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33 m. Dumfries Junct. Stat.
{Inns : Queensberry ; King's Arms ;
Commercial ; post-horses and wag-
gonettes. The want of a good clean
Inn is much felt here. Eefreshment-
room at station). Dumfries, a Royal
and Pari, burgh, the metropolis of
the S.W. border counties, addressed
by Burns as —

" Maggie, by the banks o' Nith,
A dame wi' pride eiieuch. "

Pop. 15,435. It is well situated on
rising ground on the left bank of
the Nith, about 9 m. from its mouth.
The old castle, of which not a vestige
remains, was built by Edward L,
and stood on the spot now occupied
by the new Grcyfriars Church, a
handsome red building with a tall
spire, standing at the upper end of
the main street, or Market-place, in
the middle of which rises the pictur-
esque tower of the Toicnhall or Mid-
steejjh. S. and W. of the fortress
stood the monastery of the Greyfriars,
in the old ch. of which Robert Bruce,
flying from the Court of Edwd. I.,
encountered the Red Comyn, and
finding him loyal to the English, got
to high words, drew his dagger, and
stabbed him before the altar. Rush-
ing from the scene of blood and
sacrilege ; and meeting his partisan,
Roger Kirkpatrick, he said, ' ' I doubt
I have slain Comyn. " " You doubt ? "
said Kirkpatrick, "I'll mak sikar"
(make sure), and went in and
finished him.

" Kirkpatrick's bloody dirk
Making sure of murder's work."— .S'coW.

The next act of the murderers was
to expel the English judges, then
sitting in the town. Edward I.
swore by "the Vow of the Swan"
to avenge on Scotland the murder of
Comyn, and proceeded to reconquer
the country, though aged 67, being
carried in a litter.



A neat Doric pillar is erected in
Queensberry-square to the third Duke
of Queensberry. On Prince Charles's
return from Derby, in 1745, he oc-
cupied Dumfries, and his council-
chamber is still shown in the Com-
mercial Inn. He levied a tax on
the inhabitants of £2000 in money,
and 1000 pair of shoes, but a false
alarm of the Duke of Cumberland's
approach started him off at short
notice, having received only £1100
of the levy.

The old bridge, connecting the
town with the suburb of ]\Iaxwell-
town, on the right bank of the Nith,
was built by Devorgilla,, wife of
John Balliol, and founder of the
Greyfriars monastery, in the reign of
Alexander III. At that time it had
13 arches, 6 only of which are now
standing. In 1795 the new bridge
was built, and the traffic over the
old one is that of foot passengers
only.

Bitrns's House is in Burns-st., a
narrow lane on left as you go to St.
Michael's Ch. In this he lived for
3 years, and in this he died on July
21, 1796. It was afterwards rented
by his widow, who survived him for
38 years. It is now occupied by the
master of the Industrial School, who
is kind enough to allow any stranger
to see it, and keeps the rooms as
much as possible in the same state
as they were when inhabited by the
poet. In December 1791, when
Robert Burns gave up his farm at
Ellisland, and became an exciseman,
lie lived for 18 months in a house at
the bottom of Bank-street.

Burns was first buried in the N.
corner of St. Michael's burying-
ground, but as there was no room
there for the erection of the monu-
ment which was afterwards deter-
mined on, the body was removed to
the E. corner on 19th September,
1815. The Mausoleum is a mean
Grecian temple, which contains a



Dumfries. Pwute 9. — Dumfries ; Lincluden Ahbei/.



93



poor sculpture by Turnarelli, repre-
senting the genius of Coila finding
her favourite son at the plough, and
casting her inspiring mantle over
him ! ! The open temple was utterly
unsuited to the climate, and so the
intervals between tlie pillars have
been filled with glass. The church-
3'ard of St. Michael's is remarkable
for the number of monuments and
tombstones, altogether amounting to
more than 2600. Near Burns's
mausoleum, marked by a granite
ol^elisk, lie two Covenanters who
sutiered death 1667.

Sir John Kichardson, the Arctic
voyager, and companion of Franklin,
was born at Nith-place, Dumfries, in
1787.

The Town CouTwil-cliainher con-
tains portraits of William of Orange
and Mary, also of the third Duke of
Queensberry. There is still preserved
amongst the civic treasures the silver
gun presented by James VI., for the
purpose of encouraging the use of
firearms amongst the inhabitants of
the town.

" The large building on the left
bank of Nith, a little below the
town, is the Crichton Institution, a
lunatic asylum, founded by Dr. C. of
Friars Carse, at a cost of i'100,000.

Dumfries is celebrated as a mart
of sheep, bred in the adjacent dis-
tricts, and brought hither for sale or
exportation to England. It has a
considerable manufacture of tweeds
and woollens, the Nithsdale and
Kingholm mills, below the Bridge,
employing a large number of hands.

[Steamer to Silloth.

Railivays — to Lochmaben and
Lockerbie Stat, on the rail, to Glas-
gow and Edinburgh (Rte. 5) ; to
Stranraer, by Castle-Douglas and
Newton-Stewart (Rte. 10) ; to Annan
and Carlisle ; to Annan and Mary-
port.

Distances. — Castle-Douglas, 20
m. ; Carlisle, 33; Annan, 15; Glas-
gow, 92.



Excursions. — a. up Nithsdale to
Lincluden Abbey, 1| m.

h. Caerlaverock Castle, 8 m.
c. New Abbey, 7 m.

a. To Lincluden Abbey (1^ m.),
cross the bridge to Maxwelltown, and
take the first turn to the right. It
was built in the 12th cent, by Uthred,
Lord of Galloway, as a convent for
Benedictine nuns, but about the
close of the 14th it was closed by
Archibald the Grim, Earl of Both-
well, on account of the immorality
of its inmates, and converted into a
college and ch. for a provost and 12
beadsmen. It seems pretty certain,
at the same time, that the good earl
by so doing "did greatly increase
his revenues and largely extend his
domains."

The buildings are very prettily
situated on a promontory, surrounded
on two sides by the Cluden, and on
the third by the Nith, into which the
former river flows at the S.E. angle of
the grounds. It is a small but beauti-
ful Cliurch, in the second Pointed
style, of which tlie nave is quite
gone. The chancel, walled otf by a
screen, is entered by a flat arch, sur-
mounted by sculptures of the Life of
Christ, supported by a row of angels.
Part of the transepts are also pre-
served. The tracery of the windows
is much mutilated. There is a hand-
some canopied monument on the N.
side, with inscription, to Margaret
Countess of Douglas, daughter of
King Robert III. (d. circ. 1430).
In Pennant's time the effigy was
still there, though mutilated, but it
has long since disappeared. Close by
the tomb is an archway, beautifully
carved and surmounted by the heart
and chalice. On the opposite side are
three fine sedilia, each with a canopy
and crocket, and cusps in the in-
terior.

Beside the ch. are the ruins of a
massive square Peel Tower, probably
a part of the Provost's house. Lin-
cluden was a favourite haunt of



94



Route 9. — Carlisle to Glasgoiv ; Caerlaverock Sect. I.



Burns, and here it was that he saw
the " Vision."

" The stream adown its hazelly path,
Was rushing by the ruined wa's,
Hasting to join the sweeping Nith,
Whose distant roaring swells and fa's."

The abbey stands within ancient
Earthworks, and at the side of the ch.
rises a mound or Moot-hill.

The retuni to Dumfries may be
by the river-side, 9, very picturesque
walk, — that is, should the tourist not
feel inclined to extend his ramble up
the Cluden Water to Irongray Ch.,
3 m. from Lincluden, where, on a
shaded little knoll, in the middle of
a field, is the grave of two Covenant-
ers, named Gordon and M'Cubbin.
Upon the tombstone are the follow-
ing lines : —

" By Lagg and Bloodie Bruce commands
We were hung up by hellish hands ;
And so, their furious wrath to stay.
We died near Kirlv of Irongray ;
And boundless peace we now partake.
For freedom's and religion's sake. "

See also the tomb of Helen Walker,
the original of Jeanie Deans, put up
by Sir Walter Scott, with an inscrip-
tion written by him. Irongray is
the scene of the " Eecreations of a
Country Parson."

The "hilly road to the S. may be
taken to Dumfries, passing Terregles
House, the property of the Maxwells,
once Earls of Nithsdale. It is a
handsome modern mansion. In a
former mansion Queen Mary found
rest and refuge for a few days after
her flight of 4 score and 10 miles from
the fight of Langside, 1568. From
hence she wended her way to Eng-
land. Among the family portraits
is one of the Countess of N. who so
heroically rescued her husband from
the Tower by taking his place, 1716.

b. Caerlaverock Castle stamls about
9 m. to the S. of Dumfries, on the
flat marshy shore of the Solway, be-
tween the rivers Nith and Lochar, and
was a place of great strength, flanked



by the Solway in front, and by Lochar
Moss behind, so as to be virtually
the key to S.W. Scotland. The
road thither keeps the left side
of the Kith, passing Castle Dykes
(R. Scott, Esq.), and the Crichton
Institution. A road on right leads
to Kingholm Quay, and on left to
Maiden Boicer Crags, a series of rocks
through which an opening has to be
passed, so narrow, that it requires a
person of thin proportions to enter.

6 m. on right H m. is Glencaple,
a port and bathing-place frequented
by the Dumfries folk — the Portan-
ferry of ' ' Guy Mannering. "

9 m. 'Caerlaverock Castle, a very
interesting and picturesque building,
well suited for the pencil of the
sketcher, is situated near the sea-
shore, at a spot identified by anti-
quaries as the Carbantorigium of
Ptolemy. As far back as the days of
Malcolm Canmore it belonged to the
Maxwells, long time Earls of Niths-
dale, ancestors of its present proprie-
tors. It was besieged and taken in
1300 by Edward I. in person, though
bravely defended for two days against
an army furnished with all the war
engines then known, by a garrison of
only 60 men. A minute account of
the siege exists in Norman French.*
It was afterwards retaken by Bruce
in 1313, to be again recaptured by
the English. Not until 1355 was it
recaptured from the English by Poger
Kirkpatrick. A large part of the
exterior of the castle dates from the
14th centy. Within its walls died
James V., 1542, just after the defeat
of Solway Moss. It was dismantled
in revenge for the part Lord Herries
had taken in defending Queen Mary.
The interior was rebuilt by Maxwell,
1st Earl of Nithsdale, 1638, after its
demolition by the Earl of Essex, 1570,
The last occasion on which war ap-
proached its walls was in 1640, when
it was besieged by the Covenanters

* Supposed to be the work of Walter of
Exeter, a Franciscan friar. Edited and
published by i5ir Harris Nicolas.



S. Scotland. Route 9. — New, or Sweetheart Abhey.



95



under Col. Home, and capitulated
after 13 weeks.

The castle, in ground plan a tri-
angle, with round towers at the
angles, is well built, and protected
by water. " It had good walls and
good ditches, tilled to the edge with
water, and I believe there never was
seen a castle so beautifully situ-
ated, for at once could be seen
the Irish Sea towards the W.,
and to the N. a fine country, sur-
rounded by an arm of the sea, so
that no creature born could approach
it on two sides without putting him-
self in danger of the sea."— Nicolas.
The gi-eat gateway, over which is the
crest of the Maxwells, and the motto
" I bid ye fair," pierces a narrow
curtain between machicolated round
towers of old baronial architecture,
and one of the round towers at the
angles of the triangle still remains,
and shows evidence of three storeys.
It is called Murdoch's Tower, be-
cause Murdoch, Duke of Albany, was
confined there, by order of James I.,
previous to his execution at Stirling,
1424. " The buildings in the court-
yard have the canopied and sculp-
tured window-cases of the domestic
architecture of James YL, and re-
mind one of Linlithgow Palace and
Heriot's Hospital." On the lower
storey are heraldic devices, the stag,
hedgehog, etc. ; on the second are illus-
trated legends, and on the third are
fables from the "Metamorphoses" of
Ovid. The great hall, 90 ft. long by
26 broad, had originally two turrets.
Sir Walter Scott, in "Guy Man-
nering," acknowledges that the gene-
ral outline of his description of
Ellangowan resembled Caerlaverock.
" The massive and picturesque effect
of the huge round towers flanking
the gateway, give a double portion
of depth and majesty to the high yet
gloomy arch under which it opened.
The rude magnificence of the inner
court amply responded to the gran-
deur of the exterior. On one side
ran a range of windows, lofty and



large, which had once lighted the
great hall, on the other were various
buildings, of different heights and
dates. The doors and windows were
ornamented with projections offering
rude specimens of sculpture. . . .
The end of the court which faced
the entrance had formerly been closed
by a range of buildings, but owing,
it is said, to its having been battered
by the ships of the Parliament under
Deane, this part of the castle was
much more ruinous than the rest."

In Caerlaverock ch. -yd. is a monu-
ment to Old Mortality, set up
by Messrs. A. and C. Black, pub-
lishers.

c. To Ne2v, or Sivcetheart Ahhcy,
7^ m. Travellers not pressed for
time, and desirous of seeing a part
of Scotland seldom explored, but full
of beauty, are recommended to take
the road from Dumfries to Dalbeat-
tie Stat., round Criffel, and near the
sea, by Carsphaim and Kirkbean,
an easy day's drive, as follows : —
The road crosses Dumfries bridge,
and descends the valley of the Nith,
at some distance from the river.

3^ m. is Cargen (P. Dudgeon, Esq. )

5| m. From Whinnyhill is a beauti-
ful view of Dumfries, with the valley
of the Nith, its luxuriant cornfields
pleasantly varied by plantations.
Kirkconnell is a fine ancient mansion,
surrounded by old trees (W. H.
Witham, Esq.) On right rises the
bulky mass of Criffel, 1867 ft. above
the sea, at the foot of which, in a
most picturesque secluded valley,
watered by the Abbey stream, 'is
the Cistercian ruin of New Abbey.
It was founded in 1275 by Devorgilla
Balliol, one of the founders of Balliol
College, Oxford, who was herself
buried here, and ordered the casket
containing the heart of John Balliol,
her husband (which she had treasured
after his death in a casket, and borne
in her bosom), to be placed in her
tomb. Erom this circumstance the
abbey obtained the name of Douce



96



Route 9. — Carlisle to Glasgoiv.



Sect. I.



Coeur, Dulce Cor, or Sweetheart
Abbe3\ The Church is cruciform,
consisting of nave, of 6 bays, with
all the main arches perfect, and part
of the clerestory, transepts having E.
aisles or chapels, one retaining its
vaulting choir without aisles, and
central tower, 90 ft. high, resting on
4 arches. The style is, generally
speaking, E. Pointed, though the
building appears to have been finish-
ed, or perhaps altered, in the Deco-
rated period. The W. entrance is of
very simple character, but above it
is a triplet window surmounted by
an elegant rose within a triangle.
There is a fine Dec. window in the
N. transept.

The E. window (Dec.) is of 5
lights, and its tracery remains ; and
is surmounted by a window similar
to the one in the transept. The S.
transept wall, partly built up, retains
part of a wheel window of original
character. Of the roof nothing re-
mains, except that of the aisle of the
S. transept, which is groined, and,
at the intersections, has a shield.
Upon one of these are two crosiers
en saltier, surrounded by a heart,
probably the coat of arms belonging
to the abbey. There is also an in-
scription, " Clius tim of nid " (choose
time of need) — a sort of punning
motto adopted by this fraternity of
Nithside. The abbey seems to have
figured but little in history. Its last
abbot, Gilbert Brown, is said to have
been the original of Scott's Abbot of
St. Mary's.

The Abbey ruins stand close to
the large village of New Abbey, in-
cluding 2 humble hostels and a mill.
An ugly kirk has been planted close
to the ruin, obstructing the view of
it. The route may be varied on the
return to Dumfries by proceeding up
the valley ■)! the Abbey Water to its
source in Loch Arthur, and joining
the rly. at Killywhan Stat., about
5 m.

In pursuing the road to Dalbeattie
the driver should be directed to follow



the road under CrifFel, which is a very
picturesque object from all points,
by Kirkbean, and by the shore road
through Colvend. The country is
beautifully wooded, the road almost
an avenue, at other times a sort of
cornice along the seashore, with con-
stant variety of views — seaward over
Solway to the Cumberland moun-
tains, and landwards towards Criffel,
and up a succession of pretty glens.
It ascends the small valley of the
Urr, passing granite quarries to
Dalbeattie Stat. Eoute 10.]



From Dumfries the Rail to Glas-
goio runs N. E. up the valley of the
Nith, which in this, its lower portion,
is broad and well cultivated, to

36|- m. Holyivood Stat., where
formerly a Premonstratensian abbey,
founded by Devorgilla Balliol, stood.
The last remains were taken down in
1778, and the parish ch. built of the
materials. The old bells are still
preserved.

Crossing the Nith, on right is
Dalswinton, the seat of W. M'Alpine
Leny, Esq. This estate formerly
belonged to the Millers : Patrick
Miller was the first to experiment,
1788, upon steam as a locomotive
power, in water, in a little ves.sel
launched on the lake, which still
forms the chief ornament of the park.

On the opposite bank of the river
is Ellisland, the farm which Burns
rented of Mr. Miller of Dalswinton,
where he resided previous to his
taking up his abode in Dumfries.
Here lie wrote his ' ' Tam O'Shanter,"
and his touching verses, ' ' To Mary
in Heaven." On a window in the
house may still be seen, scratched
by Burns upon the glass, " An honest
man's the noblest work of God." A
road from Holywood Stat, leads
direct to Ellisland. A little farther
is Friar's Carse, a house once be-



DUM JURIES.



Route 9. — Thornhill ; Drumlanrig.



97



longing to the Eiddells, where the
poet spent much of his time. Over-
looking the river, close to it, is a
camp and stone circle.

404^ m. at AuIdgWth Stat.^ close to
a handsome bridge over the Nith —
perhaps the prettiest spot in its
whole course ; the valley begins to
contract, and the hills to be more
lofty, the scenery broken. At this
point the Permian sandstones, which
have formed the bottom of the valley
of the Xith to the sea upwards, cease.
The hills on either side of it are of
Lower Silurian rock. The river here
winds through a defile in the Silurian

rocks. On 1. is Blackwood (

Copland, Esq.) The rly. next
ascends, and keeps the high gi'ound
ovei'looking the river, and occasion-
ally getting charming peeps into
Nithsdale, to

44| m. Closeburn Stat. A little
beyond it, on right, is Closehurn
Hall, the fine seat of the Misses
Baird, formerly of Sir J. Stuart J\Ien-
teith. Here the hills again retire,
and another basin of Permian and car-
boniferous strata fills up the widened
valley of the Nith. Among the hills
behind the house is Crickhope Linn,
where a small stream jumps down
from the moorlands, saws its way into
the soft (Permian) sandstone, and in
escaping to the plain has shaped out a
cave or chapel. The cliffs rise 40 or 50
ft. above the stream, yet so little se-
parated that it is easy to leap across
the fissure. Of this fact Sir Walter
Scott, who knew the spot and had it
"ever present to his fancy," has
taken advantage in the scene in
"Old Mortality," between Morton
and Balfour. The fall is half-a-mile
higher up.

Closebuim Castle, Avhich is in the
grounds of the hall, is an old seat of
the Kirkpatrick family, from whom
Eugenie, Empress of the French, de-
rives her Scotch descent. It is a
square tower, with vaulted rooms.
To right of the station is the Wallace

[Scotland.'l



School, founded by a Glasgow mer-
chant of that name.

48 m. Thornhill Stat, the town
is about a mile to the left. {Inns .-
Buccleuch Arms ; George. ) Thorn-
hill is a neat, well-built, little town,
having in the centre a cross, sur-
mounted by the Queensberry Arms.
The naturalist should obtain per-
mission to see the collection of Dr.
Grierson, in which the geology of
Xithsdale is exemplified. [Thorn-
hill is the Stat, for Drumlanrig (4
m. ), the seat of the Duke of Buc-
cleuch ; for, although Carron Bridge
is in reality considerably nearer,
there is no bridge there to cross the
Nith. The situation of the castle,
as seen from the rly. , is so high and
open as to overlook the tall woods
and undulating hills, and commands
a view over terraced gardens tapest-
ried with flowers, down to the
brawling Nith and its wooded banks
beyond. The park Avas devastated

by its former owner, old Q , but,

since 1811, when it came to the Buc-
cleuch family, is once more restored,
and boasts of noble forest scenery.
The castle was built 1675-1688 by
William, first Duke of Queensberry,
minister of James II. It is a quad-
rangular building of red stone. It
has the character of a stately chateau,
somewhat like Heriot's Hospital, re-
taining parts of an old castle, includ-
ing a grim dungeon, now a wine-cellar.
The interior can be seen Tuesday
and Friday, or in the absence of the
family. The paintings are chiefly
family portraits. In the park, nearly
opposite Carron Bridge, there is a
ruin called Tihher''s Castle, which
was destroyed by Bruce in 1311.
It is thought to have been Roman
(? Tiberii Castel). In the Church of
Durisdeer are the sculptured monu-
ments in marble of the Queensberry
family, including James Douglas,
2d Duke, and his Lady, d. 1711.]

[On the return to Thornhill the
antiquary may diverge to visit some



98



Route 9. — CarUsIe to Glasgoiv ; Sanquhar. Sect. I.



sculptured upright stones, probably
of the date of the 11th cent, between
it and Penpont. This is a pretty
Tillage on the Shinnel Water, which
falls near here into the Nith. It
rises in the elevated chain of hills
between Thornhill and Dalmelling-
ton. On the S. bank, a little higher
up than Penpont, is Capernoch, the
seat of T. S. Gladstone, Esq. It is
a picturesque road hence all the Avay
to Tynron, and the quiet out-of-the-
way town of Moniaive or Minnie-
hive.]

About 4 m. from Minniehive, on
the Dumfries road, is Maxwellton,
seat of F. Laurie, Esq., the locale of
the favourite song of "Annie Laurie,"
commencing with

"Maxwelltou braes are bonnie."

Annie was one of the daughters of
Sir Robert Laurie, and married
Fergusson of Craigdarroch. The
song was composed by a disappointed
lover.

The valley of the Cairn is rich
in tombs and memorials of the
Covenanters. One stands in the
garden of a farmhouse at Ingleston,
near Minniehive, and another in a
field adjoining the Free Church.
Still nearer Dumfries, in a glen run-
ning down to the village of Dunscore,
are the ruins of Lag, the seat of the
once powerful family of Grierson, one
of whom shares with Claverhouse the
reputation of being the persecutor of
the Covenant.

51 m. at Carron Brichfe Stat, the
wooded scenery of the Nith is suc-
ceeded by a wild and rather desolate
moorland, with but few inhabitants.
[From hence it is about 2 m. right
to Morton Castle, said to have been
founded about 1080 by a De Mor-
ville, grandfather of the founder of
Kilwinning and Drj'burgh Abbej^s.
It was afterwards bestowed by Robert
Bruce (being then part of the con-
fiscated property of Palliol) upon
Randolph, Earl of Moray, and here



he lived as Regent of the kingdom
to David II. It then passed into
the hands of the Douglas family, to
whom it gave the title of Earl, and
now belongs to the Duke of Buc-
cleuch. It stands on the margin of
a deep glen, and was at one time
nearly surrounded by water, which
has now drained away. J

At 53 m. the line crosses on a
noble viaduct the Carron Water and
a road, formerly a Roman road, that
traverses the moors to Elvanfoot Stat,
on the Caledonian line. (Rte. 5.)
Passing through a tunnel 4200 feet
long, under the domain of Drumlan-
rig, the rly. still keeps the high
ground on the left bank of the Nith,
having on left

59 m. Eliock (J. Yeitch, Esq.),
where the " Admirable Crichton " is
said to have been born in 1560. (The
Castle of Cluny, Perthshire, also
claims the distinction of being his
birthplace).

The Nith traverses another defile
through Silurian rock,

61 m, Sanquhar {Inn : Queens-



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