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avd Glasgow Water-works.



ROUTES.



14 Edinburgh to Dunfermline,

by Dalmcny, Quecnsfcrry,
and Invcrkeithing . .137

15 Edinburgh to Stirling, by

the Forth, Alloa, and Cla/ik-
niannan . . . . 140

16 Edinburgh to Glasgow,

by Linlithgoio and Fal-
kirk .... 144

17 Glasgow to Edinburgh, by

Airdrie and Bathgate . 158

17a Edinburgh to Glasgow, by
]\Iid-Calder, FTolyto%\Ti, and
Gartsherrie Ironworks . 160

18 Edinburgh or CarstairsJunct.



ROCTE PAGE

to Stirling, by Larhcrt and
Bannockburn . . . !I61

19 Glasgow to Tarhct and Loch

Lomond, by Dumbarton and
Balloch [Helensburgh, Gare-
loch]— Rail . . .*165

20 Stirling to Inversnaid, by

Loch Mcnteith, Abcrfoyle,
and Loch Chon .

21 Stirling to Loch Lomond,

by Dunblane, Callandxr,
Loch Katrine, and The
Trossachs

22 Stirling to Balloch, by Dry-

men, Forth and Clyde Rail.



172



174



182



1. General Information.



This division is made simply for the convenience of travellers, as
combining the Routes issuing from Edinburgh and Glasgow and
Stirling, and leading to the most generally attractive district of
Scotland — The Trossachs, Loch Katrine, and Loch Lomond — which
everybody, however pressed for time, is sure to visit, even if they
advance no farther into the Highlands.

The contractors for, and purveyors of, locomotion, indeed, have
succeeded in arranging such an uninterrupted series of conveyances —
trains, steamboats, and coaches — that by leaving Edinburgh at 7.10,
or Glasgow at 7.30 a.m., you may meet the coach at Callander at
9.50, scamper through Trossachs, and reach the steamer on L.
Katrine at 11.20, complete the voyage down the two Lochs by 3.20,
reach Stirling at 5, and Edinburgh or Glasgow by 6.30 ! Nay, in



134 §2. Objects of Interest. Sect. 11.

the summer, tlie traveller has three different cliances in the day to
make this round !

We need scarcely enter a protest against this hurry-scurr}^ mode
of doing the scenery of Scotland. A sensible person will devote a
day at least to Stirling, a day to the Trossachs and Loch Katrine, and
another to Loch Lomond (Tarloet).

The mere cost of the jeurney (fees to coachman not included) is
— From Edinburgh, 25s. first-class, 19s. second-class ; from Glasgow,
19s. first-class, second-class 15s. The tickets allow of halting on
the way, heing valid for 7 days.

There are excellent Inns at Stirling, Bridge of Allan, the
Trossachs, Liversnaid, and Tarbet on Loch Lomond, Port of Men-
teith, Doune, etc.

Those who take interest in other things besides grand scenery
may desire to visit the extraordinary coalfield lying E. and S. of
Glasgow, where the manufacture of iron has been developed to such
a wonderful extent. Eoutes 1 7 and 1 7a pass through a district
dismal with smoke and black with coal and ashes, but teeming with
most extraordinary industry in iron furnaces and forges. The centre
of this is at Airdrie and Coatbridge, situated on the famous Black
Band of iron ore. The largest works are those of Gartsh^rrie
(Baird), Langloan, Shotts, etc. (See Rte. 1 7a.)

§ 2. Objects of Interest, Grouped according to
Vicinity.

Dalmeny. — Church ; Park and trees ; Barnbougle Castle ruins.

S. Queensferry. — Hopetoun House ; Kirkliston ; Church and
Park ; Niddry Castle.

N. Queensferry . — Dunfermline, Donibristle Castle.

The River Forth and its windings.

Linlitligo'W. — Wells ; Church ; Palace.

Falkirk. — Carron Ironworks ; Grseme's Dyke (Roman Wall).

Stirling. — Greyfriars Church ; Mar's Work ; Cemetery ; Castle
and View ; Cambuskenneth ; Abl)ey Craig (view) ; Bannockburn ;
Bridge of Allan ; Keir ; Castle Campbell ; Alva Glen.

Dunblane. — Cathedral : Doune Castle.

Callander. — Loch Vennachar ; Loch Achray, Loch Lubnaig.

Trossachs. — Loch Katrine ; Beallach-nam-Bo Pass ; Ellen's Isle ;
Glasgow Aqueduct.

loch Menteith. — Inch Mahone.

Loch Lomond. — Inversnaid ; Tarbet ; Islands, Luss ; Ro warden-
nan ; Ascent of Ben Lomond.

Balloch. — Dumbarton Castle.



Introd. § 3. Loch Katrine and Glasgoiv Water-worh. 135

Glasgow. — George Square and Monnments ; Cathedral ; Ne-
cropolis ; Old College ; Exchange ; Universit}^ ; Parks ; Broomie-
law ; Shipbuilding Yards ; Langside ; Bothwell Castle ; Hamilton
Palace ; Cadzow,

Coatbrichje, Airdrie, Bathgate. The Lanarkshire Ironworks.

Lennoxtoion. — Campsie Fells ; Lennox Castle ; Kirkintilloch.

§ 3. On the Loch Katrine and Glasgow Water-works.*

The works which have been established for conveying a portion
of the water of Loch Katrine to Glasgow are a verj interesting
specimen of engineering, so that a short description of them will not
be misplaced here.

The singularity which perhaps will first occur to the reader is,
that a portion of the waters which, in the course of nature, reached
the sea by the eastern estuary of the Forth, is now turned to the
supply of the great city on the western estuary of the Clyde. This
has arisen from two circumstances. First, that Loch Katrine, the
highest of the reservoirs of water supplying the Forth (hj its con-
fluent the Teith), is far west ; secondly, that the elevation of Loch
Katrine is considerable. But for the latter circumstance it would
have been difficult to convey the water of Loch Katrine over the
high ground which divides the basins of the Forth and the Clyde ;
and it was apparently to facilitate this that the water of Loch
Katrine is now dammed to a height about five feet above its natural
elevation. The heights of the surface waters of the principal lakes
above the mean level of the sea are the following : — Loch Venna-
char, 270 ft. ; Loch Achray, 276 ft. ; Loch Katrine, 364 ft.

The height of Loch Lomond above the sea is only 23 ft.
(Every tourist must have remarked the great descent in passing from
Loch Katrine to Inversnaid.) It was obviously impossible to utilise
the water of Loch Lomond for the service of Glasgow, except by an
enormous expenditure of mechanical power.

Though the Teith, of which Loch Katrine is the head, is an
affluent of the Forth, yet their upper basins, being separated by
hilly ground, must be considered as on different rivers. The basin
of the Forth, whose head is in Ben Lomond, lies between that of the
Teith and that of the Clyde. To gain the basin of the Forth it was
necessary to pierce the hills bounding the south side of Loch Katrine.
In passing by boat along the lake, from the Trossachs to the landing-
pier of Stronachlachar, the -tourist will remark, on the left hand, a

* From a description of the location of the "Lady of the Lake," by Sir George
B. Airy, P.R.S.



136 § 3. Loch Katrine and Glasgow Water-works. Sect. II.

little more than a mile before reaching the pier, the entrance-works
of the water-conduit. They may be visited by a road from Stronach-
lachar. They consist of the nsnal defences against the entrance of
extraneous matter, and gates and sluices for regulating the influx of
water ; well worthy of examination, but requiring no special notice
here. The water-course immediately pierces the hill by a tunnel
about a mile long (the air-shafts of which can be seen from the lake),
and opens upon one of the streams of Loch Chon, which is a feeder
of the Forth. It passes on the south-west sides of Loch Chon and
the upper part of Loch Ard, crosses the Duchray water, traverses
a desolate country, crosses many streams of the Forth, and near the
summit of the Forth and Clyde Junction Eailwaj^ close to the Bal-
fron station, at a height of about 250 feet, quits the basin of the
Forth for that of the Endrick, which it subsequently leaves at a
lower level for that of the Clyde proper.

Through nearly the whole of the course thus described the
water-coiu'se is tunnelled in the solid gneiss rock, usually at a small
depth below the surface, and nothing is visible but heaps of " spoil "
from distance to distance. It was absolutely necessary that the
channel should be covered, and tunnelling was found to be less ex-
pensive and more secure than vaulting in masonry. But in many
places the water is carried on aqueducts, consisting of large iron
tubes, or iron troughs supported by arches ; and, where these are
open, it is striking to view the smooth and rapid course of the
water on its journey to the distant city. In some places the water
passes through a tube which descends to the bottom of a valley, and
rises to nearly the same level on the opposite side. In Stratli
Endrick, I believe, it descends about 200 feet for a considerable
distance.

The parts, however, which more immediately concern the Loch
Katrine tourist are the sluices at the outlets of the Lakes. It is
obviously necessary to have a sluice at the outlet of Loch Katrine,
for maintaining the water at a height sufficient, but not inconvenient,
for the discharge into the Glasgow conduit ; and this sluice will be
found at the bottom of the Beal-nam-bo. It consists, as is usual, of
adjustible sliding sluice-gates (managed by rack-and-pinion ma-
chinery) and a weir ; it also contains, what is less usual, a salmon-
ladder, to enable the salmon to leap up into Loch Katrine. This
sluice in itself is sufficient for the mere management of the water-
supply to Glasgow ; but commercial considerations required an
additional system of sluices. The streams of the Teith and the
Forth are employed to give motion to various mills, and to serve in
various manufactures ; and, considering the large amount of water



Intrcd.



Route 14. — Edinburgh to Dunfermline.



137



abstracted for the supply of Glasgow, there was great fear that in
dry seasons the discharge from the outlet of Loch Vennachar would
be absolutely stopped, and the mills and manufactures would be
deprived of their necessary waters. A large sluice (much larger
than that at the outlet of Loch Katrine) is therefore established at
the ancient Coilantogle Ford, at the outlet of Loch Vennachar ; and
is kept under the most careful daily regulation. In wet seasons the
water (which otherwise would have been wasted in an injurious
torrent, rushing downwards to Stirling and the Forth) is treasured
up, raising the surface of Loch Vennacher ; and in dry seasons
this accumulated store is discharged by regulated openings of
the sluice-gates, for the benefit of the mills. It was laid down as
a condition that the supply of water to the river should never be
less than double the minimum in the former state of the lakes, and
it is believed that this condition has been maintained without diffi-
culty.— (?. B. A.

The plans of the Glasgow water- works were designed and the
works executed by the eminent Civil Engineer, John Frederick
Bateman, Esq., of London.



ROUTE 14.

Edinburgh to Dunfermline, by
Dalmeny, Queensferry, and In-
verkeithing (Road and Rail).

Rly. as far as S. Queensferry, where
the Firth must be crossed by a
steamer, and the rest of the journey
traversed in an omnibus or private
conveyance imtil the N. Queensferry
and Dunfermline Rly. is open.
Carriages and post-horses must be
ordered beforehand from the land-
lord of the Hawes Inn, S. Queens-
ferry, or of the Royal Hotel, Inver-
keithing, to meet the traveller at
N". Queensferry pier. For those who
like coach travelling "in the olden
style," there is a four-horse coach
starts three times a-day from No. 4
Princes Street. It crosses the ferry
in the steamer, and is the most con-
venient mode of reaching Dunferm-
line. Those who are willing to make
the longer sea passage by Burnt-
[Scotland.^



island (Rte. 40) may proceed thence,
and then by rail all the way to Dun-
fermline, via Kirkcaldy and Thorn-
ton Junct., but at the expense of a
circuit of 20 ra. (Rte. 40).

The old coach road to Queensferry
will repay by its pleasant scenery
and the interesting places it passes.

Leaving Edinburgh by the Queens-
feny-road, the traveller crosses the
Water of Leith at Dean Bridge, be-
yond which an excellent view is
obtained of the Fettes College, and
a little to the W. of which is St.
Cuthbert's Poorhouse, and on the 1.
of the coach road Stewart's Hospital
(now one of the Merchant Co.'s
schools for boys), an Elizabethan
building ; immediately south of which
is the Orphan Hosp. , A\dtli open work
towers, to the AV. of which again is
John Watson's Hosp. Stewart's
Hosp. consists of a solid centre with
towers, and on each side a wing,
connected Avith the main body by a
screen of open work. The principal
g2



138



FiOide 1 L — Balmeny — Queensferrij,



Sect. II.



tower is 120 ft. liigh. This hospital
was completed in 1853.

1 111. right is Craigleith Quarry,
whence came the stones for building
large part of the New Town of Edin-
burgh. The stone is a sandstone of
the carboniferous period, and is re-
markable for its fossil trees, one of
which, lying in a slanting position,
was upwards of 60 feet in length,
and which may now be seen in the
Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

2 m. left are Eavelstone House
(J. Murray Gartshore, Esq.), and
Craigcrook, formerly the residence of
Lord Jeffrey, beautifully situated on
the eastern slope of Corstorphine
Hill, which the road crosses One
of the finest views of Edinburgh is
obtained from it. 4 m. right Barnton
(Sir A. K. Gibson-Maitland, Bart.)

5 m. Cramond Bridge, OA^er the
Almond Water, which flows into the
Firth of Forth at Cramond, a charm-
ing little village in a hollow. Cram-
ond House is the seat of C. Craigie-
Halkett Inglis, Esq.

It was on Cramond Bridge that
James V. was attacked when return-
ing in disguise from an assignation.
The king was hard pressed, when a
miller rushed out of a neighbouring
barn, and put his assailants to flight ;
he then brought the king into his
barn, and furnished him with water
and a towel to cleanse his face from
tlie blood. He was rewarded with
the property on condition that he or
his successors should be ready to
present a basin and ewer for the
king to wash his hands whenever he
should come to Holyrood or cross
the bridge of Cramond. In 1822
the descendant of this man (now
Howison Crauford) fulfilled the con-
dition of presenting a silver ewer to
George lY. On left is Xew Saugh-
ton (Earl of Morton), and Craigie
Hall (J. C. Hope Vere, Esq.)

The Railway to Queensferry starts



from Waverley terminus, and follows
the Glasgow line (Rte. 16) as far as

Pudho Junct. Stat. (Rte. 16).
Turning here right a good view is
obtained of the Almond river via-
duct on the Glasgow line.

Kirkliston Stat. Here is a large
distillery ; left is Dundas Castle,
right Craigie Hall.

Balmeny Stat, is in a cutting
close to the shale-heaps of a paraffin
oil distillery.

On right 2 m. is the lodge of Dal-
meny Park, the seat of the Earl of
Eosebery : the house is modern.
It is ornamented with fine Avoods
and many noble trees growing close
down to the Firth of Forth. The
grounds are open to the general
]tublic every Monday. On the shore
are the ruins of Barnh&iiglc Castle,
sold by the Moubrays to the first of
the Eosebery family in the 17th cent.

L., a short waj'^ from the station is

Dalnteny, a neat well-kept little
village, with gardens in front of the
cottages arranged round a green.
Here is a ^Romanesque Church (re-
stored in 1866), next to Leuchars
the most perfect in Scotland, though
the chancel and E. apse alone re-
main in their original state. The
windows are circular-headed, with
tooth mouldings. The S. doorway
is a circular arch of double mould-
ings, one a row of monstrous heads,
very singular, but much withered.
Above the door is an arcade of 5
interesting round arches.

In the interior the nave has been
wretchedly modernised, but in the
stone-vauited chancel there are 2
richly-sculptured circular arches, one
at the entrance to the chancel and
another at the junction of the apse,
"which is lower than the rest of the
ch. An ugly modern excrescence
has been added to the N. side, to
furnish space for the Eosebery pew,
and the outer wall is flanked by 2
black tall stove-tubes !" The pilas-
ters supporting the chancel arches



C. Scotland. Route 14. — Quemsferry.



139



inside have been inhumanly hewn
away to make room for pew-backs.
The date of Dahneny is probably
about the beginning of the 12tli
centy. The ch. was attached to the
Abbey of Jedburgh. There are
several old tombs in the churchyard.

[A little beyond Dalmeny is the
lodge of Dwadas Castle, the situation
of which is elevated, and commands
fine views both up and down the
Forth. After having been in the
possession of one family (that of
Dundas) since the days of Malcolm
Canraore, it was sold in 1875 to the
trustees of the late Mr. Russell of
Blackbraes, The square old keep is
now attached to a modern mansion,
large and commodious, but of no
architectural pretensions. In front
is an old dilapidated fountain, carved
with inscriptions in Latin verse.
There is a short cut hence through
the grounds to Kirkliston, l^ m.]

The rly. descends from Dalmeny
in a rock cutting down a steep de-
cline, beyond which a fine view opens
out of Firth of Forth, 200 ft. above
which is

Halves Stat., \ m. from the Steam-
boat Pier, and the Hawes Inn (toler-
able), very inconvenient for those who
have luggage to be conveyed to the
boat down flights of steep steps. At
low tide the steamer cannot reach the
pier, but tows a common ferryboat
across the strait. A private convey-
ance can be had by telegraphing to
Inverkeithing. There are other piers
. on the shore to the AV. , but that at
Newhall or Hawes is most in use.

8^ m. South Queensferry Stat.
This is a royal and pari, burgh of
1521 inhab., withal but a small place,
at the foot of steep heights which
hem in the Firth of Forth, at a
point where the N. shore juts out, con-
tracting the passage across the Firth
to 2 miles. Steam ferry-boat crosses
8 times a day. Queensferry is so
called from Margaret, sister of Edgar
Atheling, wife of Malcolm Canmore,



who was constantly travelling be-
tween Edinburgh and Dunfermline.
It was at one time the chief passage
from S. Scotland. Oliver Cromwell
crossed here with his forces 1651.
It is a quaint little place, contain-
ing a small simple Church, with
plain stone barrel vault, once at-
tached to a Carmelite priory, founded
by Dundas of Dundas, 1330.

About 2 m. from the stat. , W. , on
the shore, near a little inn, is the
entrance (always open) to the park
and grounds of Hopetoun House, the
residence of the Earl of Hopetoun, a
fine Italian house (renovated by
Adam). In the interior, which is
not shown to the public, are paintings
by Eiibcns (Adoration of Shepherds,
one of his very finest w^orks) ; A.
Guyp, The Manege, in a landscape ;
Vandyke, Ecce Homo ; Tenters, The
Painter, his Wife and Child, in a
landscape ; etc. The grounds con-
tain some remarkably fine specimens
of cedar and abies, and the views from
the gi'een terrace walk parallel to the
Forth are superb, embracing the
whole sweep of the Firth of Forth
and the Ochil Hills between Stirling
Castle and the Isle of May. It is a
most stately domain, and the giant
trees, the long umbrageous avenues,
and the sunny Garden (shown when
the family are absent), are hardly to
be matched. Here are an Abies
Morinda, 80 ft. high, and large
cedars of Lebanon. Adjoining the
park on the W. is the village of
Ahercorn. The Church, originally
very ancient, retains only one semi-
circular chancel arch and a doorway,
the rest being hideously modernised.
Abercorn in the 7th cent, was the
seat of an English bishop of the Picts.
Still farther W. is Binns, the seat of
Sir AV. DalzeU, Bart.]

The traveller crosses the ferry
(here about 2 m. wide) to

10^ m. North Queensferry, passing
on right the fortified rock of Inch-
garvie. It has been j)roposed to



14:0 Route 15. — Edlnhurrjh to Stirling by Water. Sect. II.



carry a long high-level railway -bridge

across, so as to supersede the passage
from Grantoii to Burntisland, but
the great depth of the channel and
the enormous expense involved have
hitherto prevented it. The Fife
shore is more rocky and indented
than the opposite one — and a cove to
the W. of North Queensferry, known
as St. IMargaret's Hope, is often used
as a harbour of refuge in easterly
gales, and at times receives the
Channel Fleet. It is overlooked by
the square keep of Bosyth Castle,
which stands on a rock just off shore.

See Scott's " Abbot."

From N. Queensferry {Ba,il. in pro-
gress) the road winds round the W.
side of the Ferry Hills, where Crom-
well and Lambert fought and gained
the battle of Inverkeithing in 1651.

The Ely. is carried along the S.
side of the Ferry Hills.

13 ni. Inverkeithing {Inn : Royal
Hotel, post-horses and cars), an
ancient royal and parl}^ burgh,
1755 inhab., on a hill sloping down
to a small bay, in which some ship-
building is carried on. It was the
residence of David I., seat of the
Court and Parliament, and a house
is still pointed out in which Arabella
Drummond, Queen of Robert III., is
said to have lived. The belfry of the
Tower-house is Palladian.

2 m. farther we come in sight of
the tower of Dunfermline Abbey,
rising above the small houses on the
outskirts of the town, and the long
chimneys of the factories.

Through deep cuttings the Ely.
reaches

17 m. Dunfermline Sta. (Ete. 41).



ROUTE 15.
Edinburgh to Stirling, by the
Forth, Alloa, and Cambus-
kenneth..

A steamer leaves Granton Pier
daily, according to the tide. In fine



weather the run to Stirling is charm-
ing — occupying from 4 to 5 hours,
though the shallows up the river
occasionally detain the boat longer.

By PmH (Ete. 18) this journey is
made in about 1^ hour. On leaving
the pier the tourist has on left
Lauriston Castle, once the residence
of John Law, the Mississippi finan-
cier, and right the watering-jjlace of
Burntisland, and Aherdour (Earl of
Morton), a ruined house of the 17th
cent., beautifully situated in a wooded
ravine (Ete. 40).

A little off the coast, 1 m. to row
in a boat, is Incheolm, alluded to by
Eosse in his account of the victory
over Sweno, King of Norway : —

"Nor would we deign him burial of his
men.
Till he disbursed at St. Colme's Inch
Ten thousand dollars to our general use."
Macbeth, Act i. sc. 2.

Holinshed says of this — "The
Danes that escaped and got over to
their ships, obteined of Makbeth for
a great summe of gold, that such of
their friends as were slaine might be
buried in St. Colme's Inch. In
memorie whereof, many old sepul-
tures are yet in the said Inch, there
to be seen graven with the arms of
the Danes." Upon the island are the
ruins of a Monastery founded in
1123 by Alexander I., who had been
driven on the island by stress of
weather, and fed by a poor hermit
there, whom in gratitude he made
the first Prior. In the time of
Edward III. it had become so wealthy
as to excite the cupidity of the Eng-
lish fleet lying in the Firth. It was
accordingly plundered, but the fleet
was soon after overtaken by a storm,
in which many of the ships foundered,
and the rest were only too glad to
return and make restitution. The
ruins consist of a small church and
some conventual buildings, an octa-
gon Chapter-house, 22 ft. diameter,
with stone roof (date 1263). W. of
the church is a very ancient Cell or
Oratory of rudest masonry, with a







■ct~



>■ I






^>



'^'riiL



* ^



/\\






^^ ->



Firth OF For L'H. Route 15. — BarnhougU ; Broomliall 141



slit window at the E. and a rude
attempt at a stone vault, of the same
primitive style as those on the W.
coast of Ireland, and probably as old
as the 9th cent,

N. A little nearer are seen the
ruined Oh. of Dalgctty, with a chapel
at the W. end, in which Seton, its
founder, lies buried, and the Castle
of i)onibristle, once the residence of
the Abbot of St. Colm, must have
been humble at the best, where
" the bonnie Earl of ]\Ioi-ay " was
brutally murdered in 1592, by the
Earl of Huntly, on pretence of exe-
cuting a commission from the king,
though in reality from private spite.

On the left or S. side are seen
Cramond Island, and amongst the
woods is Dalmeny Park, the seat of
the Earl of Rosebery. The house is
not visible from this point. On
the shore are the ruins of Barn-
hougU Castle, an old house of the
family of Moubray. It now belongs
to Lord Rosebery (Rte. 14). At
7 m. the steamer passes through the
strait known as Quecnsferry (Rte.
14), from a tradition that Queen
Margaret, Avife of Malcolm Canmore,
Avas wrecked here. The tolls of this
ferry belonged at the Reformation
to the Abbey of Dunfermline. In
the middle of the passage is Inch-



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