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Pembroke, and after the expulsion
of the English was restored to the
Murrays. From that family it passed
by marriage to that of Douglas, was
confiscated by James III. and re-
stored by James I V. in exchange for
the Castle of Hermitage, which he
took from them.

The modern house stands close by,
and contains a gallery of pictures
possessing much interest, because
they include half the collection of
the great Lord Chancellor Clarendon,
formerly at Amesbury in AVilts, the
other half of the collection being now
at Lord Clarendon's seat, " the Grove,''
Herts. Of this part of it Walpole
remarked, " Not one original, I
think — at least not one fine one."
Walpole Avas not quite right. The
whole-lengths of Lord Lindsay, Lord
Binning, Lady Paulett, and; ^Irs.
Howard, are by Van DycTc, and fine
works ; see also Nell Gwynne and
others by Lely ; Cromwell and Sir
Thomas More by Holbein ; Kaleigh
by Van Somer ; by Reynolds, Mar-
garet, Duchess of Douglas, etc.

Passing the village of Bothwell,
the traveller arrives at Bothivcll
Bridge (2 m. from Hamilton), cele-
brated for the battle, June 22, 1679,
described in " Old Mortality," Ije-
tween the royal troops, commanded
by ]\Ionmcuth and Claverhouse, who
approached from the N",, and the
Covenanters strongly posted on the
S. bank, but commanded by nobody
at all, for they were squabbling
about the election of their officers
when attacked. Their position was
well chosen, the only access to it
being by the bridge, which was held
by a small force under Hackston of
Eathillet, until his ammunition was



exhausted. When this force was
withdrawn the Duke's army crossed
the bridge, and his artillery sufficed
to put the insurgents to rout. The
bridge is much altered since that
day ; it then had a steep rise in its
centre, where it was crossed by a gate,
and was only 12 ft. wide, and its
approaches on each side were much
steeper than at present.

[From the bridge over the Clyde
the high road skirts on the left the
Duke of Hamilton's park wall, and
in about a mile reaches

Hamilton {Inns : " Commercial, "
Spalding's, good ; obliging landlord).
Horses and carriages kept here,
so that it forms a good centre for ex-
ploring this interesting neighbour-
hood.

Hamilton is a cheerful and pros-
perous town, on a sIojjc (the old and
dirtier quarter below) about 2 m.
from the Clyde, which near this is
joined by its pretty tributaiy the
Avon. Hamilton, though tolerably
free from smoke, is surrounded, at a
distance of 3 or 4 m., by collieries
and iron furnaces, which light up the
horizon at night.

The stately Palace of the Duke of
Hamilton stands in the bottom of
the valley, close to the old town, — so
close that about 1826 a whole street
was purchased and thrown into the
park. The fronts of the houses only
remain, and, with their doors and
■svindows walled up, still serve as a
boundary wall. At the same time
the Old Tolhooth, a picturesque build-
ing with tower, was cut off from the
town, and now stands within the
grounds of the Palace.

Queen Mary, on escaping from Loch
Leven Castle, made Hamilton Palace
her rallying-point, here collecting
around her all her adherents and par-
tizans, 1568. The Palace, besides its
historic interest, in the splendour of
its decorations, and in the number and
value of the precious objects which
it contains of art and virtu, is not



86



Route 8a. — Hamilton Palace.



Sect. I.



surpassed by any mansion in tlie
kingdom. There is no admission to
the interior except by special intro-
duction.

The growids are open to the public
Tuesdays and Fridays. They abound
in noble trees, and are traversed by
a stately avenue stretching from the
Palace up to Chatelherault, and con-
tinued on the other side. Within
them stands the remarkable family
mausoleum. The old Palace was
rebuilt in 1695-6, but the building
was augmented by nearly one-half,
and a new front added, by Duke
Alexander in 1828-9. It is a stately
and imposing piece of architecture,
with an extent of 264 ft. and a por-
tico of monolith Corinthian columns,
copied from those of the Temple of
Vespasian at Pome. Each of these
is 30 ft. high, 3 ft. in diameter, and
cut out of a single stone. The inte-
rior evinces that its owners have com-
bined with a love of splendour a true
knowledge and appreciation of art.

The grand staircase is entirely of
black marble. The entrance-hall
extends through 3 storeys. The
State apartments are fitted up in
the gorgeous style of Louis XIV.,
and contain his bed and furniture.

The walls are covered with Gobe-
lins, representing the story of Jeru-
salem Delivered, from Tasso. The rich
roof and gold panels remind one of
Versailles. The rooms are ornamented
with caskets inlaid with precious
stones, cabinets, and other rare ob-
jects, gifts of Catherine of Russia to
the 10th Duke of Hamilton when
ambassador at her Court, including
her portrait in tapestry, and another
of her on horseback en cavalier.

Here are various objects which be-
longed to IMarie Antoinette and Mary
Queen of Scots, her jewel-case and
writing cabinet of ebony, the cradle
of Queen Elizabeth, etc.

The collection of family portraits
in the splendid long gallery, and
other parts of the house, is of great
historic interest. They include



James, Marquis of Hamilton, by
Van Somcr.

William, Earl of Lanark, killed at
Worcester, Mytens.

Elizabeth Gunning, Duchess of
Hamilton, Mr. Beckford, and Alex-
ander, 10th Duke of Hamilton, as a
boy, all by ^'/?' Joshua Reynolds.

Mrs. Beckford, in old age, full of
vigour, is one of the best portraits
of Ben. West, P.R.A.

The most celebrated picture here
is that of Daniel in the Lions' Den,
one of the very few known to have
been executed entirely by Rubens
himself. The following are among
the choicest works singled out by
Waagen : —

Girolamo de Libri, a rare Veronese
master. — Large altar-piece. Virgin
and Child, with Saints.
Luca Signorelli. — The Circumcision
of Christ. — An altar-piece of
10 figures, life-size, one of the
most important works of the
master.
Pontormo. — Portrait of Gaston de

Medici.
Antonello da il/(;ssi7«a.— Portrait of a
young man named, and dated 1474.
Domcnichino. — John the Baptist re-
proving Herod.
Sebastian del Piombo. — The Trans-
figuration. Pope Clement VII.



Sandro Botticelli. — Adoration of the
Kings. A large picture, with small
figures executed like miniatures.

Sandro Botticelli. — The Coronation
of the Virgin ; below, in 3 semi-
circles, all the personages of the
Holy Church, — Apostles, Saints,
Patriarchs, Prophets, The Fathers,
Martyrs, and Holy Virgins, etc.,
from S. Pietro Maggiore, Florence,
described by Vasari.

Giorgione. — Hippomanes and Ata-
lanta.

Van Dyclc. — Wm. Fielding, Earl of
Denbigh ; Duchess of Eichmond ;
Princess Henrietta of Lorraine.

Murillo. — John the Baptist as a
child asleep.



S. Scotland. Route 8a. — Glasgoiv to Lanark ; Hamilton.



Velasquez. — Philip IV., whole

length.
David. — Full length portrait of

•Napoleon.
Tintoret. — IMoses striking the Rock ;

Portraits. — Visit of Queen of Slieba

te Solomon.
Nich. Poussin. — The Entombment.
Hohhema. — Trees and Houses, in

front a sheet of water.
Teniers. — -A Stable ; a Landscape.

Teniers' Coimtry House.
W. Van der Velde. — A Calm Sea.

• Among the treasures of the Lib-
rary, one of the choicest in Bri-
tain, abounding in rare MSS. and
missals, are : — A Greek Gospel of
12th centy. ; an illuminated Greek
MS. of 14th centy. ; a Psalter MS.
from Hildesheim, 13th centy. ; the
Vulgate, with miniatures, very fine ;
Dante, folio, 15th centy., with an
illustration on every page ; an An-
tiphonary, executed for Pope Leo X.
The Beckford Library occupies a
room to itself, and contains some
exquisite missals with miniatures.
Here are preserved the gun with
which Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh
shot the Eegent Murray (it was
originally a matchlock) ; and the
writing-desk of Jtlary Queen of Scots.

Near to the palace is the Mavso-
leum, a square building, surmounted
by a round tower and a stone cupola
(D. Bryce, archt), reminding one of
the tomb of Cecilia Metella near
Rome. The interior is an octagonal
chapel, underneath which are tlie
vaults. The terrace front is adorned
by colossal lions, by Ritchie. On
the basement are representations of
Life, Death, and Eternity. It was
erected by Alexander, the 10th
Duke, whose remains lie within
the sarcophagus of an Egyptian
queen.

The building within has a truly
sepulchral character, and the echo
produced by the arrangements of
the interior is remarkable, since the



wind as it passes over it seems to
moan a perpetual requiem for him
who sleeps below. The bronze
gates are copied from those of the
Baptistry at_Florence.

Environs. — a. \ m. S.E. of Hamil-
ton the picturesque river Avon is
crossed by a bridge, and a little
higher up by a rly. viaduct, close to
which is the house of Barncluith (Lady
Ruthven), noted for its old-fashioned
Dutch gardens, in terraces adorned
with quaintly cut yews, clipped
hedges, etc., laid out 1583.

b. About 1^ m. higher up the
Avon valley is the ruined Casfle of
Cadzotu on its left bank ; and on the
right, connected by a bridge, is the
Toy Castle of ChatelhcrauU, copied,
1732, from the "chateau in France,
from which the Duke takes his
French title. It stands in a com-
manding position, conspicuous with
its four towers, on the open hill-side,
and is connected by a double avenue
of trees, Avith Hamilton Palace below,
and has a splendid vicAv over Clydes-
dale. One wing is fitted up as a
summer pavilion for picnic parties
in the Louis XIV. style ; the rest is
occupied by gamekeepers and dog-
kennels. The terraced garden behind,
with its formal yew hedges, looks
down into the winding and wooded
Avondale. A bridge over the river
leads from it to Cadzovj Castle, the
cradle of the Hamilton family, built
on a crag above the Avon, now a
shapeless ruin overgrown with trees
and briars, among Avhich may be
traced dark vaults and foundations
of towers.

Upon the same side of the river as
Cadzow, and reached b}^ the grass-
drive, is all that remains of the great
CaledonioM Forest, which once ex-
tended from sea to sea through the
whole of the south of Scotland. A
few of the old stag-headed oaks are
left, more than one of which mea-
sures upwards of 24 ft. in circimi-



88



Route 8 A. — U^pper Clyde ; Craignetlian.



Sect. I.



ference. Here, too, is a lierd of the
wild cattle, identical with the breed
still preserved at Chillingham, in
Northumberland. They are per-
fectly white, except that the muzzle
and tips of the ears are brown ; they
are very handsome. Sir Walter
Scott alludes to them in his ballad
of '* Cadzow Castle : " —

" Through the huge oaks of Avondale,
Whose limbs a thousand years have
worn,
What sullen roar comes down the gale,
And drowns the hunter's pealing horn ?

" Mightiest of all the beasts of chase
That roam in woody Caledon,
Crushing the forest in his race.
The mountain bull comes thundering



An order from the Duke's factor,
which Mr. Spalding, landlord of the
Commercial, will obtain, is required
to admit to Chatelherault.

c. Bothwell Castle is 1\ m. from
Hamilton ; the road passes over
Bothwell Brig (1 m.) (see above).

d. Country Seats near Hamilton —
Dalziel House (J. Hamilton, Esq.),

enlarged, with gardens laid out
from Mr. Ruskin's designs.

Caldertvood Castle (Sir Wm. ]\Iax-
well), beautiful walks in the grounds.

To the Falls of the Clyde at Lanark
is a drive of 14^: m., very pleasant.
Craignethan may be visited on the
way (see below).

Hamilton was the birthplace of
the eminent physician Dr. Cullen.]



Hamilton to Lanark and the Falls
of the Clyde.

\i\ m. Coach or omnibus daily.

The middle Clyde valley between
these two towns possesses consider-
able beauty, spite of the inroads of
coal-mines and ironworks. The
railways on either side (Rte. 8) run



quite out of sight of this scenery,
and the high road must be resorted
to by those who wish to enjoy the
scenery of Clydesdale. It is ' a
pleasant drive of Ig hr. in a wag-
gonette. Craignethan Castle may
be visited by a detour of 1 m.
Stonebyres Fall is at the roadside,
and the valley of the Mouse and Cart-
land Crags will absorb an hour.

On quitting Hamilton the river
Avon is crossed a little below the
quaint terraced gardens of Barn-
cluith. Higher up the Avon are
the ruins of Cadzow Castle, described
above.

Numerous coalpits rise on either
side of the road, and in the distance
the smoke-clouds by day, and the
palpitating glare at night, proclaim
the activity of various iron -furnaces.
The road approaches the Clyde
near to Cambusnethan House (J. S.
Lockhart, Esq.), a modern Gothic
edifice on the right bank of the river.
Above this the Clyde assumes a
character of great beauty, richly
wooded, abounding in orchards, to
be seen in the splendour of full
bloom in the month of June. At
Garrion Bridge the road from Edin-
burgh to Ayr crosses the Clyde, which
is traversed by several private bridges
leading to gentlemen's seats on the
right bank, as to Maiddslie Castle
(Jas. Hozier, Esq.), a stately mansion
designed by Adam (down to 1817 the
estate belonged to the Earls of Hynd-
ford) ; and Milton Lockhart (Rev.
Laurence Lockhart, D.D.), a modern
Gothic house designed by Burn, on
one of the most picturesque spots
in Clydesdale, on a ridge between
Jock's Gill, and the Clyde.

At the hamlet of Nethan-foot the
Nethan is crossed. 1 m. up this
glen to the right stands Craignethan
Castle, the well-known type of Tillie-
tudlem in Scott's " Old Mortality."
He visited the spot in 1799, and ex-
pressed such rapture with the scenery
that Jjord Douglas offered him the
farm-house for life. The castle was



Lanark. Hamilton to Lanark and the Falls of Clyde.



89



a fortified manor-house of the great
Evandale branch of the Hamilton
family, but is now reduced to two
towers, portions of the walls, and of
a stone vaulted hall, but its situation,
embowered in foliage, overlooking
the Nethan and defended by a
ditch, is highly picturesque. The
enthusiast may discover the Avindow
out of which the hot broth was
soused over Cuddy Headrigg by
Jenny. 3 m. higher up the Nethan
is crossed by a magnificent viaduct
of the Lesmahagow Rly.



On the right bank of the Clyde
(14 m.) is Hallbar Tower, a square
peel 52 ft. high, and the house of
Carfin.

About 3 ra. from Lanark, a gate at
the roadside leads through a wood
to Stonehjres Fall. The witch of
the Fall is on the spot to guide you,
but is scarce needed. The best
view of the entire Fall, which is 48 ft.
high, is obtained by descending the
stream h. about 100 yds. Higher
up are some rough natural steps in
the bank, called " Jacob's Ladder,"
from which a nearer view is obtained,
but only of part of the Falls, as the
river-bed makes a bend, and is much
shrouded by foliage. Stonebyres
House (Sir Wm. Scott of Ancrum) is
in part as old as the 15th cent.

Kirkfieldbank and Clyde ville, vil-
occupied by weavers, are
passed close to the old Bridge of 3
arches, and a steep ascent leads up
to Lanark ; but a little below the
bridge the Mouse water enters the
Clyde (right bank) out of a remark-
able defile, called, on account of its
precipitous sides, Cartland Crags.
They are from 200 to 400 ft. high ;
the chasm is about f m. long. Near
its upper end it is crossed by one of
Telford's elegant Bridges of 3
arches, on piers 120 ft. above the
water. A low bridge crosses near
[Scotlarid. ]



its mouth close to a very old nar-
row Bridge said to be Roman, and
by this the pedestrian may gain
access to the glen. Castle Quha, a
fragment of w\all connected with
caves in the cliff, is said to have
been Wallace's stronghold when he
made his first raid upon the Eng-
lish. A loop-road, crossing the Clyde
lower down, and over Talford Bridge,
from which you look down into
Mouse glen, leads into Lanark.

Lanark {Inns : Clydesdale, Com-
mercial, Black Bull — none very good),
an uninteresting town (5100 in-
hab.), on a cold upland nearly 700
ft. above the sea-level. Little evi-
dence now exists of the antiquity of
which it boasts. In a central
market-place, from which five streets
diverge, stands an ungainl}'" Parish
Church (date 1777), indented in its
front with a niche to contain a huge
statue of the patriot "Wm. Wallace,
who commenced his exploits of arms
here, 1297, by overpowering the
English garrison and slaying their
leader, Wm. Haselrigg, in revenge,
it is alleged, for the murder of Wal-
lace's wife. The whole story of
Wallace verges on the mythical, and
the chief authority for it is the
verses of Blind Harry the minstrel,
who lived 200 years after the events
of which he is the principal if not
the only recorder. N ot far from the
rly. station is a Gothic Rom. Cath.
Church. Beyond it, in the Parish
Burial-Ground, several pointed
arches are preserved of the old
Parish Ch. of St. Kentigem.

The Falls of the Clyde (Bonnington
and Corra Linns) may be seen by
tickets, given to strangers by the
factor of Sir Charles Ross, Bart. It
takes 2 or 3 hrs. to see them. The
road down to the Clyde is carried in
zigzags through the settlement of
New Lanark, founded in 1784 by
David Dale, and his son-in-law, the
visionary socialist, Robert Owen,
now the property of a Manchester
e2



90



Route 9. — Carlisle to Glasgow.



Sect. I.



firm. It is a street of mills and tall
houses on the riorht bank of the



Clyde (pop. 1200).



m. farther



the Lodge of Bonnington House (2 m.
from Lanark), where tickets are
given up, and a guide must be taken.
Carriages wait here. (N.B. — There
is a more direct footway hither,
leaving New Lanark on right.)

It is a very pleasant walk from the
Lodge to the Falls of 1^ m. through
the well-wooded grounds of Sir C.
Ross, Bart. , along the right bank of
the Clyde, here bordered by cliff and
rock alternating with fine hanging
woods. About h m. from the lodge a
view is obtained of Cora Linn, the
finest of the Falls, descending 86 ft.,
and visible in its full extent from the
jjath. It exceeds any fall in Britain
in the body of water.

The mansion of Corehouse (once
seat of the Scotch Judge Cranstoun,
Lord Corehouse, now of Cun-
ningham, Esq.) stands on the left
bank a little below the Falls, while
above it the old tower of Core-
house overhangs the verge of the
cliff. Listen to Wordsworth —

" Lord of the vale, astounding flood,
The dullest leaf in this thick wood

Quakes, conscious of thy power ;
The caves reply with hollow moan,
And vibrates to its central stone

Ton time-cemented tower."

About I m. farther on, we come to
Bonnington Linn, the uppermost
of the three Falls. The banks of the
Clyde have here risen into high
cliffs, and a bend in the channel
causes it to sweep round a sharp
turn dividing into two branches.
Between them is left a rocky island,
to which a light iron bridge gives
access, and takes you into the midst
of the Fall The height is not much
more than 30 ft. but the .suri'ounding
rocks add picturesque effect.

The Fcdl of Stonehyres is about 3
m. below Lanark, close to the road
to Hamilton (see above). The ra-
vine of the Mouse river by the Cart-
land Crags, also below Lanark, de-



serves a visit, and requires some one
to show the way (see above).

From Lanark the geologist may
visit Lesmahagotv (5 m.), where, in
the black slabs of the Silurian rock,
many remarkable fossils (crustacese)
have been discovered — Pteregotus,
Sylonurus, etc. The village of Les-
mahagow (from Machute or Mahego,
a Culdee saint), also called Abbey
Green (pop. 1800), stands on the
Nethan Water [Inn : Commercial).



EOUTE 9.

Carlisle to Glasgow, by Annan,
Dumfries, Sanquhar, Kilmar-
nock, and Dairy Junction.

125;m., 3 trains daily in 5g hrs.,
by the Glasgow and South-Western
Kailway, which, with its branches to
Ayr, Girvan, Dalmellington, Bridge
of Weir, and Muirkirk, is upwards
of 200 miles in length.

The Eden is crossed a little below
Carlisle. The flat land passed by
the rly. was once part of Solway
Moss.

The Sark river, the boundary be-
tween England and Scotland, is
crossed to

Gretna Junction, where our
line turns off to the left from the
Caledonian Rly. to Lockerbie, Moffat,
and Carstairs Junct. (Rte. 5).

Gretna Green, or Springfield, was in
former times the haven of runaway
couples from England, who spurred
with the utmost' speed attainable by
four horses to reach the happy spot
where the self-styled priest was in
waiting to forge the bonds of matri-
mony. These marriages occasioned
by the difference in the law of Eng-
land and Scotland were first cele-
brated, 1760, by a man named
Paisley, a tobacconist, who died at
a great age in 1814. They have
been suppressed by Act of Parlia-



S. Scotland.



Pioute 9. — Ruthwell.



91



ment since 1856. Branch Ely. to
Longtown and the Waverley Rte. 1.
12 m. the rly. crosses the Kirtle
"Water, a tributary of the Esk, with
the estuary of wliich it runs parallel
through a somewhat dreary country
to

14 m. Dornock Stat, and
18 m. Annan Junct. Stat. {Inn :
Queensberry Arms), a neat little
town (3170 inhab.), Avith some
industries of cotton-spinning and
haudloom weaving. In 1334, after
the death of King Eobert, Edward
Balliol, having been crowned at
Scone, summoned the barons hither
to swear fealty to him. He was
surprised by Archibald Douglas and
1000 cavalry, and barely escaped to
Carlisle on horseback, without saddle,
bridle, or a single attendant. Annan
was the birthplace of the Rev.
Edward Irving in 1792, and the
scene of his deposition from the
Scotch Church by the presbytery
of Annan in 1833, on account of the
heretical opinions that he held.
Hugh Clapperton, the African tra-
veller, was also a native of Annan.
The river Annan, on the left bank of
which the town is situated, falls into
the Solway Firth about 2 m. below.
A Eaihvay is carried from Annan S.,
across the Solway, b}^ Brayton to
Maryport and Carlisle. It does not
yet join the Carlisle line, and the
Stat, is I m. from Annan.

The Annan is crossed, and the
scenery improves as the rly. reaches

21 m. Cummertrees Stat., the
pretty village situated on the small
stream of the Pow "Water. About 1
m. right is Kinmont House, the fine
seat of the Marquis of Queensberry,
and 34 m. to the K. is Hodclam
Castle ("W. J. Sharpe, Esq.), and the
Tower of Repentance. (Rte. 5.)

25 m. Ruthwell Stat., 2 m. S.
in the Manse garden of Rutli-
w^ell is a remarkable sculptured
stone Cross, inscribed with lines said



to be from a poem in Anglo-Saxon
characters, of the probable date of
the 7th or 8th century. It is con-
sidered the most important Runic
monument in Britain. 2 sides are
occupied with Runic, the others
have a Latin inscription. According
to Professor Stephens, the subjects
of the sculpture are a hind with a
branch, St. John the Baptist with
the Agnus Dei, our Lord with right
hand uplifted in act of benediction,
the sacred scroll in his left, and
treading on two swine, referring to
the miracle of the possessed swine,
and emblematical of his triumph
over unclean things. The legend
running round the subject is as
follows : —

IHS XPS lYDEX AEQVITATIS BESTIAE

ET DRACONES
COGNOVERUNT IN DESERTO SALVATO-

REM MUXDI.

In addition to these there are figures
of St. Paul and St. Anthony break-
ing bread in the Desert ; the An-
nunciation ; the Visitation ; Mary
Magdalen washing our Lord's feet ;
the healing of the man born blind ;
and a Crucifixion, this last all but
entirely defaced, eviilently when the
cross was thrown down. Pennant
relates that this stone was broken by
an order of the General Assembly in
1644, under the pretence of its being
an object of superstition with the
vulgar, but the fragments were put
together again, 1802, by Dr. Duncan.
In the churchyard is the tomb of
Mr. Young, a minister in James
YI.'s time, who died, leaving 31
children, all by one wife.

Rather more than a mile to the
"W. is the tower of Comlongon Castle,
on the edge of an extensive wood.
It was once the residence of the
Murrays, Earls of Mansfield, and for
some time of the Wardens of the
"Western Marches.

The line now trends inland through
a moorland district, skirting Lochar



92



Route 9. — Carlisle to Glasgoiv ; Dtimfries. Sect. I.



Moss, wliich is 10 m. in length, and
passing the little Puicl's stat., 29| m.
(5 m. S. is Caerlaverock Castle),reaehes



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