 4U n rlf

S. Scotland. Pde. 4. — Environs of Edinburgh.


too freely, or in a fit of delirium tore
off the bandages. The castle was
occupied by James V. during his
minority, and ]\Iary lived here for
several montlis after the death of
Eizzio, 1566. Indeed, the small
\allage on the Dalkeith road close
by is still called "Little France,"
from having been the quarters of
her French guards. Within the keep
a room of peculiarly small dimen-
sions is shown as Queen Mary's
apartment. At a secret meeting held
here between her and ilurray, Leth-
ington, and Bothwell, it was proposed
to rid her of "her ungi'ateful hus-
band " by a divorcement ; but she re-
fused to listen, and protested against
any step by which " spot might be
laid on her honour. " To this place,
also, she was brought as a prisoner
after the battle of Carberry. About
1661 the castle passed into the pos-
session of the Gilmour family, with
whom it still remains. iSTiddry
House is the seat of A. "VVauchope,

Portobello, Inveresk, Dalkeith
(Park), Melville Cast. (Park), Liber-
ton (View), Edinburgh.

§ 4. Blackford and Braid Hills.

One of the finest drives, command-
ing the most extensive and varied
views, may be taken by starting
from Princes-street, by the Lothian-
road, to Morningside, and round
the Braid Hills to Liberton, and
back by ISTewington.

It is a pleasant walk across Black-
ford Hill, a rocky height 2 m. S. of
Edinburgh, the view from which is
so admiraijly described in " Mar-
mion." Here the army of James
IV. encamped before marching to

§ 5. Dalmemj Park and Ch.,
Hojyetoun, and S. Queensferry (Ptte.

Dean Bridge, Cramond Bridge,
Dalmeny Park and Ch., S. Queens-
ferry, Hopetoun Park and Gardens
(the house is not usually shown).

§ 6. Linlithgow Palace and Ch.,
by Glasgow railway trains in \ hr.

§ 7. To Bm-thicick and Crichton
Castles, taking the railway to Fushie
Bridge Stat. {Inn. ) Rte. 1.

§ 8. Paihvay to Colinton, Juniper
Green, Currie, Pentland Hills.

Quitting Edinburgh by Lothian-
road, you pass rt. Mcrchiston Castle, ^.
the birthplace of K'apier, the mathe- ' "=
matician and inventor of logarithms.

1. the pretty suburb of Morn-
ingside. The road then crosses the
Braid Burn, and winds along the
slope of the Braid Hills, a pictur-
esque group about 700 ft. high,
placed midway between Arthur's Seat
and the Pentlands, comTuanding the
view over Edinburgh made famous
by the description in "Mannion."
Passing rt. Comiston House (Sir J.
Forrest), a road is given off to Dreg-
horn (R. A. Macfie, Esq.), situated
at the foot of the Pentlands, the
charming little village of Colinton,
on the Water of Leith, and Bonally,
long residence of the late Lord Cock-
burn. The fine range of the Pent-
lands is now the most prominent
object, the road nmning at the foot
of the eastern slopes, and passing 5 4
ra. rt. Woodhouselee (J. Tytler,
Esq.) Then comes the village of
Howgate, a little beyond which is
Bush (A. Trotter, Esq.), and Glen-
corse (Lord Justice-General Inglis).
Within the grounds of Coliuton
House (Lady Dunfermline) are some
very fine holly hedges. A bridge
across the Water of Leith at Colin-
ton leads to a pleasant road back to
Edinburgh through the village of

§ 9. Penicwilc, Halh'e's Howe.

[It is a favourite excursion up the
Glencorse Burn to the Glencorse Be-
servoir. Then rt. Logan Bank (H.
]\I. Inglis, Esq.) to the Loganlee Reser-
voir, which lies in the hollow between
the heights of Black Hill (1628) and
Carnethy (1890). Both these were
constructed as compensation reser-


Route 5. — Carlisle to Edinburgh, etc.

Sect. I.

voirs for the supply of the mills and
rivers that were injured by the
springs being taken away for the use
of the city. At the head of the glen,
known as Rabble's Hoive, the stream
falls picturesquely into a small pool,
supposed to be in the Poet Ramsay's
thoughts when he wrote " The Gen-
tle Shepherd." But the scenic de-
scription does not altogether answer
to the character of this glen, and it
seems probable that the true Habbie's
Howe is to be found some miles higher
up, beyond Penicuik. But, how-
ever that may be, it is a delightful
excursion, as showing the pastoral
character of the Upland of central
Scotland, which has of course no
pretension to the grandeur of High-
land scenery. ]

7 m. House of Miiir, noted as a
cattle fair, and close by it is Ptullion
Green, where the Covenanters were
defeated by Dalziel in Nov. 1666.
The site of the encampment is to the
S. of the battlefield, which is now
commemorated by a monument.

From here a cross road leads to
Penicuik 2 m. (Rte. 16), where
Penicuik House (Sir G. D. Clerk,
Bart.) and fine Park, and the Paper
Mills on the Esk, deserve notice.

Carlisle to Edinburgh, Glasgow,
or Stirling, by Lockerbie [Loch.-
maben], Beattock [Moffat], and
Car stairs Junction.

To Carstairs Junct., 73 m. in 2
hrs. ; to Glasgow, 104 m., 6 trains
daily in 3 to 4 hrs. ; — to Edinburgh,
101 m., 6 trains in 2f hrs. The
Caledonian Railway, one of the great
trunk lines of Scotland, penetrates
the central southern counties, and
divides at Carstairs, in Lanarkshire,
the main line continuing N. to join
the Highland Ely. at Stanley, and
the branches on either side running
to Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Quitting the Citadel Stat, at Car-
lisle, the line skirts the walls of the
old city, with the cathedral and castle
(on the right), crosses the river Eden,
and soon after passes under the North
British Rly., arriving at

4 m. Rockliffe Stat.

65 m., near Floreston Stat, the
line crosses the river Esk (which 5
m. higher up waters the grounds of
Netlierby, Rte. 1), and then enters a
tract of Border country which was
called the Debatable ground. It
extends to the river Sark, and is
about 8 m. long by 4 broad, and was
for many years held only by the
worst set of Border robbers. In 1552
a 'boundary line was agreed upon
by the sovereigns of the two king-
doms ; but the habits of the people
were little improved till the union
of the crowns. On the left is Sol-
way Firth, recipient of the Esk,
Eden, Annan, and Nith. The tide
comes in at certain seasons with ex-
traordinary rapidity, forming what is
known as the Bore, in which the
waves are frequently 3 or 4 ft. high.
Strangers to the coast should be
careful of this danger, remembering
the caution given by Herries of Bur-
renswark to Darsie Latimer, that
' ' he who dreams on the bed of the
Solway will wake up in the next
world." The estuary has been
bridged across, lower down, by the
Solway Junct. Rly. On right is
Solway Moss, memorable for the de-
feat of the Scots in 1542. A body
of 10,000 men had entered England ;
but the leaders, quarrelling amongst
themselves, were surprised by a small
English force and routed, leaving 200
noblemen and gentlemen in the
enemy's hands. James V. died of
mortification in coiisequence. On
the other side of the Sark, which is
the boundary between England and
Scotland, is

8| m. Gretna Junct. Stat, (in Rte.
9). Here a Rly. branches W. to
Annan and Dumfries (Rte. 9). On

S. Scotland. Route 5. — Kirkconnell ; Ecclefechan.


right, a branch to Longtown joins
the North British (Ete. 1).

13 m. Kirkpatrick Stat On left
is the village of Kirkpatrick Fleming,
situated near the banks of Kirtle
Water, together with Mossknowe
(Col. Graham), the Cove (G. Ogilvy,
Esq.), and Bonshaw, overhanging the

Kirtle Bridge Stat. About 2 m.
right, is the ruined ch. of Kirkcon-
nell, the churchyard of which is the
scene of the pathetic ballad of " Fair
Helen of Kirkconnell Lee." The
daughter of the Laird of Kirkconnell
loved and was beloved by Adam
Fleming of Kirkconnell, but was
promised in marriage by her famil}-
to Bell of Ecclefechan. The favoured
swain was in the habit of meeting
her in the churchyard, which so ex-
cited the jealousy of the rival that
he one evening took up his station,
armed with a gun, for the purpose of
watching them. Unable to contain
himself with rage, he fired, when
the fair Helen received the bullet in-
tended for her lover. A fierce com-
bat ensued, in which the murderer
was cut to pieces : —

" I wish I were where Helen lies !
Night and day on me she cries ;
Oh tliat I were where Helen lies
On fair Kirkconnell Lee ! "

Fleming went abroad, but returned
hither to die. The graves of the
unfortunate couple are still to be
seen here.

The country through which the
tourist is passing was formerly well
wooded, but " it is said to have been
cleared of the wood by Act of Parlia-
ment in the time of James VL , in order
to destroy the retreat of the moss-
troopers, a pestthispartof the countrj'
was infamous for — in fact the whole
of the borders then was, as Lindesay
expresses, no other thing but theft,
reiff, and slaughter." — Pennant.

A fine view is obtained on left of
Annandale, as the train approaches
20 m. Ecclefechan Stat., near the

banks of the IMein "Water, which near
this spot falls into the Annan. It
derives its name, Ecclesia Fechani,
from St. Fechan, an Irish saint of
the 7th centy. "The Lass of Eccle-
fechan " was one of Burns's country
songs. Carlyle, the biographer of
Cromwell, was born here, Dec. 4,
1795, son of a small farmer. The
small stone house, extending over a
gateway, is pointed out. [The anti-
quary may pay a visit to the hill of
Burrsivark, 920 ft. high, nearly 3
m. to the N. It is strongly defended
by 3 Eijmau camps, the largest of
which looks S., and encloses an area
of 900 ft. in length by 600 in breadth.
The summit, which commands a fine
view of Lochmaben, Queensberry
Hill, Hartfell, the Solway Firth,
Criff"el, Annan, Carlisle, and the
Cumberland Lake Hills, was further
strengtliened by several forts, which
are probably British. Horsley con-
siders Burrswark to be the work of
Agricola, and that it may have served
as a summer camp to Barrens, which
is about 2 m. distant. At Middleby,
not far off, is a complete Roman
camp. A Roman road may be traced
at the S.E. foot of the hill, and
several altars and coins have been
dug up in the vicinity.]

2^ m. S. W. of Ecclefechan is Hod-
dam Castle (W. J. Sharpe, Esq.), a
castellated house, built about 1650
by the Herries family. To the S. of it,
on high ground, is llepentance Tower,
so called because it was erected as a
monument of repentance by Lord
Herries for having used some materials
from Tailtron Chapel to build Hod-
dam Castle. In the " Minstrelsy of
the Scottish Border" a different
reason is assigned. It is said there,
in the ballad of "Lord Herries his
Complaint," that, returning by sea
from England with a large booty
and a number of prisoners. Lord
Herries threw the latter overboard
to lighten the vessel, and subse-
quently built this tower as a proof
of his remorse. Over the door are a


Route 5. — Lochmahen ; Jar dine Hall.

Sect. I.

serpent and a dove, with the word
" Repentance " between.]

Before crossing the Water of Milk
the traveller obtains a beautiful
though transient view as the train
descends the Breconhill incline.

The scenery of the Water of Milk,
which rises in the fells at the head of
Eskdale, is very pretty, and can be
explored conveniently from

25f m. Lockerbie Junct. Stat. {Inn,
King's Arms). Lockerbie is cele-
brated for its sheep and cattle fairs,
the one in Angust being the largest
lamb fair in Scotland. There is a
handsome Toicn Library of mediaeval
architecture. Near Lockerbie are
the ruins of the Castle of the John-
stones, one of the most powerful
families in this part of Scotland. A
"Lockerbie lick" is still proverbial
from the slaughter inflicted by them
on the Maxwells.

In the neighbourhood is Murray-

Lockerbie to Dumfries, [From
Lockerbie Junct. it is 15 m. to
Dumfries, by a Branch rly. crossing
the Annan to

4 m. Lochmaben Stat. {Inn :
King's Arms), a royal burgh sur-
rounded by a chain of 8 lakes.
Near the "ch., on a mound, was
'^ a Castle of the Bruces of Annan-
■7 "'V dale, in which Robert Bruce was
born, if not at Turnbur3^ He pulled
it down, and built a much larger one
on a peninsula S.E. of the Castle
Loch. It consisted of 3 courts, in-
closed by massive walls 12 ft. thick,
and by a triple fosse. The faces of
the walls have been plundered of the
stone, and nothing is now left but
shapeless masses of rubble. Yet this
was the Bruce's home and his head-
quarters when he began the war of
independence against the English,
1306. The property now belongs to
the Earl of Mansfield. There are 4
villages in the neighbourhood, with
some smaller hamlets, held by tlie
"King's kindly tenants of Loch-

maben," as they are called. It is
a sort of udal tenure, which acknow-
ledges no feudal superior, and is sup-
posed to have originated in a grant
of land by Robert Bruce to his ser-
vants, when superannuated. This
tenure was confirmed by the Courts
of Session on an appeal in 1824.

Lochmaben, when seen from a
height, appears to be almost an island;
it is surrounded by 8 lochs, the largest
of which, Castle Loch, to the S., is of
considerable size. "In it alone
the far-famed Venclacc (Coregonus
Willoughbii, Fa ?'rcZZ) is found. Tra-
dition adds that it was introduced
here by Queen Mary, but more
probably it was brought hither by
the monks of some neighbouring
convent for the benefit of their table.
It defies the angler, resisting all sorts
of baits. It is caught only with
nets. It is delicious eating, resem-
bling the smelt ; it is best in .July.
Its food consists of small water in-
sects. A Fend ace Club meets here
annually. The lochs abound with
pike, perch, roach, bream, eels, and

Jardinc Hall, seat of the late
venerable naturalist Sir William, now
of his son Sir Alexander, Jardine,
contains the finest collection of fossil
footprints of reptiles from Corncockle
Muir sandstones, 2 m, N. of the

" The Footprint room," is so called
because of some slabs bearing tracks of
fossil animals, together with ripple-
marks, the vestiges of the ancient seas.

3 m. to the S, of Lochmaben is
Rammer scales, the seat of W, B.
M 'Donald, Esq. The grounds are
celebrated for their beautiful silver

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