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are Venetian views, probably the work
of Bernardo Bdlotto: Baths of Titus,
and Roman Ruins, by Pannini — both
admirable. In the old entrance-hall
are a clock presented by Louis XIV.,
and the torso of a female figure found
in the grounds. Here are the portraits
of Francis, 2nd Earl of Buccleuch,
Dohson ; Lucj'' Waters, and Mary
Scott, "the Flower of Yarrow," by
Ldy. DraAving-room — Duke and
Duchess of Montague, by Gains-
borough, of true and refined concep-
tion ; Duke of Buccleuch, and Eliz-
abeth, Duchess of B., and a Boy
with a Dog, by Sir J. lieynolds; Hen-
rietta Maria, Vandych (?), a portrait
of great delicacy and refinement, but
insipid ; the Jewish Bride, Rem-
brandt (?) — a work of marvellous
power and transparency ; Stag-hunt,
Wouvcrmans ; Six Saints, two ador-
ing the Cross, by Andrea del Sarto;
Landscape, by Claude ; Wooded
Landscape, Ruysdjxcl ; another by
Wynants. Here are also 2 cabinets,
given to the Duke of Monmouth by
Charles II.

In the small dining-room are six
Venetian views by Canaletti ; a view
of Montague House, Whitehall, in
the middle of the 18th century.

The staircase is very handsome,
and the inlaid oaken floor deserves
notice. Duke of Monmouth, mounted;
Sir Nicholas Carew, Master of the
Horse to Henry VIII., by Holbein,
of animated conception and masterly
carrying out.

Dalkeith has had many royal visi-
tors ; Charles I. in 1642 ; George IV.
in 1822 ; and the Queen and the
Prince Consort on their first journey
to Scotland, 1842.

The pleasure-grounds extend for a



considerable distance, and contain
some fine shrubberies, conifers, etc.
The gardens and vineries have a high
repute among horticulturists.]

8 m. From Eskbank Stat., 2 m. left,
is Newbattle, described in Rte. 1.

[Branch Ely. to the village of Lass-
ivade, 14 m., passing near Melville
Castle, the modern seat of Viscount
Melville.

Lassicade, a busy village seated in
a hollow on the banks of the N. Esk,
surrounded by chimneys of carpet
and other factories, and by numerous
villas, is still attractive from its posi-
tion in a deep glen, over whose steep
sides rises the picturesque outline of
the Pentlands. Coaches run several
times a day to Edinburgh, distant
6 m.

Lasswade was the residence in his
later years of Thomas De Quincej'.
He revised the collected edition of
his works shortly before his death,
Dec. 1859. Sir Walter Scott also
passed some of the happiest j'^ears of
his life here soon after he was
married, 1798, in a very small
thatched cottage with garden and
paddock, amidst the dearest haunts
of his boj^hood. Lasswade was the
type of the " Ganderscleugh " of
" Tales of my Landlord."

" Sweet are the paths, oh passing sweet,
B\' Esk's fair streams that run,
O'er airy steeps throngli copsewood deeps.
Impervious to the sun."

Around the ruins of the Norman Ch.
rest the remains of the families of
Melville and Hawthornden, includ-
ing those of Drummond the poet.]

The rly. can be rejoined at 9.2 m.
Bonnyrigg Stat. [There is a public
footpath from Lasswade rip the 1. bank
of the Esk to Roslin, 3 m., passing
on left the house of Hawthornden ;
cross Eskbridge (1 m.) at the Spring-
field paper-mills, and turn to left ;
at 2-2 m. pass on right Wishart's
Monument in Dryden Park. N.B.
— Hawthornden Grounds can be



GOTLAND. Route 13. — Haivthornden J Rosli



127




S. Scotland. Eoute 13. — Hawtliomden ; RosUn.



127



entered only from the lodge, on tlie
high road.j

About 24 m. right of Lasswade is
Burdiehouse, interesting to the geo-
logist as being the locale of the
celebrated freshwater limestone of
the carboniferous group, ably de-
scribed by Dr. Hibbert, and prolific
in estuarine fossils and plants.
Among them will be found Palgeo-
niscus, Megalichthys, Gyracanthus,
and large beds of Cyprides.

\1\ m. Hawthornden Stat. A
short walk brings the visitor to
Hawthornden, the admittance to
which is Is., daily, except Thursday
and Sunday. The house (Sir J. H.
Williains Drummond, Bt. ) is amodern
mansion, grafted on an old fortified
Peel-tower, planted on the very edge
of a red clitf looking down into the
den or glen of the N". Esk, and sur-
rounded by pretty gardens and woods.
Beneath the Castle the rock is pierced
with a number of caves, said to have
been inhabited before the natives
were civilised enough to erect huts.
They have no doubt been used as
hiding-places. Tradition says that
they were once so occupied by Bruce.
The rock, owing to its softness, was
easily hewn out into chambers,
which were inhabited or used for
cellars or prisons. They are fur-
nished with a well, also cut in the
rock. Hawthornden has obtained
its chief reputation from being built
and inhabited by the poet Drum-
mond, born in 1585, The melan-
choly tone of his poems is said to
have arisen from the fact of his be-
trothed dying on the day before that
fixed for the marriage. He was a
great friend of Ben Jonson, who
walked all the way from London to
pay him a visit here.

" Where Jonson sat in Druramond's social
shade."



Visitors having traversed Haw-
thornden grounds, cross the Esk by
a bridge and exeunt through a gate



which opens only from within ;
thence they pursue the X'ath along
the bottom of the fine glen to Koslin
Ig m. — a very pretty walk, though
the Esk is polluted by Penicuik
Paper-mills. It terminates with a
fine view of Roslin Castle and Chapel,
as the visitor emerges from the glen.
A little to the N. of Roslin is the
Moor, where in 1303 the Scotch
army, under the Regent Comyn,
fought 3 battles against 3 divisions
of the English. It was victorious
over 2, and took some prisoners, but
was defeated by the 3d under Sir
Robert Neville.

Roslinlee Stat, is about 1^ m. dis-
tant from the Chapel, and the same
from the village. Roslin Oastlc Stat.
of the Penicuik and Esk Valley Rly.
much nearer. Roslin Stat, of the
Loanhead line close to the village.
Inn : Royal Hotel. Prettily situated
on a height above the deep flowing
N. Esk. Roslin is famous for straw-
berries, which in summer attract as
many visitors perhaps as

Roslin Chapel. It is a common
error to speak of this building as
merely a chapel. From the first it
was designed as a collegiate church,
dedicated to St. Mattliew, with a
provost, 6 prebendaries, and 2 cho-
risters. It was founded 1446, by
William St. Clair, Earl of Roslin and
Orkney, Grand Master of the Masons
of Scotland, but was unfinished on
the death of William, Earl of Caith-
ness, 1484, and was carried on by his
son and successor. It is merely the
choir of a cruciform church, of which
the transept was begun but never
finished. It is well worth while to
walk round the outside, to inspect
the carvings, . flying buttresses, and
pinnacles. The Ch. consists of a
choir of 5 bays with aisles, and the
pier arches are continued behind the
altar so as to form a low Lady Chapel
like that of Glasgow. Two of these
arches support the E. window. The
roof of this retro-choir is vaulted and
groined in 4 bay.sV'and from the ceu-



128



Route 13. — Roslin Chapel.



Sect. I.



tral ribs descend great carved pen-
dants, giving a very rich efl'ect. This
chapel "is certainly imclassable as
a whole, being unlike any other
building in Great Britain of its age ;
but if its details are minutely ex-
amined they will be found to accord
most completely, in the ornamental
work, with the style then prevalent,
though debased by the clumsiness of
the j)arts and their want of proportion
to each other. — Bickinan." The
workmen employed on it by the
founders were foreigners ; and from
a comparison of this work with others
on the Continent it is probable that
the artificers were brought from the
ISr. of Spain. Fergusson ("Architec-
ture," vol. ii.) shows that it resembles
parts of Burgos, while it has the
greatest affinity to the chapel at
Belem in Portugal. Still there is in
parts a considerable clumsiness and
scamj)ing, both in the carving and
construction, that would lead us to
believe that the foreign artificers
left a good deal to incapable pupils.
The chapel owes its beauty entirely
to the profuseness of its decorations,
for the original plan and proportions
are far from pleasing. " It has little
pretensions to S5'mmetry, and its
squat, stumpy outline is a gi'eat con-
trast to the slender grace of ]\Ielrose.
All the beauties of Koslin are super-
induced on the design in the shape
of mouldings and incrustations " —
Billings. The length of the chajiel
internally is only 68 ft., and its
breadth 35. The central aisle is 15
ft. wide, 40 ft. high, and has the
southern peculiarity of a barrel
vault, with only transverse ribs,
just as may be seen in the S. of
France. Upon this stone vault the
roofing slabs are laid, and follow its
curves without intervening timber.
The aisles are roofed with cross-
vaults rising from straight stone
transoms, supported by the piers
and outer walls, and covered with
elaborate bas-reliefs of Scripture sub-
jects rudely carved. Each compart-



ment is difi"ereut in pattern, till the
variety becomes perfectly bewilder-
ing. The niches on a line with the
clerestory were occupied by statues
of the 12 Apostles and the Yirgin.
On one of the transoms across the
aisle are represented the 7 Deadly
Sins, and on the opposite side are the
Cardinal Virtues. The mouldings on
the arch-lintels, behind the altar,
pourtray the Angelic choir playing
on various instruments, and include
an angel performing on the bagpipes,
the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, etc.
At the E. end of the S. aisle is the
^Prentice pillar, ornamented with a
spiral festoon of flowers and foliage
more elaborately carved than the
rest. It received its name from a
story (not uncommon) that the 'pren-
tice executed it while the master
had gone to Eome for a pattern, and
was killed on the return of the latter
in a fit of jealousy. The story of the
foundation of the chapel is that Sir
William St. Clair made a rash bet of
his life against the Eoslin property,
that his dogs Help and Hold would
run down a stag before it passed a
certain brook. The stag was already
in the water when the dog, excited
by the desperate cries of its master,
made a tremendous spring, and
pulled it down before it could mount
the opposite bank. William St.
Clair and his dog are represented
together on the tombstone. There
is a legend (not founded in fact) that
the lords of Eoslin were buried in full
armour, and that on the night pre-
ceding the death of any of the family
the cha])el appeared on fire, an illu-
sion which is sujjposed to arise from
the peculiar position of the chapel
admitting the rays of the sun point
blank tlu'ough the windows of both
sides.

" Blazed battlement and turret high,

Blazed every rose-carved buttress fair;
So blaze they still when fate is nigh
The lordlv line of high St. Clair."

IF. Scott's Ballad of " Rosabelle."

Projecting beyond the E. end of



S. ScoTLAA^D. Fioute 13. — Roslin Castle; Penicidk.



129



the chapel, on a lower level, is a
chamber, which the altar and piscina
prove to have been used as a chapel,
while the fireplace and other secular
conveniences show it to have been
fitted up for a vestry.

Since 1862 the Chapel of Roslin
has been fitted up for the service of
the Scottish Ejjiscopal Church, which
is performed here on Sundays at 12^
and 44 P.M.

The Castle oi Roslin, on an insu-
lated mound below the Chapel, and
near the extreme edge of the preci-
pice overhanging the Esk, is reduced
to a mere fragment, and a modem
house occupies the enclosure. There
are 2 storeys left of gloomy arched
rooms, attbrding very little clue as
to the date of its erection. It be-
longed to the St. Clairs, and is pro-
bably of the same age as the chapel.
A bridge and solid wall of masonry
still remaining over a gully formed
the approach to it, and was guarded
by a feudal gateway, of which a
fragment remains. The upper por-
tion was entirely destroyed by the
Earl of Hertford.

The Valley of the Esk, between
Roslin and Penicuik, is extremely
picturesque. Near the village of
Auchendinny are slight remains of
the old castle of Woodlwusclee, once
the property of Hamilton of Both-
wellhaugh. Its being taken from
him, and his wife's sudden expulsion
in the middle of the night, by which
she was rendered a maniac, led to
the murder of the Regent Moray, at
Linlithgow, by the hands of Hamil-
ton. New IFoodhoitselee, residence
of the Tytler family, is 3 m. distant.
•Auchendinny House is the seat of
John Innes, Esq.

Fovmthorn Stat, of the Peebles
Rly. is 1 m. from Penicuik.

15 Td. Penicuik Stat, and Termi-
nus, a prettily situated village [Inn,



Queen's Arms), on the 1. bank of the
North Esk. Here are the largest
Pa2)er Mills in Scotland (Messrs.
Cowan's). 1 m. on rt. is Penicuik
House (SirG. D. Clerk, Bart.), ahand-
some Grecian edifice. The Baron of
Penicuik was bound by his tenure,
when the king came to Edinburgh,
to receive him at the Hare Stone with
3 blasts of his horn. So Scott says :

" Come, Clerk, and give your bugle breath,
Carle, now the king's come."

The motto of the Clerks is " Free for
a blast. " The house has some of the
ceilings painted by Runciman, the
Scotch artist, witji subjects from
Ossian, and contains an interesting
collection of Roman antiquities.
Here is kept the buff coat that
Claverhouse wore at the battle of
Killiecrankie. In the grounds is an
obelisk to the memory of Allan Ram-
say, who is much associated with
this district. At the bend of the
grounds, and higher up the valley of
the Esk, are the ruins of Brunstane
Castle, formerly a stronghold of the
Crichtons.

Z)i5tonccs.— Edinburgh, by rly. 15
m., by road 10 ; Newhall, 3 ;
Peebles, 12.

The Peebles Rly. now runs through
a hilly district to

17| m. Leadburn Junct. Stat.
Branch Railway to Dolphinton.

MaxUe Hill Stat. To the S. of
Coalyburn is Halmyre House, an old
residence of the Gordon family, and
Macbie Hill (Capt. Beresford).

Lanianclia (Stat.) was so called
by the Earl of Dundonald, after
some property he possessed in that
province of Spain. After being long
the residence of the Earl, it was
bought by J. Mackintosh, Esq.

Broomlee Stat. Near this is the
village of JFest Linton, once "a burgh
of regality" and of considerable im-
portance. The masons and sculptors



130 FiOute 13. — Edinburgh to Galashiels ; Peebles. Sect. I.



of Linton were renowned for their
skill in carving tombstones. In the
village is Lculy GifforcVs Well, sur-
mounted by her figure, carved in
1666 by her husband, Laird Gilford,
who was celebrated for his skill in
stonework.

Siy'daUumgh, on the S. of the rly.,
is the handsome modern Gothic
residence of Sir William Fergusson,
the eminent surgeon, Avho has made
a very beautiful place of it. From

Broomlec Stat, the antiquary will
find it to his account to explore the
valley of the Lyne (to the S. ), which
was guarded by numerous forts and
camps, the principal of which, viz.
Whiteside Hill, Bordland Rings,
Drochil Hill, and Henderland, are
in a fair state of preservation. The
latter occupies the summit of an
eminence rising 400 ft. above the bed
of the Lj-ne. At Roinanno, close to
JSFewlands Ch., near which is Bord-
lands (G. Hope, Esq.), is one of
those curious series of terraces similar
to Purvis Hill, near Innerleithen,
rising 14 in number to the height of
250 ft. About 2 m. to the S. of
Dolphinton is Castle Craig, the seat
of Sir W. Gibson -Carmichael, and
Nether Urd (J. White, Esq.), and a
little to the N. is Garvald House
(W. Woddrop, Esq., Dolphinton).

BoljjMntoii (Stat), an incon-sider-
able village at the eastern vslope of
the Pentlands, and on the high road
between Biggar and Edinburgh.

Leaving rt. Leadburn a picturesque
waterfall known as Corric's Linn,
and on left Portmore Loch and the
Moorfoot range of hills, which rise
to 2000 ft. (Whitehope Law, 2038
ft.), the train arrives at

22| m. Ecldlestone Stat., where
there are some forts and tumuli. In
the neighbourhood left are Portmore
•(C. Mackenzie, Esq.), and right
Darnhall, an old house in the French
chateau style, the seat of Lord Eli-
bank. Behind the former is the
camp of Northshicld Rings, of an



oval shape, consisting of three walls
with sunk ditches, the whole mea-
suring 450 by 370 ft.

1 m. S. is MilJceston Rings, the
largest camp in the county, circular,
having a detached rampart on the
slope of the hill below. Between
Eddlestone and Peebles, on the right,
is Cringletie, the seat of J. Wolfe-
Murray, Esq.

At the junction of the Eddlestone
Water with the Tweed is,

27 m. Peebles* Junct. Stat. (Ete.
5a) {Inns : Tontine ; Commercial).
This old county town is agreeably
situated on the left bank of the
Tweed, here crossed by an old bridge,
30 m. from its source and 1000 ft.
below it (Pop. about 2200). The
town being burnt in 1544 by the
Earl of Hertford, the new one was
built on both sides of the river, but
the old town still occupies a position
on the bank of Eddlestone Water.
It has a pretty country round it, a
number of Excursions, and unexcep-
tionable angling ; but it is as dull
and quiet as any place in the king-
dom. It was a favourite residence of
the Scottish monarchs, particularly^
of Alexander III., who built the
Cross Kirk, of which the tower is
still^standing near the Cal. Ely. Stat.
James I. made Peebles Fair the sub-
ject of his poem, " Peblis to the
Play," commencing

" At Beltane, when ilk hndy bounds
To Peebles to the play.
To hear the singing and the sounds
Their solace, sooth to say.

By firth and forest forth they found.
They graithit them full gay ;

God wait that wold they do that stound.
For it was their feast-day. «

Tliey said.

Of Peebles to the play."

The Beltane Fair is still held in
June. St. Andrew's Church Avas



* See the very complete and interesting
" History of Peeblesshire," by Wm. Cham-
bers, 1864.



S. Scotland. Route 13. — Peebles — Neidimth Castle.



131



founded in 1195 ; but Cromwell's
troopers converted it into a stable,
and very little is now left but a
venerable old tower. The old Cross
Ch. is not much better, and consists
only of the shell of the tower, and an
ivy-covered gable. Of the Castle of
Peebles nothing is left, but a small
portion of the town walls may be
seen near the E. port. A conspicu-
ous building is the Chambers Insti-
tute, presented to the town by jMr.
Wm. Chambers of Glenormiston, the
publisher. The building in which
the library is placed dates from the
16th centy., and once formed the
residence of the Queensberry family.
In the centre of the quadrangle is
the shaft of the old Toivn Cross,
gifted to the burgh by Sir Adam
Hay. ]\Iungo Park, the African
traveller, once practised as a medical
man in Peebles, and had his surgery
in the High Street. The inn of the
Cross Keys, formerly known as the
Yett, was the town mansion of the
family of Williamson of Cardrona,
and is of the date of the 17th centy.
Some of the houses have vaulted
floors level with the street, and are
remnants of the bastel houses
erected for security against border
invaders.

About 1 m. W. of the town, on the
X. bank of the Tweed, are the ruins
of Neidpath Castle, principally con-
sisting of 2 square towers, with some
modern additions. On a gateway in
the courtyard is the crest of the
Earls of Tweeddale — a goat's head
over a coronet, and a bunch of straw-
berries, a rebus on the name of
Eraser. " Neidpath consists properly
of two castles united. Originally the
structure had consisted of a tall
border tower or peel, each storej^
vaulted, and with a spiral stair com-
municating with the different floors.
Subsequently there was attached' to
the front of this meagre stronghold
an imposingbuilding of vast strength,
forming the newer part, which now
constitutes the castle as visited by



strangers. The S. side of the ancient
tower is almost entirely gone, leaving
a series of spectral vaulted floors one
above another." — Chambers. It once
belonged to the southern branch of
the Eraser family, and passed from
them to the Hays of Tester. The
2nd Earl of Tweeddale held it for
Charles II., but the old tower, the
weakest part, was battered by the
cannon of Cromwell, and it was taken
after an obstinate resistance. It was
afterwards purchased by the Duke of
Queensberry, "Old Q." who cut
down the fine timber. Hence
Wordsworth's sonnet, "Composed
at Castle " : —

" Degenerate Douglas ! oh, the unworthy-
Lord !

Whom mere despite of heart could so far
please.

And love of havoc (for with such disease
Fame taxes him), that he could send forth
word

To level with the dust a noble horde,

A brotherhood of venerable trees ;

Leaving an ancient dome and towers
like these

Beggared and outraged. "

At the death of "Old Q." the castle
passed to the Earl of Wemyss. The
Neidpath estates are the largest in
the county, yielding a rental of
£12,000 per annum. The cottage
of David Ptitchie, the original of
the "Black Dwarf," is still to be
seen on the estate of Woodhouse,
where he was visited by Walter
Scott, 1797, then the guest of Prof.
Adam Eerguson, who lived at Hall-
yards, now residence of W. Ander-
son, Esq.

There are many pleasant residences
in the neighbourhood of Peebles,
such as Rosetta, Venlaw (J. Erskine,
Esq.), Kerfield (A. Mchol, Esq.),
and King's Meadow (Sir Robert
Hay, Bart.)

Puiilway to Symington Stat. 18
m., on the v\j. from Glasgow to
Carlisle by Biggar (Pte. 5).

Distances. — Edinburgh, 27 m. ;
Innerleithen, 6 ; Biggar, 11 ; Neid-



132



Route 13. — Innerleithen; Ashiestiel.



Sect. I.



path, 1 ; Eddleston, i ; Galashiels,
18 ; Symington, 18.

The raily. to Galashiels now makes
a bend, and follows the N. bank
of the Tweed, passing Kerfield and
Kailzie, on the S. bank, with the
scant ruins of Horshurgh Cattle., the
old house of the family of the same
name.

30 m. Cardrona Stat., with the
old ruined tower and the modern
mansion of Cardrona (A, Williamson,
Esq.), and (on the opposite side of
the river) Glenormiston, the seat of
W. Chambers, Esq., above Avhich
rises the peaked summit of the Lee
Pen (1647 ft.)

33 m. Innerleithen (Stat.), {Inn :
Kiddle's), prettily placed at the junct.
of the Leitlien Water with theTw^ed,
is a watering-place in some repute
from its mineral springs, and noted
as the locale of the scenes in "St.
Konan's Well." Overlooking the
stat. on left is Caerlee Hill Fort, a
large circular British camp, measur-
ing 400 by 350 ft. across. On the
opposite side of the Leithen is ano-
ther not so large, known as the Pirn
Hill Fort. Pirn House is the resi-
dence of Col. Horsburgh. One m.
E. of Innerleithen, at Purvis Hill,
are some remarkable earthen ter-
races, rising in the form of gigantic
steps, about a dozen in number, to
the height of 450 ft. above the
Tweed. Their appearance has given
rise to much discussion, some attri-
buting them to geological causes,
while arclipeologists point to the fact
that a fort itself is to be found in



connection with them, as is also the
case at Newlands. At the village of
Walkerburn, 1 m. E., are some
woollen factories, giving employment
to a good many hands.

About 1 m. to the right is Tra-
quair House (belonging to the Stewart
family), part of which is very old,
though the date is uncertain. There
is a fine gateway flanked by two
figures of bears in stone. Nearly
opposite are the remains of the
" Bush aboon Traquair," the subject
of a well-known poem, written by
Robert Crawford in 1724. The road
may be followed up the glen of the
Quair to Glen House, the modern
mansion of C. Tennant, Esq., of
Glasgow, designed by Mr. Bryce, in
the old Scotch baronial style. The
path continues over the hills to
Dryhope, at the foot of St. Mary's
Loch.

Et., at Grieston, to the K. of
Traquair, the geologist will find
Silurian rocks with graptolites.

A little before arriving at

39 m. Thornilee Stat, the traveller
passes Elihank Tower (in ruins), the
ancestral seat of the Murrays, and

2 m. farther Ashiestiel (Lady Kus-
sell), for many years the residence of
Walter Scott, where great part of
"The Lay," and of "Marmion"
was written. Farther on a bridge
with a fine spanned arch carries the
Selkirk road across the Tweed.

42 m. Clovenfords Stat.

454 Galashiels Junct. Stat. (Rte. 1.)



SECTIOX 11.

Central Scotland — Glasgow — Stirling — Dumbarton — Part of
Lanark and Perthshire — Loch Lomond — Loch Katrine — The
Trossachs.

INTPvODUCTION.

§ 1. General Information. § 2. Ohjects of Intei-est. § 3. Loch Katrine



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