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garvie, used at one time as a state
prison. On right is Rosyth Castle,
alluded to by Sir Walter Scott in his
novel of the "Abbot." It was for-
merly a castle of the Stuart family,
and has over the gateway the initials
M.R., 1561. On left, above the
shore, may be seen Dundas Castle,
succeeded by Hopetoun House (the
Earl of Hopetoun) (Rte. 14.) Beyond
this is Blackness Castle, for a long
time used as a state prison, and one
of 4 fortresses which by the Articles
of the Union are to be kept fortified ;
now a powder magazine.

Opposite to Blackness, and near
Rosyth, is the pier of Limekilns,
whence an omnibus conveys passen-



gers to Dunfermline, which is 3| m.
distant. Adjoining it is Broomliall
(Earl of Elgin), where there is a fine
collection of pictures. Amongst them
are — St. Sebastian, L. da Vinci,
" great delicacy and decision of
form;" portrait of a female, *S'. cli
Piomho ; Holy Family, A. eld Sarto :
St. Francis, A. Carracci ; Count
Olivarez, Velasquez, etc. Here is
preserved the sword of Robert Bruce ;
his helmet also is shown, and the bed
in which Charles I. was born at Dun-
fermline. Close beyond is Charles-
ton, celebrated for its limeworks ;
then Crombie Point and the village
of Ton-yburn.

15 m. left is the village of Bo'ness
(shortened from Borrowstouness), a
seaport on the Forth, whence iron
and coal are largely exported. Here
also are iron furnaces. A rly. runs
hence to Airdrie and Glasgow (Rte.
14). Adjoining the town is

Left — Kinneil House, a mansion of
the Duke of Hamilton, and at one
time the residence of Dugald Stewart.
A little higher up, on the same side,
is the port of Crrangertiouth, to which
the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway
Company have a branch. The cele-
brated Carron Iromvorks are about
2 m. inland,

Nearly opposite Bo'ness are the
remains of Culross Abbey (pronounced
Cooross), founded in 1217 by Mal-
colm, Earl of Fife, for Cistercian
monks. The tower remains, and the
Gothic choir is partly used as a
Parish Ch. In the N. aisle is a
marble monument to Sir Geo. Bruce,
with efiigies of him, his lady, and 7
children. Within the masonry is
inserted the heart of Edward, 2nd
Ld. Bruce of Kinloss, killed in a
duel with Sir Edw. Sackville at
Bergen -op -Zoom, 1614. Culross
(though St. Muugo, the Glasgow
saint, was born and educated here in
the 6th centy.) Avas better known
in Scotland for its manufacture of
girdles for oat-cakes than for its eccles-



142 Route 15. — Edinburgh to Stirling by Water. Sect. II.



iastical reputation. This peculi-
arity is alluded to in the "Heart of
Midlothian" — "The hammermen of
Edinburgh are na' that bad at girdles
for carcakes neither, though the
Cu'ross hammermen have the gree
for that," On a terrace above the
sea, a little to the E. of the town, is
the fine mansion of Culross Abbey,
originally built by Sir Wm. Bruce
of Kinross, the renovator of Holyrood
Palace, afterwards repaired by Sir
Robt. Preston of Valleyfield. It con-
tains a room with a panelled roof, each
panel decorated by a painting of one
of the Virtues, and some inscriptions
in Latin and English.

Dunimarle Castle (Mrs. Sharp
Erskine) is modern, and beside it is
an Episcopal Chapel.

18 m. Kincardine Stat. (Inns :
Commercial ; Unicorn) ; a small sea-
port of nearly 3000 inhab., remark-
able for nothing but being a very
long way from the county of the
same name. Some shipbuilding.

1 m. to the N. is TtdliaUan Castle,
the modern seat of Lady Osborne
Elphinstone, built by Adm. Lord
Keith, 1820, in a beautiful Park.
There are some remains of an older
castle near it.

On left is Airth Castle (W. Graham,
Esq. ), with a strong tower, called
Wallace's Tower, because built about
the time of the battle of Falkirk.
Airth, which is finely situated on a
hill overlooking the Firth, is a
somewhat modernised castle. The
oldest portion consists of the tower,
which has the distinctive features of
a covered turret and a battlemented
bartizan, and which dates from the
16th cent.

Dunmore House, farther on, but
nearer the shore, is the seat of the
Earl of Dunmore, and contains a
collection of pictures. The most im-
portant are : — Portrait of Admiral
- Capello, Tintoretto ; Orpheus and
Eurydice bitten by the Asp, N.



Poussin ; Charles I, and Henrietta
Maria, D. Mytens ; Landscape, Hol-
bein ; Soldiers maltreating Peasants,
Rubens ; Altarpiece, A. Dilrer ; The
Visitation, L. Caracci ; Perseus and
Andromeda, Vandyck ; Martyrdom
of St. Catherine, F. Vermxese ; Pea-
sants with Garlands, Velasquez.

As the river narrows, the beauty
of the scenery is increased by the
near approach of the Ochil Hills,
an important range that runs from
Stirling, through Kinrosshire, into
Fifeshire. Their average height is
over 2000 ft., and they belong to the
old red sandstone formation.

20 m. Clackmannan Stat., right —
the dull town of Clackmannan, the
capital of the little county of the
same name, stands on high gi'ound
at some distance inland. At the end
of the street is a strong Tower, 79
ft. high, said to have been built by
Robert Brace, and now^ the property
of the Earl of Zetland. It is not
older than the loth centy., although
there may have been a predecessor
to it. Not far from Clackmannan is
Kennet, a beautifully situated man-
sion overlooking the Forth, in a
domain which has belonged to a
branch of the family of Bruce since
the days of King Robert, now repre-
sented by Alex. Hugh Biuce, Baron
Burleigh.

Alloa Jiinct. Stat. {Inn : Crown) ;
a thriving and increasing town (Pop.
7510), with a small harbour and
dock on the N. side of the Forth.
Abundance of coal in its neighbour-
hood renders it alive with numerous
manufactories of woollen tartans,
notably that of Paton and Co., Kiln-
craigs, while it is particularly distin-
guished for its extensive whisky
distilleries and breweries of Ale^
iron foundries, and copper works.

The Episcopal Church of St. John,
Broad-street, was built by the Earl
of Kellie, 1869, at a cost of £5000,
and is a commod
a peal of 6 bells.



Firth OF Forth. Boiite 16. — Alloa; Camhushenneth Alley. 143



The Gothic Parish Church was
built 1819. In the old churchyard
stands the Tower of an older ch.
In the Glebe Park, near the Masonic
Hall, is the Museum of Nat. Hist,
and Antiquities. In Bank-street are
the Municipal Buildings.

Eleanor Syme, Lord Brougham's
mother, was born here.

Bookselle7\ Lothian, Candle-street,
publishes a useful Guide and Direc-
tory of the town and county.

On the E. side of the town, within
the Park, not far from the mansion
of the Earl of Kellie, rises the Toicer
of Alloa, 89 ft. high, with walls 11
ft. thick, built in the 13th centy.,
and long a stronghold of the Earls of
Mar. It formed part of their mansion,
destroyed by fire 1800. Queen Mary
spent some years here when a child,
and two nights with Darnley in
1566. James I., when a boy, was
birched by George Buchanan within
its walls, having been educated here ;
and Prince Henry, the king's eldest
son, was also partly brought up at
this place.

Alloa Park, the modern mansion
of the Earl of Kellie, built in 1838
and 1868, contains family portraits
and relics, and extensive gardens
have been laid out.

Raihvay from Alloa to Stirling
(Rte. 41) ; to Alva : — to Kmross, by
Dollar and Rumbling Bridge.

Railwaji to S. Alloa — ^wlience Steam
Ferry across tlie Forth to a Branch
Line leads into the Edinburgh and
Glasgow Railway. Steamer leaves
N. side every hour, and S. side 20
min. past every hour, from 7 a.m.
to 8 p.m. (winter till 6) ; fare, 3d.
Castle CamjJheU, near Dollar, half-an-
hour by rail from Alloa, is well worth
a visit (Rte. 41).

The river now winds round ' ' the
Links of Forth," so celebrated for
their fertility that it is a popular
saying in. the district that " a loop of
the Forth is worth an earldom in the
Noi-th." The land distance from
Alloa to Stirling is 7 m., while the



numerous and tortuous curves pro-
long the navigation to nearly 20 m.

Passing 2 small islands, known as
Alloa and Tullibody Inches, there is
seen on right Tullibody House (Lord
Abercromby), the family seat but not
birthplace of Sir Ralph. It is very
plain, and somewhat insignificant for
so good a situation. Beyond it is
the mouth of the Devon, foul with
mill-refuse, whose upper course is
famous for its romantic scenery (Rte.
42). On the S. bank is Polmaise
(Col. Murray), just beyond which
the celebrated Bannock-burn falls
into the Forth. The turns of the river
now become more abrupt than ever,
and the steamer is compelled to
slacken speed to get round them.
On right, a conspicuous object on
the plain is Camhuskcnneth Abbey,
founded by David I. in 1147, and at
one time perhaps the richest abbey
in Scotland. It consists now only
of a very noble and substantial tower,
a gateway, and a few fragments of
walls. The staircase is sufficiently
preserved to enable the visitor to
ascend the tower ; the view from
which is very fine, embracing the
windings of the Forth for many
miles, with the noble rock and castle
of Stirling close by, backed up by
the Grampian mountains and the
Ochil Hills. The abbey and its
estates were given at the Reforma-
tion to the Earl of Mar, who pulled
the greater part of the building
down to erect his house at Stirling.
The unfortunate James III. (d. 1488)
and his Queen Margaret of Denmark
were buried at Cambuskenneth, their
remains having been discovered in
1864, and a monument has been put
up to their memory by Her Majesty
the Queen, as a "restoration of the
tomb of her ancestors." On right is
the Abbey Craig, spoiled by a strange
modern monument to the memory of
Wallace. The steamer now shortly
reaches

Stikling (Rte. 21).



144



Route 16. — Edinburgh to Glasgow. Sect. II.



ROUTE 16.
Edinburgh to Glasgow, by Lin-
lithgow and Falkirk (Hail).

47 J m. 14 trains daily.

Leaving Edinburgh b}' tlie Waver-
ley Bridge Stat., the train glides be-
neath the frowning rock of the castle,
and through Princes-st. Gardens. A
view is obtained of Donaldson's Hos-
pital on the right, and, as the en-
virons of the city are left behind, of
the wooded slope of the Corstorphine
Hills, dotted here and there with
suburban villas. The large building
on the face of the hill is a Convales-
cent Hospital in connection with the
Royal Infirmary. Ou the left, about
3 m. distant, are the brown ranges of
the Pentland Hills.

Passing left Saughton" Hall, the
property of Sir James Gardiner Baird,
Bart., but used as an asylum for the
insane, the traveller reaches

3^ m. Corstorpliinc Stat. The vil-
lage, some little distance to the N,,
is charmingly placed on the slopes
of the hill, from whence some of the
finest views of the city are obtained.
The Church is an interesting speci-
men of Dec. style, built in the form
of a cross, although it is apparently
of an irregular design. At the W.
stands a belfry -tower, with a foreign -
looking octagonal spire. In the
interior are seme monuments of the
Forrester family, who founded this
as a collegiate ch. in 1429, now repre-
sented by Lord Verulam. The figures
in the niche in tlie chancel are sup-
posed to represent Sir John Forrester
and his wife.

In the neighbom'hood of Gogar, 54
m. , are Kellerstain ( W. Logan White,
'Esq.), Gogar House, and several
other residences.

8^ m. Ratho Junct. Stat, with
the Bathgate Ely. (Rte. 17). [An-
other branch of 15 m. is given off to
Kirkliston, Dalmeny, and South
Queensferry (Rte. 14). The pedes-
trian may follow a road on right



leading through a wood, and past
the old Peelhouse of Hallyards,
to the Almond Water, across which
there are stepping-stones, to Kirk-
liston, 1| m. Here is a fine Ro-
manesque Ch., much disfigured by
modern alterations and additions.
The former entrance was beneath a
handsome circular arch, now blocked
up. Field-Marshal the Earl of Stair,
who lived at Newliston in the last
centy., lies buried here, and the ch.
contains monuments to him and the
family. From Kirkliston, where is
Stewart's large distillery, it is nearly
3 m. to Queensferry and 2 to Dal-
meny (Ete. 18), passing Carlowrie
(R. Hutchison, Esq.), famous for its
large collection of well-grown Coni-
fers. Near this the antiquary will
find an inscribed stone called the
Catstane'].

Beyond Eatho, by a grand Viaduct
of 36 arches, the line crosses the
Almond Water that separates Lin-
lithgowshire or West Lothian from
Edinburghshire or Midlothian. On
the right is Neidiston (T. A. Hog,
Esq.), the former residence of the
Earl of Stair, who had a hobby for
arboriculture, and was said to have
arranged his trees to represent the
gi'ouping of regiments in certain
battles.

The rly. now passes through a cut-
ting in the rocks, a gap in which (rt.)
affords a glimpse of the ruined castle
oi Niddry, where Queen Mary passed
her first night after her escape from
Lochleven. It then belonged to Lord
Seton.

12 m. at Winchburgh Stat, the
Union Canal appears, and runs
parallel with the line. On the right
are Hopetoun House (Earl of Hope-
toun), Ete. 14, the village of Aber-
corn, and Binns (Sir W. Dalzell,
Bart.), (Ete. 18), together with an
obelisk on Bonnington Hill in
memory of General Hope,- who fell
in the Indian mutiny. (5n the left is
Qhampfleurie Park (E. H. Johnstone
Stewart, Esq.)



C. Scotland. Route 16. — Linlithgow ; Church.



145



18 m. Linlithgoio Stat. {Inn: Star
and Garter, close to stat. Pop. de-
creasing, 3690). Linlithgow or Litli-
gow, "the lake of tiie winding
stream," long a royal residence
and place of importance, was made
a royal burgh by David I. The town
is old and irregular, with high-roofed
houses, occasionally adorned with
traces of sculpture. Its lake is a
great ornament. No town in Scot-
land has so many fountains, and
the local rhyme speaks of " Litli-
gow for \s-ells, Glasgow for bells,
Peebles for clashes and lees, and
Falkirk for beans and pease. " The
fountain of St. Michael, with the
figure of the archangel upon it, and
the inscription, " St. Michael is
kinde to strangers," is passed (1.) on
the way from the stat. to the
castle, 10 min. walk : farther on
is the Cross Well, the facsimile of an
older one, restored 1807. Passing
up the hill between this well and
the Town-house j'ou reach the Pre-
cincts of the Palace and Church.

They are entered by a fine castel-
lated Gatevxiy, built by James IV.
It is flanked by octagonal towers,
and over tlie entrance are the coats of
arms of the 4 orders of knighthood
conferred upon that king by differ-
ent sovereigns. They consist of —
1st, 3 lions (St. George of England) ;
2nd, 1 lion (St. Andrew of Scotland) ;
3rd, lions and castle (St. Philip of
Leon and Castile) ; 4th, Fleur de Lis
(of France),

The Church, founded by David I.,
and dedicated to the Archangel
jMichael, whose image may be seen
at the S.W. angle, is perhaps the
largest and best preserved Gothic
parish ch. in Scotlaud. It owed much
of its grandeur to Crichton, Bp. of
Dunkeld. It has a handsome turreted
Tower at the W. end, beneath which
is a fine doorway, and there is a 2nd
door on tlie S. side under a very ele-
gantly arched Porch, having a watch-
room above it. The tracery of the
[Scotland.']



windows is very varied and elegant,
especially that of the S. transept (St.
Catherine's Chapel). The interior
consists of 8 bays, with pointed
arches, resting on piers furnished
with shields of arms. It is hideously
white-washed, and is divided by an
ugly partition wall, only the chancel
being used for service. It ends in a
3-sided apse of tall windows. The
nave is stately and unusually wide.
Notice the restored Flamboyant win-
dow in the S. transept, called St.
Catherine's Chapel. It was in this
chapel that an apjiarition warned
James IV. not to 2:)rosecute the war
against England. The pointed roof,
the clerestory of round arches (date
1424), enclosing double pointed ones,
the carved shields attached to the
piers and the bosses of the vault, and
the W. doorway, deserve attention.
In the vestiy is a well sculptured
stone altarpiece representing the
Passion and Betrayal of our Saviour.

Edward I. halted at Linlithgow
the night before the battle of Fal-
kirk, in 1298 ; and while he was
sleeping on the ground by the side
of his charger, the horse put his foot
iipon the king and broke two of his
ribs. Three years afterwards Edward
wintered here, and built a fort, on
the site of which arose one of
the favoiu'ite palaces of the later
Stuarts. Though much altered in
appearance by additions, it has in a
great measm^e retained its original
character, and is a good specimen of
a fortified palace.

Although the Palace is generally
said to have groAvn out of the fort
built by Edward I. , there seems no
doubt that there was a royal castle
here in the time of David I.

The fort of Edward I. was taken
in 1307, and demolished.

The situation of the palace is
pleasant ; it stands on a promontory
of some elevation, which advances
almost into the midst of the lake.
n



146



Route 16. — LinUihgoio Palace.



Sect. IL



" Of all the palaces so fail-,

Built for the royal dwelling
In Scotland, far beyond compare,
Liulitligow is excelling."— 5co«.

A low portal flanked -o-ith turrets,
stone vaulted and ribbed across, leads
into the Courtyard.

The tirst appearance of the interior
of the quadrangle reminds those who
have seen the ruins of Heidelberg of
that castellated palace, which was in
part built under the eye of one who
had spent much of her earlier life
in Linlithgow — Elizabeth, daughter
of James VI., and Electress Pala-
tine.

This quadrangle is furnished with
a round tower in each corner, and a
fifth in the N. front opposite, each
containing a corkscrew stair. The
E. and W. sides are the oldest parts,
and were built after the destruction
of the place by fire in 1424.

On the E. side was the original
entrance, approached from with-
out by a drawbridge (now re-
moved) over the deep moat, which
is still flanked below by the drums
of 3 towers, said to be part of King
Edward I.'s Fort. This gateway, on
the side towards the courtyard, is
faced with some rich niches and
Gothic work of a later date. Beneath
it yawns a deep dungeon. On the
first floor is the great hall, 94 ft.
long, lighted by 5 windows on each
side, Avhile one end is entirely occu-
pied by a fireplace and ornamented
mantelpiece : at the other end it
communicates with the kitchen, fur-
nished with a fireplace nearly as wide.
The hall communicated with the
Cliapel in the S. wing, lighted by 6
lancet windoAvs. The lloyal Pew
opened from a gallery a^Dove.

On the W. side of the quadrangle
were the private apartments, fitted u]>
most probably, if not built, by James
IV., the bower of whose qweeii, Mar-
garet, is at the top of the tower stair-
case. This room has a groined roof,
and a slab commemorates its former
occupant, in Sir W. Scott's lines : —



" His own Queen Margaret, who in
Lithgow's bower
All lonely sat, and wept the weary
hour."

Here is the gloomy chamber where
Queen Mary was born, 1542. Her
father, James V., was lying in a dis-
tant palace at the same time, only
30 years of age, but dying of a broken
heart, after the disaster of Solway
Moss and the dissensions which had
led to it. When the news was
brought him that the queen had been
delivered of a girl, remembering that
the Stuarts had gained the throne
by marriage, he said, "Well, then,
God's will be done ! it came with a
lass, and it will go with a lass,"
and died soon after. Communi-
cating with these rooms is a
small private chapel and oriel win-
dow looking down upon the lake.
Galleries run round 2 sides of the
building, partly formed in the thick-
ness of the walls, for the passage of
servants and retainers. At the W.
end is the antechapel, and at the E.
is the robing-room for the priests.
A gallery runs round the top. The
lower storey was devoted entirely to
ofiices and stabling. The ruined
Fountain in the centre of the quad-
rangle is richly and boldly sculptured.
The palace continued in a perfect
state tmtil 1746, when it was occu-
pied by General Hawley's dragoons
the night of the battle of Falkirk (in
which they were routed by Prince
Charles Stuart), and was burnt by
them.

In the town of Linlithgow the
Eegent Moray was shot, in 1570,
by James Hamilton of Bothwell-
haugh, from a house belonging to
the Archbishop of St. Andrews, who,
suspected of having been accessory
to the crime, was put to death in
consequence. The house has been
pulled down. Bothwellhaugh's wife
had become mad, in consequence of
being ejected from her house by
Patrick Home, an adherent of the
Regent, on whom the forfeited pro-



c.



Route 16.— Falkirk; Trysts.



147



perty had been bestowed. Bothwell-
haiigh. vowed vengeance for the in-
jury, and choosing an opportunity
when tiie Regent was passing slowlj''
in procession through the streets,
fired on him from a balcony, at
a distance of only 8 yards, with
so sure an aim that the bullet
passed through his stomach. His
followers tried to burst into the
house, but the doors were strongly
barricaded, and the assassin slipped
out in the rear, where a fleet horse,
ready saddled, soon carried him out
of reach. Avontoun House is the
residence of W. Blair, Esq., and
Muiravonside of A. Stirling, Esq.

Linlithgow produces shoes and
whisky, but is not a flourishing
town.

Distances. — Edinburgh, 18 m. ;
Glasgow, 29 i; Stirling, 18; Falkirk,
9 ; Bo'ness, 3.

About 3 m. W. of the town the
Avon is crossed at Linlitligow Bridge,
in 1526 the scene of a battle between
the Earls of Angus and Lennox.
There are also near here the scanty
ruins of the Priory of Emmanuel,
founded by Malcolm in 1156.

Crossing the Avon and the rly. to
Bo'ness, by a viaduct, the train
arrives at

22] m. Pohnont Junct. Stat. Here
a line branches to join the Caledonian
Rly. at Larhert Stat., being the direct
route from Edinburgh to Stirling.
(Rte. 21.) A Tunnel.

25J m. Falkirk Stat. The pari,
borough of Falkirk lies on the right.
{Inns: Red Lion, Crown.) Pop. 9547.
it is a busy town, consisting chiefly of
one long street, and has of late years
acquired importance from its situa-
tion on the coalfield, as testified by
the number of blazing ironworks and
collieries. In the town is a very
handsome spire, 130 ft. high. His-
tory gives account of two battles of



Falkirk : 1. Fought on the 22nd of
July 1298, between Edward L and
Wallace, in which the latter was
defeated ; a spot called Wallace's
Stone, on a hill, 3 m. E. of the town,
is supposed to mark the scene. 2.
The battle of Falkirk Muir, between
Prince Charles Stuart and General
Hawley, on the 17th January 1746,
in which Charles was victorious.

In the ch.-yd. lie Sir John Graham
and Sir John Stewart, killed in the
first battle on the side of the Scotch,
— and Sir Robert Munro, and his
brother Dr. Munro, killed in the
second on the side of the English.
Falkirk is chiefly celebrated for its
^^ Trysts'' or fairs for cattle, sheep,
and horses ; of these there are three,
held in August, September, and
October, on Stenhouse Moor, about 3
m. N.W. of the town. About
300,000 head of cattle are sold on
these occasions, and are brought
great distances — ponies from Shet-
land, sheep from Ross and Suther-
land shires, and horned cattle from
the western islands.

Falkirk, lying between the Edin-
burgh and Glasgow and Edinburgh
and Stirling Railways, has a station
uj)on both lines.

In the neighbourhood of the town
are Westquarter House (T. L. F. Liv-
ingstone, Esq.), and Callendai' (W.
Forbes, Esq.), formerly a seat of the
Earls of Callendar, whose title Avas
forfeited in 1716, and the grounds of
which contain portions of the Roman
wall of Antoninus. 2 m. to the IST.
on the Carron Water, are the blazing
furnaces of the Carron Ironworks,
among the oldest in Scotland.

From this place is derived the
name of a now old-fashioned piece of
ordnance, " the Carronade," first
made here.

On the Carron, not far from Fal-
kirk, stood ^^ Arthur's Oven or Oon,'' a
mysterious building, forming a dome
21 ft. high, of regular masonry, sup-
posed to -have been Roman, perhaps
a tomb. It was ^Dulled down about



148



Ftoute 16. — EcUnhurgh to Glasgoic.



Sect. II.



1750 by a stupid laird to build a
milldam !

On quitting Falkirk most pleasing
views are obtained N. in clear wea-
ther over the Ochil Hills, the rich
vale of the Forth, with Ben Ledi
and Ben VoMich behind.

28| m. Bonnyhridge Junct. Stat.



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